American Literature books summary (2023)

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American Literature books summary (реферат, курсовая, диплом, контрольная)

Weare lucky topresent you.

Short Summaries ofthe Books.

You Have toRead inthe course ofthe English Literature byStulov.

Thursday, April 3 2002.



2. Adventures ofHuckleberry Finn 5.


4. CATCH-22 22.

5. Catcher inthe Rye 31.


7. Grapes ofWrath 41.

8. Great Gatsby 46.

9. Long Day «p.s Journey Into the Night 49.

10. Moby Dick 53.

11. Scarlet Letter 63.

12. Slaughterhouse Five 67.

13. Sound and the Fury 73.

14. Streetcar Named «Desire» 87.


Like other national literatures, American literature was shaped bythe history ofthe country that producedit. For almost acentury and ahalf, America was merely agroup ofcolonies scattered along the eastern seaboard ofthe North American continent—colonies from which afew hardy souls tentatively ventured westward. After asuccessful rebellion against the motherland, America became the United States, anation. Bythe end ofthe 19th century this nation extended southward tothe Gulf ofMexico, northward tothe 49th parallel, and westward tothe Pacific. Bythe end ofthe 19th century, too, ithad taken its place among the powers ofthe world- -its fortunes sointerrelated with those ofother nations that inevitably itbecame involved intwo world wars and, following these conflicts, with the problems ofEurope and East Asia. Meanwhile, the rise ofscience and industry, aswell aschanges inways ofthinking and feeling, wrought many modifications inpeople «p.s lives. All these factors inthe development ofthe United States molded the literature ofthe country.

The 17th century.

American literature atfirst was naturally acolonial literature, byauthors who were Englishmen and who thought and wrote assuch. John Smith, asoldier offortune, iscredited with initiating American literature. His chief books included ATrue Relation of. .. Virginia. .. (1608) and The generall Historie ofVirginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624). Although these volumes often glorified their author, they were avowedly written toexplain colonizing opportunities toEnglishmen. Intime, each colony was similarly described: Daniel Denton «p.s Brief Description ofNew York (1670), William Penn «p.s Brief Account ofthe Province ofPennsylvania (1682), and Thomas Ashe «p.s Carolina (1682) were only afew ofmany works praising America asaland ofeconomic promise. Such writers acknowledged British allegiance, but others stressed the differences ofopinion that spurred the colonists toleave their homeland. More important, they argued questions ofgovernment involving the relationship between church and state. The attitude that most authors attacked was jauntily set forth byNathaniel Ward ofMassachusetts Bay inThe Simple Cobler ofAggawam inAmerica (1647). Ward amusingly defended the статус-кво and railed atcolonists who sponsored newfangled notions. Avariety ofcounterarguments tosuch aconservative view were published. John Winthrop «p.s Journal (written 1630−49) told sympathetically ofthe attempt ofMassachusetts Bay Colony toform atheocracy—a state with God atits head and with its laws based upon the Bible. Later defenders ofthe theocratic ideal were Increase Mather and his son Cotton. William Bradford «p.s History ofPlymouth Plantation (through 1646) showed how his pilgrim Separatists broke completely with Anglicanism. Even more radical than Bradford was Roger Williams, who, inaseries ofcontroversial pamphlets, advocated not only the separation ofchurch and state but also the vesting ofpower inthe people and the tolerance ofdifferent religious beliefs. The utilitarian writings ofthe 17th century included biographies, treatises, accounts ofvoyages, and sermons. There were few achievements indrama orfiction, since there was awidespread prejudice against these forms. Bad but popular poetry appeared inthe Bay Psalm Book of1640 and inMichael Wigglesworth «p.s summary indoggerel verse ofCalvinistic belief, The Day ofDoom (1662). There was some poetry, atleast, ofahigher order. Anne Bradstreet ofMassachusetts wrote some lyrics published inThe Tenth Muse (1650), which movingly conveyed her feelings concerning religion and her family. Ranked still higher bymodern critics isapoet whose works were not discovered and published until 1939: Edward Taylor, anEnglish-born minister and physician who lived inBoston and Westfield, Massachusetts. Less touched bygloom than the typical Puritan, Taylor wrote lyrics that showed his delight inChristian belief and experience. All 17th-century American writings were inthe manner ofBritish writings ofthe same period. John Smith wrote inthe tradition ofgeographic literature, Bradford echoed the cadences ofthe King James Bible, while the Mathers and Roger Williams wrote bejeweled prose typical ofthe day. Anne Bradstreet «p.s poetic style derived from along line ofBritish poets, including Spenser and Sidney, while Taylor was inthe tradition ofsuch Metaphysical poets asGeorge Herbert and John Donne. Both the content and form ofthe literature ofthis first century inAmerica were thus markedly English.

The 18th century.

InAmerica inthe early years ofthe 18th century, some writers, such asCotton Mather, carried onthe older traditions. His huge history and biography ofPuritan New England, Magnalia Christi Americana, in1702, and his vigorous Manuductio adMinisterium, orintroduction tothe ministry, in1726, were defenses ofancient Puritan convictions. Jonathan Edwards, initiator ofthe Great Awakening, areligious revival that stirred the eastern seacoast for many years, eloquently defended his burning belief inCalvinistic doctrine—of the concept that man, born totally depraved, could attain virtue and salvation only through God «p.s grace—in his powerful sermons and most notably inthe philosophical treatise Freedom ofWill (1754). Hesupported his claims byrelating them toacomplex metaphysical system and byreasoning brilliantly inclear and often beautiful prose. But Mather and Edwards were defending adoomed cause. Liberal New England ministers such asJohn Wise and Jonathan Mayhew moved toward aless rigid religion. Samuel Sewall heralded other changes inhis amusing Diary, covering the years 1673−1729. Though sincerely religious, heshowed indaily records how commercial life inNew England replaced rigid Puritanism with more worldly attitudes. The Journal ofMme Sara Knight comically detailed ajourney that lady took toNew York in1704. She wrote vividly ofwhat she saw and commented upon itfrom the standpoint ofanorthodox believer, but aquality oflevity inher witty writings showed that she was much less fervent than the Pilgrim founders had been. Inthe South, William Byrd ofVirginia, anaristocratic plantation owner, contrasted sharply with gloomier predecessors. His record ofasurveying trip in1728, The History ofthe Dividing Line, and his account ofavisit tohis frontier properties in1733, AJourney tothe Land ofEden, were his chief works. Years inEngland, onthe Continent, and among the gentry ofthe South had created gaiety and grace ofexpression, and, although adevout Anglican, Byrd was asplayful asthe Restoration wits whose works heclearly admired. The wrench ofthe American Revolution emphasized differences that had been growing between American and British political concepts. Asthe colonists moved tothe belief that rebellion was inevitable, fought the bitter war, and worked tofound the new nation «p.s government, they were influenced byanumber ofvery effective political writers, such asSamuel Adams and John Dickinson, both ofwhom favoured the colonists, and Loyalist Joseph Galloway. But two figures loomed above these—Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine. Franklin, born in1706, had started topublish his writings inhis brother «p.s newspaper, the New England Courant, asearly as1722. This newspaper championed the cause ofthe «Leather Apron «man and the farmer and appealed byusing easily understood language and practical arguments. The idea that common sense was agood guide was clear inboth the popular Poor Richard «p.s almanac, which Franklin edited between 1732 and 1757 and filled with prudent and witty aphorisms purportedly written byuneducated but experienced Richard Saunders, and inthe author «p.s Autobiography, written between 1771 and 1788, arecord ofhis rise from humble circumstances that offered worldly wise suggestions for future success. Franklin «p.s self-attained culture, deep and wide, gave substance and skill tovaried articles, pamphlets, and reports that hewrote concerning the dispute with Great Britain, many ofthem extremely effective instating and shaping the colonists «cause.Thomas Paine went from his native England toPhiladelphia and became amagazine editor and then, about 14 months later, the most effective propagandist for the colonial cause. His pamphlet «Common Sense «(January 1776) did much toinfluence the colonists todeclare their independence. «The American Crisis «papers (December 1776- December 1783) spurred Americans tofight onthrough the blackest years ofthe war. Based upon Paine «p.s simple deistic beliefs, they showed the conflict asastirring melodrama with the angelic colonists against the forces ofevil. Such white and black picturings were highly effective propaganda. Another reason for Paine «p.s success was his poetic fervour, which found expression inimpassioned words and phrases long toberemembered and quoted.

The 19th century.

Early 19th-century literature.

After the American Revolution, and increasingly after the War of1812, American writers were exhorted toproduce aliterature that was truly native. Asifin response, four authors ofvery respectable stature appeared. William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and Edgar Allan Poe initiated agreat half century ofliterary development. Bryant, aNew Englander bybirth, attracted attention inhis 23rd year when the first version ofhis poem «Thanatopsis «(1817) appeared. This, aswell assome later poems, was written under the influence ofEnglish 18th-century poets. Still later, however, under the influence ofWordsworth and other Romantics, hewrote nature lyrics that vividly represented the New England scene. Turning tojournalism, hehad along career asafighting liberal editor ofThe Evening Post. Hehimself was overshadowed, inrenown atleast, byanative-born New Yorker, Washington Irving. Irving, youngest member ofaprosperous merchant family, joined with ebullient young men ofthe town inproducing the Salmagundi papers (1807- 08), which took off the foibles ofManhattan «p.s citizenry. This was followed byAHistory ofNew York (1809), by«Diedrich Knickerbocker, «aburlesque history that mocked pedantic scholarship and sniped atthe old Dutch families. Irving «p.s models inthese works were obviously Neoclassical English satirists, from whom hehad learned towrite inapolished, bright style. Later, having met Sir Walter Scott and having become acquainted with imaginative German literature, heintroduced anew Romantic note inThe Sketch Book (1819−20), Bracebridge Hall (1822), and other works. Hewas the first American writer towin the ungrudging (ifsomewhat surprised) respect ofBritish critics. James Fenimore Cooper won even wider fame. Following the pattern ofSir Walter Scott «p.s «Waverley «novels, hedid his best work inthe «Leatherstocking «tales (1823−41), afive-volume series celebrating the career ofagreat frontiersman named Natty Bumppo. His skill inweaving history into inventive plots and incharacterizing his compatriots brought him acclaim not only inAmerica and England but onthe continent ofEurope aswell. Edgar Allan Poe, reared inthe South, lived and worked asanauthor and editor inBaltimore, Philadelphia, Richmond, and New York City. His work was shaped largely byanalytical skill that showed clearly inhis role asaneditor: time after time hegauged the taste ofreaders soaccurately that circulation figures ofmagazines under his direction soared impressively. Itshowed itself inhis critical essays, wherein helucidly explained and logically applied his criteria. His gothic tales ofterror were written inaccordance with his findings when hestudied the most popular magazines ofthe day. His masterpieces ofterror— «The Fall ofthe House ofUsher «(1839), «The Masque ofthe Red Death «(1842), «The Cask ofAmontillado «(1846), and others—were written according toacarefully worked out psychological method. Sowere his detective stories, such as«The Murders inthe Rue Morgue «(1841), which historians credited asthe first ofthe genre. Asapoet, heachieved fame with «The Raven «(1845). His work, especially his critical writings and carefully crafted poems, had perhaps agreater influence inFrance, where they were translated byCharles Baudelaire, than inhis own country. Two Southern novelists were also outstanding inthe earlier part ofthe century: John Pendleton Kennedy and William Gilmore Simms. InSwallow Barn (1832), Kennedy wrote delightfully oflife onthe plantations. Simms «p.s forte was the writing ofhistorical novels like those ofScott and Cooper, which treated the history ofthe frontier and his native South Carolina. The Yemassee (1835) and Revolutionary romances show him athis best.

The 20th century.

Writing from 1914 to1945.

Important movements indrama, poetry, fiction, and criticism took form inthe years before, during, and after World War I. The eventful period that followed the war left its imprint upon books ofall kinds. Literary forms ofthe period were extraordinarily varied, and indrama, poetry, and fiction leading authors tended toward radical technical experiments. Experiments indramaAlthough drama had not been amajor art form inthe 19th century, notype ofwriting was more experimental than anew drama that arose inrebellion against the glib commercial stage. Inthe early years ofthe 20th century, Americans traveling inEurope encountered avital, flourishing theater; returning home, some ofthem became active infounding the Little Theater movement throughout the country. Freed from commercial limitations, playwrights experimented with dramatic forms and methods ofproduction, and intime producers, actors, and dramatists appeared who had been trained incollege classrooms and community playhouses. Some Little Theater groups became commercial producers—for example, the Washington Square Players, founded in1915, which became the Theater Guild (first production in1919). The resulting drama was marked byaspirit ofinnovation and byanew seriousness and maturity. Eugene O «Neill, the most admired dramatist ofthe period, was aproduct ofthis movement. Heworked with the Provincetown Players before his plays were commercially produced. His dramas were remarkable for their range. Beyond the Horizon (first performed 1920), Anna Christie (1921), Desire Under the Elms (1924), and The Iceman Cometh (1946) were naturalistic works, while The Emperor Jones (1920) and The Hairy Ape (1922) made use ofthe Expressionistic techniques developed inGerman drama inthe period 1914;24. Healso employed astream-of-consciousness form inStrange Interlude (1928) and produced awork that combined myth, family drama, and psychological analysis inMourning Becomes Electra (1931).No other dramatist was asgenerally praised as O «Neill, but many others wrote plays that reflected the growth ofaserious and varied drama, including Maxwell Anderson, whose verse dramas have dated badly, and Robert E. Sherwood, aBroadway professional who wrote both comedy (Reunion inVienna [1931]) and tragedy (There Shall BeNoNight [1940]). Marc Connelly wrote touching fantasy inaNegro folk biblical play, The Green Pastures (1930). Like O «Neill, Elmer Rice made use ofboth Expressionistic techniques (The Adding Machine [1923]) and naturalism (Street Scene [1929]). Lillian Hellman wrote powerful, well-crafted melodramas inThe Children «p.s Hour (1934) and The Little Foxes (1939). Radical theater experiments included Marc Blitzstein «p.s savagely satiric musical The Cradle Will Rock (1937) and the work ofOrson Welles and John Houseman for the government-sponsored Works Progress Administration (WPA) Federal Theater Project. The premier radical theater ofthe decade was the Group Theater (1931;41) under Harold Clurman and Lee Strasberg, which became best known for presenting the work ofClifford Odets. InWaiting for Lefty (1935), astirring plea for labour unionism, Odets roused the audience toanintense pitch offervour, and inAwake and Sing (1935), perhaps the best play ofthe decade, hecreated alyrical work offamily conflict and youthful yearning. Other important plays byOdets for the Group Theater were Paradise Lost (1935), Golden Boy (1937), and Rocket tothe Moon (1938). Thornton Wilder used stylized settings and poetic dialogue inOur Town (1938) and turned tofantasy inThe Skin ofOur Teeth (1942). William Saroyan shifted his lighthearted, anarchic vision from fiction todrama with MyHeart «p.s inthe Highlands and The Time ofYour Life (both 1939).

The Adventures ofHuckleberry Finn.


Samuel Clemens was born inMissouri in1835. Hegrew upinthe town ofHannibal, Missouri, which would become the model for St. Petersburg, the fictional town where Huckleberry Finn begins. Missouri was a«slave state «during this period, and Clemens «family owned afew slaves. InMissouri, most slaves worked asdomestic servants, rather than onthe large agricultural plantations that most slaves elsewhere inthe United States experienced. This domestic slavery iswhat Twain generally describes inHuckleberry Finn, even when the action occurs inthe deep South. The institution ofslavery figures prominently inthe novel and isimportant indeveloping both the theme and the two most important characters, Huck and Jim.

Twain received abrief formal education, before going towork asanapprentice inaprint shop. Hewould later find work onasteamboat onthe Mississippi River. Twain developed alasting afiection for the Mississippi and life onasteamboat, and would immortalize both inLife onthe Mississippi (1883), and incertain scenes ofTom Sawyer (1876), and Huckleberry Finn (1885). Hetook his pseudonym, «Mark Twain, «from the call asteamboat worker would make when the ship reached a (safe) depth oftwo fathoms. Twain would goonto work asajournalist inSan Francisco and Nevada inthe 1860s. Hesoon discovered his talent asahumorist, and by1865 his humorous stories were attracting national attention.

In1870, Twain married Olivia Langdon ofNew York State. The family moved toHartford, Connecticut, toalarge, ornate house paid for with the royalties from Twain «p.s successful literary adventures. AtHartford and during stays with Olivia «p.s family inNew York State, Twain wrote The Gilded Age, co-authored with Charles Dudley Warner in1873 and The Prince and the Pauper (1882), aswell asthe two books already mentioned. Adventures ofHuckleberry Finn was finally published in1885. Twain had begun the book years earlier, but the writing was done inspurts ofinspiration interrupted bylong periods during which the manuscript sat inthe author «p.s desk. Despite the economic crisis that plagued the United States then, the book became ahuge popular and financial success. Itwould become aclassic ofAmerican literature and receive acclaim around the world{today ithas been published inatleast twenty-seven languages.

Still, atthe time ofpublication, the author was bothered bythe many bad reviews itreceived inthe national press. The book was principally attacked for its alleged indecency. After the 1950s, the chief attacks onthe book would beagainst its alleged racism orracial bigotry. For various reasons, the book frequently has been banned fromUS schools and children «p.s libraries, though itwas never really intended asachildren «p.s book. Nonetheless, the book has been widely read ever since its first publication well over acentury ago, anexception toTwain «p.s definition ofaclassic as«abook which people praise and don «tread. «.


Huckleberry Finn { The protagonist and narrator ofthe novel. Huck isthe thirteen orfourteen year-old son ofthe local drunk inthe town ofSt. Petersburg, Missouri, atthe start ofthe novel. Heiskidnapped byhis father, Pap, from the «sivilizing «inuence ofthe Widow Douglas and Miss Watson, and then fakes his own death toescape. Hemeets Jim onJackson «p.s Island. The rest ofthe novel islargely motivated bytwo conflicts: the external con ict toachieve Jim «p.s freedom, and the internal con ict within Huck between his own sense ofright and wrong and society «p.s. Huck has aseries of«adventures, «making many observations onhuman nature and the South ashedoes. Heprogressively rejects the values ofthe dominant society and matures morally ashedoes. Jim { Aslave who escaped from Miss Watson after she considered selling him down river. Heencounters Huck onJackson «p.s Island, and the two become friends and spend most ofthe rest ofthe novel together. Jim deeply grieves his separation from his wife and two children and dreams ofgetting them back. Heisan intensely human character, perhaps the novel «p.s most complex. Through his example, Huck learns toappreciate the humanity ofblack people, overcoming his society «p.s bigotry and making abreak with its moral code. Twain also uses him todemonstrate racial equality. But Jim himself remains somewhat enigmatic; heseems both comrade and father figure toHuck, though Huck, the youthful narrator, may not beable tothoroughly evaluate his friend, and sothe reader has tosuppose some ofhis qualities.

The Duke and Dauphin { These two criminals appear for much ofthe novel. Their real names are never given, but the younger man, about thirty years old, claims tobethe Duke ofBridgewater, and iscalled both «the Duke «and «Bridgewater «inthe novel, though for the sake ofclarity, heisonly called «the Duke «here. The much older man claims tobethe son ofLouis XVI, the executed French king. «Dauphin «was the title given toheirs tothe French throne. Heismostly called «the king «inthe novel (since his father isdead, hewould bethe rightful king), though heiscalled «the Dauphin «inthis study guide since the name ismore distinctive. The two show themselves tobetruly bad when they separate aslave family atthe Wilks household, and later sell Jim.

Tom Sawyer { Huck «p.s friend, and the protagonist ofTom Sawyer, the novel for which Huckleberry Finn isostensibly the sequel. Heisin many ways Huck «p.s foil, given toexotic plans and romantic adventure literature, while Huck ismore down-to-earth. Healso turns out tobeprofoundly selfish.

Onthe whole, Tom isidentified with the «civilzation «from which Huck isalienated. Other characters, inorder ofappearance Widow Douglas and Miss Watson { Two wealthy sisters who live together inalarge house inSt. Petersburg. Miss Watson isthe older sister, gaunt and severe-looking. She also adheres the strongest tothe hypocritical religious and ethical values ofthe dominant society. Widow Douglas, meanwhile, issomewhat gentler inher beliefs and has more patience with the mischievous Huckleberry. She adopted Huck atthe end ofthe last novel, Tom Sawyer, and heisin her care atthe start ofHuckleberry Finn. When Miss Watson considers selling Jim down toNew Orleans, away from his wife and children and deep into the plantation system, Jim escapes. She eventually repents, making provision inher will for Jim tobefreed, and dies two months before the novel ends.

Pap { Huckleberry «p.s father and the town drunk and ne«erdo-well. When heappears atthe beginning ofthe novel, heis ahuman wreck, his skin adisgusting ghost-like white, and his clothes hopelessly tattered. Like Huck, heis amember ofthe least privileged class ofwhites, and isilliterate. Heisangry that his son isgetting aneducation. Hewants toget hold ofHuck «p.s money, presumably tospend itonalcohol. Hekidnaps Huck and holds him deep inthe woods. When Huck fakes his own murder, Pap isnearly lynched when suspicions turn his way. But heescapes, and Jim eventually finds his dead body onanabandoned houseboat.

Judge Thatcher { Judge Thatcher isincharge ofsafeguarding the money Huck and Tom won atthe end ofTom Sawyer. When Huck discovers his father has come totown, hewisely signs his fortune over tothe Judge. Judge Thatcher has adaughter, Becky, whom Huck calls «Bessie. «.

Aunt Polly { Tom Sawyer «p.s aunt and guardian. She appears atthe end ofHuckleberry Finn and properly identifies Huck, who has pretended tobeTom; and Tom, who has pretended tobehis brother, Sid (who never appears inthis novel).

The Grangerfords { The master ofthe Grangerford clan is«Colonel «Grangerford, who has awife. The children are Bob, the oldest, then Tom, then Charlotte, aged twentyfive, Sophia, twenty, and Buck, the youngest, about thirteen orfourteen. They also had adeceased daughter, Emmeline, who made unintentionally humorous, maudlin pictures and poems for the dead. Huckleberry thinks the Grangerfords are all physically beautiful. They live onalarge estate worked bymany slaves. Their house isdecked out inhumorously tacky finery that Huckleberry innocently admires. The Grangerfords are inafeud with the Shepardsons, though noone can remember the cause ofthe feud orsee any real reason tocontinueit. When Sophia runs off with aShepardson, the feud reignites, and Buck and another boy are Shot. With the Grangerfords and the Shepardsons, Twain illustrates the bouts ofirrational brutality towhich the South was prone.

The Wilks Family { The deceased Peter Wilks has three daughters, Mary Jane, Susan, and Joanne (whom Huck calls «the Harelip »). Mary Jane, the oldest, takes charge ofthe sisters «afiairs. She isbeautiful and kindhearted, but easily swindled bythe Duke and Dauphin. Susan isthe next youngest. Joanna possess acleft palate (abirth defect) and soHuck somewhat tastelessly refers toher as«the Hare Lip «(another name for cleft palate). She initially suspects Huck and the Duke and Dauphin, but eventually falls for the scheme like the others.

The Phelps family { The Phelps family includes Aunt Sally, Uncle Silas and their children. They also own several slaves. Sally and Silas are generally kind-hearted, and Silas inparticular isacomplete innocent. Tom and Huck are able tocontinue playing pranks onthem for quite some time before they suspect anything iswrong. Sally, however, displays achilling level ofbigotry toward blacks, which many ofher fellow Southerners likely share. The town inwhich they live also cruelly kills the Duke and Dauphin. With the Phelps, Twain contrasts the good side ofSouthern civilization with its bad side.


Adventures ofHuckleberry Finn was finally published in1885. Twain had begun the book years earlier, but the writing was done inspurts ofinspiration interrupted bylong periods during which the manuscript sat inthe author «p.s desk. Despite the economic crisis that plagued the United States then, the book became ahuge popular and financial success. Itwould become aclassic ofAmerican literature and receive acclaim around the world{today ithas been published inatleast twenty-seven languages.

Still, atthe time ofpublication, the author was bothered bythe many bad reviews itreceived inthe national press. The book was principally attacked for its alleged indecency. After the 1950s, the chief attacks onthe book would beagainst its alleged racism orracial bigotry. For various reasons, the book frequently has been banned fromUS schools and children «p.s libraries, though itwas never really intended asachildren «p.s book. Nonetheless, the book has been widely read ever since its first publication well over acentury ago, anexception toTwain «p.s definition ofaclassic as«abook which people praise and don «tread. «.

Chapter 1 Summary.

The narrator (later identified asHuckleberry Finn) begins Chapter One bystating that the reader may know ofhim from another book, The Adventures ofTom Sawyer by«Mr. Mark Twain, «but it«ain «ttno matter «ifyou have not. According toHuck, Twain mostly told the truth, with some «stretchers «thrown in, though everyone{except Tom «p.s Aunt Polly, the widow, and maybe Mary{lies once inawhile. The other book ended with Tom and Huckleberry finding the gold some robbers had hidden inacave. They got six thousand dollars apiece, which Judge Thatcher put intrust, sothat they each got adollar aday from interest. The Widow Douglas adopted and tried to«civilise «Huck. But Huck couldn «tstand itsohe threw onhis old rags and ran away. But hewent back when Tom Sawyer told him hecould join his new band ofrobbers ifhewould return tothe Widow «and berespectable. «.

The Widow lamented over her failure with Huck, tried tostufi him into cramped clothing, and before every meal had to«grumble «over the food before they could eatit. She tried toteach him about Moses, until Huck found out hewas dead and lost interest. Meanwhile, she would not let him smoke; typically, she disapproved ofitbecause she had never tried it, but approved ofsnufi since she used itherself. Her slim sister who wears glasses, Miss Watson, tried togive him spelling lessons.

Meanwhile, Huck was going stir-crazy, made especially restless bythe sisters «constant reminders toimprove his behavior. When Miss Watson told him about the «bad place, «Hell, heburst out that hewould like togothere, asachange ofscenery. Secretly, Huck really does not see the point ingoing to«the good place «and resolved then not tobother trying toget there.

When Huck asked, Miss Watson told him there was nochance Tom Sawyer would end upinHeaven. Huck was glad «because Iwanted him and metobe together. «One night, after Miss Watson «p.s prayer session with him and the slaves, Huck goes tobed feeling «solonesome Iwished Iwas dead. «Hegets shivers hearing the sounds ofnature through his window. Huck accidentally icks aspider into acandle, and isfrightened bythe bad omen. Just after midnight, Huck hears movement below the window, and a«me-yow «sound, that heresponds towith another «me-yow. «Climbing out the window onto the shed, Huck finds Tom Sawyer waiting for him.

Chapters 2−3 Summary.

Huck and Tom tiptoe through the garden. Huck trips onaroot ashepasses the kitchen. Jim, a«big «slave, hears him from inside. Tom and Huck crouch down, trying tostay still. But Huck isstruck byanuncontrollable itch, asalways happens when heisin asituation, like when he«p.s «with the quality, «where itisbad toscratch. Jim says aloud that hewill stay put until hediscovers the source ofthe sound, but after several minutes falls asleep. Tom plays atrick onJim{putting his hat onatree branch over his head{and takes candles from the kitchen, over Huck «p.s objections that they will risk getting caught. Later, Jim will say that some witches ewhim around the state and put the hat above his head asacalling card. Heexpands the tale further, becoming alocal celebrity among the slaves, who enjoy witch stories. Hewears around his neck the five-cent piece Tom left for the candles, calling itacharm from the devil with the power tocure sickness. Jim nearly becomes sostuck-up from his newfound celebrity that heisunfit tobe aservant.

Meanwhile, Tom and Huck meet upwith afew other boys, and take aboat toalarge cave. There, Tom declares his new band ofrobbers, «Tom Sawyer «p.s Gang. «All must sign inblood anoath vowing, among other things, tokill the family ofany member who reveals the gang «p.s secrets. The boys think it«areal beautiful oath. «Tom admits hegot part ofitfrom books. The boys nearly disqualify Huck, who has nofamily but adrunken father who can never befound, until Huck offers Miss Watson. Tom says the gang must capture and ransom people, though nobody knows what «ransom «means.

Tom assumes itmeans tokill them. But anyway, itmust bedone since all the books sayso. When one boy cries togohome and threatens totell the group «p.s secrets, Tom bribes him with five cents. They agree tomeet again someday, just not Sunday, which would beblasphemous. Huckleberry makes itback into bed just before dawn.

Miss Watson tries toexplain prayer toHuckleberry inChapter Three. Huckleberry gives uponit after not getting what heprays for. Miss Watson calls him afool, and explains prayer bestows spiritual gifts like sel essness tohelp others. Huck cannot see any advantage inthis, except for the others one helps. Soheresolves toforgetit. Widow Douglas describes awonderful God, while Miss Watson «p.s isterrible. Huck concludes there are two Gods. Hewould like tobelong toWidow Douglas «p.s, ifHewould take him— unlikely because ofHuck «p.s bad qualities.

Meanwhile, arumor circulates that Huck «p.s Pap, who has not been seen inayear, isdead. Acorpse was found inthe river, thought tobePap because ofits «ragged «appearance, though the face isunrecognizable. Atfirst Huck isrelieved. His father had been adrunk who beat him when hewas sober, though Huck stayed hidden from him most ofthe time. Soon, however, Huck doubts his father «p.s death, and expects tosee him again.

After amonth inTom «p.s gang, Huck quit along with the rest ofthe boys. There was nopoint toit, without any robbery orkilling, their activities being all pretend. Once, Tom pretended acaravan ofArabs and Spaniards were going toencamp nearby with hundreds ofcamels and elephants. Itturned out tobe aSunday school picnic. Tom explained itreally was acaravan ofArabs and Spaniards— only they were enchanted, like inDon Quixote. Huckleberry judged Tom «p.s stories ofgenies tobelies, after rubbing old lamps and rings with noresult.

Chapters 4−6 Summary.

InChapter Four, Huckleberry isgradually adjusting tohis new life, and even making small progress inschool. One winter morning, Huck notices boot tracks inthe snow near the house. Within one heel print isthe shape oftwo nails crossed toward off the devil. Huck runs toJudge Thatcher, looking over his shoulder ashedoes. Hesells his fortune tothe surprised Judge for adollar. That night Huck goes toJim, who has amagical giant hairball from anox«p.s stomach. Huck tells Jim hefound Pap «p.s tracks inthe snow and wants toknow what his father wants. Jim says the hairball needs money totalk, and soHuck gives acounterfeit quarter. Jim puts his ear tothe hairball, and relates that Huck «p.s father has two angels, one black and one white, one bad, one good. Itisuncertain which will win out. But Huck issafe for now. Hewill have much happiness and much sorrow inhis life, will marry apoor and then arich woman, and should stay clear ofthe water, since that iswhere hewill die. That night, Huck finds Pap waiting inhis bedroom!

Pap «p.s long, greasy, black hair hangs over his face. The nearly fiftyyear-old man «p.s skin isaghastly, disgusting white. Noticing Huck «p.s «starchy «clothes, Pap wonders aloud ifhethinks himself better than his father, promising totake him «down apeg. «Pap promises toteach Widow Douglas not to«meddle «and make aboy «put onairs over his own father. «Pap isoutraged that Huck has become the first person inhis family tolearn toread. Hethreatens Huck not togonear the school again. Heasks Huck ifheis really rich, ashehas heard, and calls him aliar when hesays hehas nomore money.

Hetakes the dollar Huck got from Judge Thatcher. Heleaves toget whiskey, and the next day, drunk, demands Huck «p.s money from Judge Thatcher. The Judge and Widow Douglas try toget custody ofHuck, but give upafter the new judge intown refuses toseparate afather from his son. Pap lands injail after adrunken spree. The new judge takes Pap into his home and tries toreform him. Pap tearfully repents his ways but soon gets drunk again. The new judge decides Pap cannot bereformed except with ashotgun.

Pap sues Judge Thatcher for Huck «p.s fortune. Healso continues tothreaten Huck about attending school, which Huck does partly tospite his father. Pap goes onone drunken binge after another. One day hekidnaps Huck and takes him deep into the woods, toasecluded cabin onthe Illinois shore. Helocks Huck inside all day while hegoes out. Huck enjoys being away from civilization again, though hedoes not like his father «p.s beatings and his drinking. Eventually, Huck finds anold saw hidden away. Heslowly makes ahole inthe wall while his father isaway, resolved toescape from both Pap and the Widow Douglas. But Pap returns asHuck isabout tofinish. Hecomplains about the «govment, «saying Judge Thatcher has delayed the trial toprevent Pap from getting Huck «p.s wealth. Hehas heard his chances are good, though hewill probably lose the fight for custody ofHuck. Hefurther rails against abiracial black visitor tothe town. The visitor iswell dressed, universityeducated, and not atall deferential. Pap isdisgusted that the visitor can vote inhis home state, and that legally hecannot besold into slavery until hehas been inthe state six months. Later, Pap wakes from adrunken sleep and chases after Huck with aknife, calling him the «Angel ofDeath, «stopping when hecollapses insleep. Huck holds the rieagainst his sleeping father and waits.

Chapters 7−10 Summary.

Huck falls asleep, tobeawakened byPap, who isunaware ofthe night «p.s events. Pap sends Huck out tocheck for fish. Huck finds acanoe drifting inthe river and hides itinthe woods. When Pap leaves for the day, Huck finishes sawing his way out ofthe cabin. Heputs food, cookware, everything ofvalue inthe cabin, into the canoe. Hecovers upthe hole inthe wall and then shoots awild pig. Hehacks down the cabin door, hacks the pig tobleed onto the cabin «p.s dirt oor, and makes other preparations sothat itseems robbers came and killed him. Huck goes tothe canoe and waits for the moon torise, resolving tocanoe toJackson «p.s Island, but falls asleep. When hewakes hesees Pap rowby. Once hehas passed, Huck quietly sets out down river. Hepulls into Jackson «p.s Island, careful not tobeseen.

The next morning inChapter Eight, aboat passes bywith Pap, Judge and Becky Thatcher, Tom Sawyer, his Aunt Polly, some ofHuck «p.s young friends, and «plenty more «onboard, all discussing the murder. They shoot canon over the water and oat loaves ofbread with mercury inside, inhopes oflocating Huck «p.s corpse. Huck, careful not tobeseen, catches aloaf and eats it.

Exploring the island, Huck isdelighted tofind Jim, who atfirst thinks Huck isaghost. Now Huck won «tbelonely anymore. Huck isshocked when Jim explains heran away. Jim overheard Miss Watson discussing selling him for eight hundred dollars, toaslave trader who would take him toNew Orleans. Heleft before she had achance todecide. Jim displays agreat knowledge ofsuperstition. Hetells Huck how heonce «speculated «ten dollars in (live)stock, but lost most ofitwhen the steer died. Hethen lost five dollars inafailed slave start-up bank. Hegave his last ten cents toaslave, who gave itaway after apreacher told him that charity repays itself one-hundred-fold. Itdidn «t. But Jim still has his hairy arms and chest, aportent offuture wealth. Healso now owns all eight-hundreddollars «worth ofhimself.

InChapter Nine, Jim and Huck take the canoe and provisions into the large cavern inthe middle ofthe island, tohave ahiding place incase ofvisitors, and toprotect their things. Jim predicted itwould rain, and soon itdownpours, with the two safely inside the cavern. The river oods severely.

Awashed-out houseboat oats down the river past the island. Jim and Huck find aman «p.s body inside, Shot inthe back. Jim prevents Huck from looking atthe face; it«p.s too «ghastly. «They make off with some odds and ends. Huck has Jim hide inthe bottom ofthe canoe sohewon «tbeseen. They make itback safely tothe cave.

InChapter Ten, Huck wonders about the dead man, though Jim warns it«p.s bad luck. Sure enough, bad luck comes: asajoke, Huck puts adead rattlesnake near Jim «p.s sleeping place, and its mate comes and bites Jim. Jim «p.s leg swells, but after four days itgoes down. Awhile later, Huck decides togoashore and tofind out what «p.s new. Jim agrees, but has Huck disguise himself asagirl, with one ofthe dresses they took from the houseboat.

Huck practices his girl impersonation, then sets out for the Illinois shore. Inaformerly abandoned shack, hefinds awoman who looks forty, and also appears anewcomer. Huck isrelieved she isanewcomer, since she will not beable torecognize him.

Chapters 11−13 Summary.

The woman eyes Huckleberry somewhat suspiciously asshe lets himin. Huck introduces himself as«Sarah Williams, «from Hookerville. The woman «clatters on, «eventually getting toHuck «p.s murder. She reveals that Pap was suspected and nearly lynched, but people came tosuspect Jim, since heran away the same day Huck was killed. There isathreehundred-dollar price onJim «p.s head. But soon, suspicions turned again toPap, after heblew money the judge gave him tofind Jim ondrink. But heleft town before hecould belynched, and now there istwo hundred dollars onhis head. The woman has noticed smoke over onJackson «p.s Island, and, suspecting that Jim might behiding there, told her husband tolook. Hewill gothere tonight with another man and agun. The woman looks atHuck suspiciously and asks his name.

Hereplies, «Mary Williams. «When the woman asks about the change, hecovers himself, saying his full name is«Sarah Mary Williams. «She has him try tokill arat bypitching alump oflead atit, and henearly hits. Finally, she asks him toreveal his (male) identity, saying she understands that heis arunaway apprentice and will not turn himin. Hesays his name isGeorge Peters, and hewas indeed apprenticed toamean farmer. She lets him goafter quizzing him onfarm subjects, tomake sure he«p.s telling the truth. She tells him tosend for her, Mrs. Judith Loftus, ifhehas trouble. Back atthe island, Huck tells Jim they must shove off, and they hurriedly pack their things and slowly ride out onaraft they had found.

Huck and Jim build awigwam onthe raft inChapter Twelve. They spend anumber ofdays drifting down river, passing the great lights ofSt. Louis onthe fifth night. They «lived pretty high, «buying, «borrowing », orhunting food asthey needit. One night they come upon awreaked steamship. Over Jim «p.s objections, Huck goes onto the wreck, toloot itand have an«adventure, «the way Tom Sawyer would. Onthe wreck, Huck overhears two robbers threatening tokill athird sothat hewon «t «talk. «.

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One ofthe two manages toconvince the other tolet their victim bedrowned with the wreck. They leave. Huck finds Jim and says they have tocut the robbers «boat loose sothey can «tescape. Jim says that their own raft has broken loose and oated away. Huck and Jim head for the robbers «boat inChapter Thirteen. The robbers put some booty inthe boat, but leave toget some more money off the man onthe steamboat. Jim and Huck jump right into the boat and head off asquietly aspossible. Afew hundred yards safely away, Huck feels bad for the robbers left stranded onthe wreck since, who knows, hemay end uparobber himself someday. They find their raft just before they stop for Huck togoashore for help. Ashore, Huck finds aferry watchman, and tells him his family isstranded onthe steamboat wreck. The watchman tell him the wreck isofthe Walter Scott. Huck invents anelaborate story astohow his family got onthe wreck, including the niece ofalocal big Shot among them, sothat the man ismore than happy totake his ferry tohelp. Huck feels good about his good deed, and thinks Widow Douglas would have been proud ofhim. Jim and Huck turn into anisland, and sink the robbers «boat before going tobed.

Chapters 14−16 Summary.

Jim and Huck find anumber ofvaluables among the robbers «booty inChapter Fourteen, mostly trinkets and cigars. Jim says hedoesn «tenjoy Huck «p.s «adventures, «since they risk his getting caught. Huck recognizes that Jim isintelligent, atleast for what Huck thinks ofablack person. Huck astonishes Jim with his stories ofkings. Jim had only heard ofKing Solomon, whom heconsiders afool for wanting tochop ababy inhalf. Huck cannot convince Jim otherwise. Huck also tells Jim about the «dolphin, «son ofthe executed King Louis XVI ofFrance, rumored tobewandering America. Jim isincredulous when Huck explains that the French donot speak English, but another language. Huck tries toargue the point with Jim, but gives upindefeat.

Huck and Jim are nearing the Ohio River, their goal, inChapter Fifteen. But one densely foggy night, Huck, inthe canoe, gets separated from Jim and the raft. Hetries topaddle back toit, but the fog issothick heloses all sense ofdirection. After alonely time adrift, Huck isreunited with Jim, who isasleep onthe raft. Jim isthrilled tosee Huck alive. But Huck tries totrick Jim, pretending hedreamed their entire separation. Jim tells Huck the story ofhis dream, making the fog and the troubles hefaced onthe raft into anallegory oftheir journey tothe free states. But soon Jim notices all the debris, dirt and tree branches, that collected onthe raft while itwas adrift.

Hegets mad atHuck for making afool ofhim after hehad worried about him somuch. «Itwas fifteen minutes before Icould work myself uptogo and humble myself toanigger, «but Huck apologizes, and does not regretit. Hefeels bad about hurting Jim. Jim and Huck hope they don «tmiss Cairo, the town atthe mouth ofthe Ohio River, which runs into the free states. Meanwhile, Huck «p.s conscience troubles him deeply about helping Jim escape from his «rightful owner, «Miss Watson, especially after her consideration for Huck. Jim can «tstop talking about going tothe free states, especially about his plan toearn money tobuy his wife and children «p.s freedom, orhave some abolitionists kidnap them iftheir masters refuse. When they think they see Cairo, Jim goes out onthe canoe tocheck, secretly resolved togive Jim up. But his heart softens when hehears Jim call out that heishis only friend, the only one tokeep apromise tohim. Huck comes upon some men inaboat who want tosearch his raft for escaped slaves. Huck pretends tobegrateful, saying noone else would help them. Heleads them tobelieve his family, onboard the raft, has smallpox. The men back away, telling Huck togofurther downstream and lie about his family «p.s condition toget help. They leave forty dollars ingold out ofpity. Huck feels bad for having done wrong bynot giving Jim up.

But herealizes that hewould have felt just asbad ifhehad given Jim up. Since good and bad seem tohave the same results, Huck resolves todisregard morality inthe future and dowhat «p.s «handiest. «Floating along, they pass several towns that are not Cairo, and worry that they passed itinthe fog. They stop for the night, and resolve totake the canoe upriver, but inthe morning itisgone{ more bad luck from the rattlesnake. Later, asteamboat drives right into the raft, breaking itapart. Jim and Huck dive off intime, but are separated. Huck makes itashore, but iscaught byapack ofdogs.

Chapters 17−19 Summary.

Aman finds Huck inChapter Seventeen and calls off the dogs. Huck introduces himself asGeorge Jackson. The man brings «George «home, where heiseyed cautiously asapossible member ofthe Sheperdson family. But they decide heisnot. The lady ofthe house has Buck, aboy about Huck «p.s age (thirteen orfourteen) get Huck some dry clothes. Buck says hewould have killed aShepardson ifthere had been any. Buck tells Huck ariddle, though Huck does not understand the concept ofriddles. Buck says Huck must stay with him and they will have great fun. Huck invents anelaborate story ofhow hewas orphaned. The family, the Grangerfords, offer tolet him stay with them for aslong ashelikes. Huck innocently admires the house and its (humorously tacky) finery. Hesimilarly admires the work ofadeceased daughter, Emmeline, who created (unintentionally funny) maudlin pictures and poems about people who died. «Nothing couldn «tbebetter «than life atthe comfortable house.

Huck admires Colonel Grangerford, the master ofthe house, and his supposed gentility. Heis awarmhearted man, treated with great courtesy byeveryone. Heown avery large estate with over ahundred slaves. The family «p.s children, besides Buck, are Bob, the oldest, then Tom, then Charlotte, aged twenty-five, and Sophia, twenty, all ofthem beautiful. Three sons have been killed. One day, Buck tries toshoot Harney Shepardson, but misses. Huck asks why hewanted tokill him. Buck explains the Grangerfords are inafeud with aneighboring clan offamilies, the Shepardsons, who are asgrand asthey are. Noone can remember how the feud started, orname apurpose for it, but inthe last year two people have been killed, including afourteen-year-old Grangerford. Buck declares the Shepardson men all brave. The two families attend church together, their riesbetween their knees asthe minister preaches about brotherly love. After church one day, Sophia has Huck retrieve abible from the pews. She isdelighted tofind inside anote with the words «two-thirty. «Later, Huck «p.s slave valet leads him deep into the swamp, telling him hewants toshow him some water-moccasins. There hefinds Jim! Jim had followed Huck tothe shore the night they were wrecked, but did not dare call out for fear ofbeing caught. Inthe last few days hehas repaired the raft and bought supplies toreplace what was lost. The next day Huck learns that Sophie has run off with aShepardson boy. Inthe woods, Huck finds Buck and anineteenyear-old Grangerford inagun-fight with the Shepardsons. The two are later killed. Deeply disturbed, Huck heads for Jim and the raft, and the two shove off downstream. Huck notes, «You feel mighty free and easy and comfortable onaraft. «.

Huck and Jim are lazily drifting down the river inChapter Nineteen. One day they come upon two men onshore eeing some trouble and begging tobelet onto the raft. Huck takes them amile downstream tosafety. One man isabout seventy, bald, with whiskers, the other, thirty. Both men «p.s clothes are badly tattered. The men donot know each other but are insimilar predicaments. The younger man had been selling apaste toremove tartar from teeth that takes much ofthe enamel off withit. Heran out toavoid the locals «ire. The other had run atemperance (sobriety) revival meeting, but had to її after word got out that hedrank. The two men, both professional scam-artists, decide toteamup. The younger man declares himself animpoverished English duke, and gets Huck and Jim towait onhim and treat him like royalty. The old man then reveals his true identity asthe Dauphin, Louis XVI «p.s long lost son. Huck and Jim then wait onhim asthey had the «duke. «Soon Huck realizes the two are liars, but toprevent «quarrels, «does not let onthat heknows.

Chapters 20−22 Summary.

The Duke and Dauphin ask whether Jim isarunaway, and soHuckleberry concocts atale ofhow hewas orphaned, and heand Jim were forced totravel atnight since somany people stopped his boat toask whether Jim was arunaway. That night, the two royals take Jim and Huck «p.s beds while they stand watch against astorm. The next morning, the Duke gets the Dauphin toagree toput onaperformance ofShakespeare inthe next town they cross. Everyone inthe town has left for arevival meeting inthe woods. The meeting isalively afiair ofseveral thousand people singing and shouting.

The Dauphin gets upand declares himself aformer pirate, now reformed bythe meeting, who will return tothe Indian Ocean asamissionary. The crowd joyfully takes upacollection, netting the Dauphin eighty-seven dollars and seventy-five cents, and many kisses from pretty young women. Meanwhile, the Duke took over the deserted print offce and got nine and ahalf dollars selling advertisements inthe local newspaper. The Duke also prints upahandbill offering areward for Jim, sothat they can travel freely byday and tell whoever asks about Jim that the slave istheir captive. The Duke and Dauphin practice the balcony scene from Romeo and Ju-liet and the sword fight from Richard III onthe raft inChapter Twentyone.

The duke also works onhis recitation ofHamlet «p.s «Tobeor not tobe, «soliloquy, which hehas butchered, throwing inlines from other parts ofthe play, and even Macbeth. But toHuck, the Duke seems topossess agreat talent. They visit aone-horse town inArkansas where lazy young men loiter inthe streets, arguing over chewing tobacco. The Duke posts handbills for the performance. Huck witnesses the shooting ofarowdy drunk byaman, Sherburn, heinsulted, infront ofthe victim «p.s daughter. Acrowd gathers around the dying man and then goes off tolynch Sherburn.

The mob charges through the streets inChapter Twenty-two, sending women and children running away crying inits wake. They gotoSherburn «p.s house, knock down the front fence, but back away asthe man meets them onthe roof ofhis front porch, riein hand. After achilling silence, Sherburn delivers ahaughty speech onhuman nature, saying the average person, and everyone inthe mob, isacoward. Southern juries don «tconvict murderers because they rightly fear being Shot inthe back, inthe dark, bythe man «p.s family. Mobs are the most pitiful ofall, since noone inthem isbrave enough inhis own right tocommit the act without the mass behind him. Sherburn declares noone will lynch him: itisdaylight and the Southern way istowait until dark and come wearing masks. The mob disperses. Huck then goes tothe circus, a«splendid «show, whose clown manages tocome upwith fantastic one-liners inaremarkably short amount oftime. Aperformer, pretending tobe adrunk, forces himself into the ring and tries toride ahorse, apparently hanging onfor dear life. The crowd roars its amusement, except for Huck, who cannot bear towatch the poor man «p.s danger. Only twelve people came tothe Duke «p.s performance, and they laughed all the way through. Sothe Duke prints another handbill, this time advertising aperformance of«The King «p.s Cameleopard [Girafie] orThe Royal Nonesuch. «Bold letters across the bottom read, «Women and Children Not Admitted. «.

Chapters 23−25 Summary.

The new performance plays toacapacity audience. The Dauphin, naked except for body paint and some «wild «accouterments, has the audience howling with laughter. But the Duke and Dauphin are nearly attacked when the show isended after this brief performance. Toavoid losing face, the audience convinces the rest ofthe town the show isasmash, and acapacity crowd follows the second night. Asthe Duke anticipated, the third night «p.s crowd consists ofthe two previous audiences coming toget their revenge. The Duke and Huck make agetaway tothe raft before the show starts. From the three-night run, they took infour-hundred sixty-five dollars. Jim isshocked that the royals are such «rapscallions. «Huck explains that history shows nobles toberapscallions who constantly lie, steal, and decapitate{describing inthe process how Henry VIII started the Boston Tea Party and wrote the Declaration ofIndependence. Huck doesn «tsee the point intelling Jim the two are fakes; besides, they really doseem like the real thing. Jim spends his night watches «moaning and mourning «for his wife and two children, Johnny and Lizabeth. Though «Itdon «tseem natural, «Huck concludes that Jim loves his family asmuch aswhites love theirs. Jim istorn apart when hehears athud inthe distance, because itreminds him ofthe time hebeat his Lizabeth for not doing what hesaid, not realizing she had been made deaf-mute byher bout with scarlet fever.

InChapter Twenty-four, Jim complains about having towait, frightened, inthe boat, tied up (toavoid suspicion) while the others are gone. Sothe Duke dresses Jim inacalico stage robe and blue face paint, and posts asign, «Sick Arab{but harmless when not out ofhis head. «Ashore and dressed upintheir newly bought clothes, the Dauphin decides tomake abig entrance bysteamboat into the next town. The Dauphin calls Huck «Adolphus, «and encounters atalkative young man who tells him about the recently deceased Peter Wilks. Wilks sent for his two brothers from Shefield, England: Harvey, whom hehad not seen since hewas five, and William, who isdeaf-mute. Hehas left all his property tohis brothers, though itseems uncertain whether they will ever arrive. The Dauphin gets the young traveler, who isenroute toRio deJaneiro, totell him everything about the Wilks. InWilks «town, they ask after Peter Wilks, pretending anguish when told ofhis death. The Dauphin even makes strange hand signs tothe Duke. «Itwas enough tomake abody ashamed ofthe human race, «Huck thinks.

Acrowd gathers before Wilks «house inChapter Twenty-five, asthe Duke and Dauphin share atearful meeting with the three Wilks daughters. The entire town then joins inthe «blubbering. «» Inever see anything sodisgusting, «Huck thinks. Wilks «letter (which heleft instead ofawill) leaves the house and three thousand dollars tohis daughters, and tohis brothers, three thousand dollars, plus atan-yard and seven thousand dollars inreal estate. The Duke and Dauphin privately count the money, adding four-hundred fifteen dollars oftheir own money when the stash comes upshort ofthe letter «p.s six-thousand, for appearances. They then give itall tothe Wilks women inagreat show before acrowd oftownspeople. Doctor Abner Shackleford, anold friend ofthe deceased, interrupts todeclare them frauds, their accents ridiculously phony. Heasks Mary Jane, the oldest Wilks sister, tolisten tohim asafriend and turn the impostors out. Inreply, she hands the Dauphin the six thousand dollars toinvest however hesees fit.

Chapters 26−28 Summary.

Huck has supper with Joanna, aWilks sister herefers toas«the Harelip «(«Cleft lip, «abirth defect she possesses). She cross-examines Huckleberry onhis knowledge ofEngland. Hemakes several slips, forgetting heissupposedly from Shefield, and that the Dauphin issupposed tobe aProtestant minister.

Finally she asks whether hehasn «tmade the entire thingup. Mary Jane and Susan interrupt and instruct Joanna tobecourteous totheir guest. She graciously apologizes. Huck feels awful about letting such sweet women beswindled. Heresolves toget them their money. Hegoes tothe Duke and Dauphin «p.s room tosearch for the money, but hides when they enter. The Duke wants toleave that very night, but the Dauphin convinces him tostay until they have stolen all the family «p.s property. After they leave, Huckleberry takes the gold tohis sleeping cubby, and then sneaks out late atnight.

Huck hides the sack ofmoney inWilks «coffn inChapter Twenty-seven, asMary Jane, crying, enters the front room. Huck doesn «tget another opportunity tosafely remove the money, and feels dejected that the Duke and Dauphin will likely get itback. The funeral the next day isbriefly interrupted bythe racket the dog ismaking down cellar. The undertaker slips out, and after a«whack «isheard from downstairs, the undertaker returns, whispering loudly tothe preacher, «Hehad arat! «Huck remarks how the rightfully popular undertaker satisfied the people «p.s natural curiosity.

Huck observes with horror asthe undertaker seals the coffn without looking inside. Now hewill never know whether the money was stolen from the coffn, orifhe should write Mary Jane todig upthe coffn for it.

Saying hewill take the Wilks «family toEngland, the Dauphin sells off the estate and the slaves. Hesends amother toNew Orleans and her two sons toMemphis. The scene atthe grief-stricken family «p.s separation isheart-rending. But Huck comforts himself that they will bereunited inaweek orsowhen the Duke and Dauphin are exposed. When questioned bythe Duke and Dauphin, Huck blames the loss ofthe six thousand dollars onthe slaves they just sold, making the two regret the deed.

Huck finds Mary Jane crying inher bedroom inChapter Twenty-eight. All joy regarding the trip toEngland has been destroyed bythe thought ofthe slave mother and children never seeing each other again. Touched, Huck unthinkingly blurts out that the family will bereunited inless than two weeks. Mary Jane, overjoyed, asks Huck toexplain. Huck isuneasy, having little experience telling the truth while inapredicament. Hetells Mary Jane the truth, but asks her towait atarelative «p.s house until eleven that night togive him time toget away, since the fate ofanother person hangs inthe balance. Hetells her about the Royal Nonesuch incident, saying that town will provide witnesses against the frauds. Heinstructs her toleave without seeing her «uncles, «since her innocent face would give away their secret. Heleaves her anote with the location ofthe money. She promises toremember him forever, and pray for him. Though Huck will never see her again, hewill think ofher often. Huck meets Susan and Joanna, and says Mary Jane has gone tosee asick relative. Joanna crossexamines him about this, but hemanages totrick them into staying quiet about the whole thing{almost aswell asTom Sawyer would have. But later, the auction isinterrupted byamob{ bringing the real Harvey and William Wilks!

Chapters 29−31 Summary.

The real Harvey, inanauthentic English accent, explains the delay: their luggage has been misdirected, and his brother «p.s arm has been broken, making him unable tosign. The doctor again declares The Duke and Dauphin frauds, and has the crowd bring both real and fraudulent Wilks brothers toatavern for examination. The frauds draw suspicion when they are unable toproduce the six thousand dollars. Alawyer friend ofthe deceased has the Duke, Dauphin, and the real Harvey sign apiece ofpaper, then compares the writing samples toletters hehas from the real Harvey.

The frauds are disproved, but the Dauphin doesn «tgiveup. Sothe real Harvey declares heknows ofatattoo onhis brother «p.s chest, asking the undertaker who dressed the body toback himup. But after the Dauphin and Harvey say what they think the tattoo is, the undertaker declares there wasn «tone atall. The mob cries out for the blood ofall four men, but the lawyer instead sends them out toexhume the body and check for the tattoo themselves. The mob carries the four and Huckleberry with them. The mob isshocked todiscover the gold inthe coffn. Inthe excitement, Huck escapes. Passing the Wilks «p.s house, henotices alight inthe upstairs window.

Huck steals acanoe and makes his way tothe raft, and, exhausted, shoves off. Huck dances for joy onthe raft, but his heart sinks asthe Duke and Dauphin approach inaboat.

The Dauphin nearly strangles Huck inChapter Thirty, out ofanger athis desertion. But the Duke stops him. They explain that they escaped after the gold was found. The thieves start arguing about which one ofthe two hid the gold inthe coffn, tocome back for later. But they make upand gotosleep.

They take the raft downstream without stopping for several days. The Duke and Dauphin try several scams onvarious towns, without success. The two start tohave secret discussions, worrying Jim and Huck, who resolve toditch them atthe first opportunity. Finally, the Duke, Dauphin, and Huck goashore inone town tofeel itout. The Duke and Dauphin get into afight inatavern, and Huck takes the chance toescape. But back atthe raft, there isnosign ofJim. Aboy explains that aman recognized Jim asarunaway from ahandbill they had found, offering two hundred dollars for him inNew Orleans{the handbill the Duke had printed earlier. But hesaid hehad toleave suddenly, and sosold his interest for forty dollars. Huck isdisgusted bythe Dauphin «p.s trick. Hewould like towrite toMiss Watson tofetch Jim, sohecould atleast behome and not inNew Orleans. But herealizes she would simply sell him downstream anyway, and hewould get introuble aswell. The predicament issurely God «p.s punishment for his helping Jim. Huck tries topray for forgiveness, but cannot.

Hewrites the letter toMiss Watson giving Jim up. But thinking ofthe time hespent with Jim, ofhis kind heart and their friendship, Huck trembles. After aminute hedecides, «All right then, I «llgoto hell! «Heresolves to«steal Jim out ofslavery. «Hegoes inhis store-bought clothes tosee Phelps, the man who isholding Jim. Hefinds the Duke putting upposters for the Royal Nonesuch. Huck concocts astory about how hewandered the town, but didn «tfind Jim orthe raft. The Duke says hesold Jim toaman forty miles away, and sends Huck onthe three day trip toget him.

Chapters 32−35 Summary.

Huck goes back tothe Phelps «p.s house inChapter Thirty-two. Abunch ofhounds threaten him, but aslave woman calls them off. The white mistress ofthe house, Sally, comes out, delighted tosee the boy she iscertain isher nephew, Tom. Sally asks why hehas been delayed the last several days. Heexplains that acylinderhead onthe steamboat blew out. She asks whether anyone got hurt, and hereplies no, but itkilled ablack person. The woman isrelieved that noone was hurt. Huck isnervous about not having any information onhis identity, but when Sally «p.s husband, Silas, returns, heshouts out for joy that Tom Sawyer has finally arrived! Hearing asteamboat goupthe river, Huck heads out tothe docks, supposedly toget his luggage, but really tohead off Tom should hearrive.

Huck interrupts Tom «p.s wagon coming down the road inChapter Thirtythree. Tom isatfirst startled bythe «ghost, «but iseventually convinced that Huck isalive. Heeven agrees tohelp Huck free Jim. Huck isshocked bythis: «Tom Sawyer fell, considerable, inmyestimation. «Tom follows Huck tothe Phelps «p.s ahalf hour later. The isolated family isthrilled tohave another guest. Tom introduces himself asWilliam Thompson from Ohio, stopping onhis way tovisit his uncle nearby. But Tom slips and kisses his aunt, who isoutraged bysuch familiarity from astranger. Taken aback for afew moments, Tom recovers bysaying heisanother relative, Sid Sawyer, and this has all been ajoke. Later, walking through town, Huck sees the Duke and Dauphin taken byamob, tarred and feathered onarail. Jim had told onthe pair. Tom feels bad for the two, and his ill feelings toward them melt away. «Human beings can beawful cruel toone another, «Huck observes.

Huck concludes that aconscience isuseless, since itmakes you feel bad for everyone. Tom agrees. Huck isimpressed byTom «p.s intelligence when heskillfully figures out that Jim isbeing held inashed. Huck «p.s plan tofree Jim istosteal the key and make off with Jim bynight. Tom belittles this plan for its simplicity and lack ofshowmanship. Tom «p.s plan isfifteen times better than Huck «p.s for its style{it might even get all three killed. Meanwhile, Huck isincredulous that respectable Tom isgoing tosacrifice his reputation byhelping aslave escape.

Huck and Tom get Jim «p.s keeper, asuperstitious slave, tolet them see him. When Jim cries out for joy, Tom tricks Jim «p.s keeper into thinking the cry atrick some witches had played onhim. Tom and Huck promise todig Jim out.

Tom isupset inChapter Thirty-five. Innocent uncle Phelps has taken sofew precautions toguard Jim, they have toinvent all the obstacles tohis rescue. Tom says they must saw Jim «p.s chain off instead ofjust lifting itoff the bedstead, since that «p.s how it«p.s done inall the books. Similarly, Jim requires arope ladder, amoat, and ashirt onwhich tokeep ajournal, presumably inhis own blood. Sawing his leg off toescape would also beanice touch. But since they «repressed for time, they will dig Jim out with case-knives (large kitchen knives).

Chapters 36−39 Summary.

Out late atnight, Huck and Tom give updigging with the case-knives after much fruitless efiort. They use pick-axes instead, but agree to«let on«{pretend{that they are using case-knives. The next day, Tom and Huck gather candlesticks, candles, spoons, and atin plate. Jim can etch adeclaration ofhis captivity onthe tin plate using the other objects, then throw itout the window toberead bythe world, like inthe novels. That night, the two boys dig their way toJim, who isdelighted tosee them. Hetells them that Sally and Silas have been tovisit and pray with him. Hedoesn «tunderstand the boys «scheme but agrees togoalong. Tom thinks the whole thing enormously fun and «intellectural. «Hetricks Jim «p.s keeper, Nat, into bringing Jim a«witch pie «tohelp ward off the witches that have haunted Nat.

The missing shirt, candles, sheets, and other articles Huck and Tom stole togive Jim get Aunt Sally mad ateveryone but the two boys inChapter Thirty-seven. Tomake up, Huck and Tom secretly plug upthe holes ofthe rats that have supposedly stolen everything, confounding Uncle Silas when hegoes todothe job. Byremoving and then replacing sheets and spoons, the two boys soconfuse Sally that she loses track ofhow many she has. Ittakes agreat deal oftrouble toput the rope ladder (made ofsheets) inthe witch «p.s pie, but atlast itisfinished and they give ittoJim. Tom insists Jim scratch aninscription onthe wall ofthe shed, with his coat ofarms, the way the books say. Making the pens from the spoons and candlestick isagreat deal oftrouble, but they manage. Tom creates anunintentionally humorous coat ofarms and set ofmournful declarations for Jim toinscribe onthe wall. When Tom disapproves ofwriting onawooden, rather than astone wall, they gosteal amillstone. Tom then tries toget Jim totake arattlesnake orrat into the shack totame, and togrow aower towater with his tears. Jim protests against the ridiculously unnecessary amount oftrouble Tom wants tocreate. Tom replies that these are opportunities for greatness.

Huck and Tom capture rats and snakes inChapter Thirty-nine, accidentally infesting the Phelps house with them. Aunt Sally becomes wildly upset when the snakes start tofall from the rafters onto her orher bed. Tom explains that that «p.s just how women are. Jim, meanwhile, hardly has room tomove with all the wildlife inhis shed. Uncle Silas decides itistime tosell Jim, and starts sending out advertisements. SoTom writes letters, signed an«unknown friend, «tothe Phelps warning oftrouble. The family isterrified. Tom finishes with alonger letter pretending tobefrom amember ofaband ofdesperate gangsters out tosteal Jim. The author has found religion and soiswarning them toblock the plan.

Chapters 40−43 Summary.

Fifteen uneasy local men with guns are inthe Phelps «p.s front room. Huck goes tothe shed towarn Tom and Jim. Tom isexcited tohear about the fifteen armed men. Agroup ofmen rush into the shed. Inthe darkness Tom, Huck, and Jim escape through the hole. Tom makes anoise going over the fence, attracting the attention ofthe men, who shoot atthem asthey run. But they make ittothe hidden raft, and set off downstream, delighted with their success{especially Tom, who has abullet inthe leg asasouvenir.

Huck and Jim are taken aback byTom «p.s wound. Jim says they should get adoctor{what Tom would doifthe situation were reversed. Jim «p.s reaction confirms Huck «p.s belief that Jim is«white inside. «.

Huck finds adoctor inChapter Forty-one and sends him toTom. The next morning, Huck runs into Silas, who takes him home. The place isfilled with farmers and their wives, all discussing the weird contents ofJim «p.s shed, and the hole. They conclude aband of (probably black) robbers ofamazing skill must have tricked not only the Phelps and their friends, but the original band ofdesperadoes. Sally will not let Huck out tofind Tom, since she issosad tohave lost Tom and does not want torisk another boy. Huckleberry istouched byher concern and vows never tohurt her again.

Silas has been unable tofind Tom inChapter Fortytwo. They have gotten aletter from Tom «p.s Aunt Polly, Sally «p.s sister. But Sally casts itaside when she sees Tom, semi-conscious, brought inon amattress, accompanied byacrowd including Jim, inchains, and the doctor. Some ofthe local men would like tohang Jim, but are unwilling torisk having tocompensate Jim «p.s master. Sothey treat Jim roughly, and chain him hand and foot inside the shed. The doctor intervenes, saying Jim isn «tbad, since hesacrificed his freedom tohelp nurse Tom. Sally, meanwhile, isatTom «p.s bedside, glad that his condition has improved. Tom wakes and gleefully details how they set Jim free. Heishorrified tolearn that Jim isnow inchains. Heexplains that Jim was freed inMiss Watson «p.s will when she died two months ago.

She regretted ever having considered selling Jim down the river. Just then, Aunt Polly walks into the room. She came after Sally mysteriously wrote her that Sid Sawyer was staying with her. After atearful reunion with Sally, she identifies Tom and Huckleberry, yelling atboth boys for their misadventures. When Huckleberry asks Tom inthe last chapter what heplanned todoonce hehad freed the alreadyfreed Jim, Tom replies that hewas going torepay Jim for his troubles and send him back ahero. When Aunt Polly and the Phelps hear how Jim helped the doctor, they treat him much better.

Tom gives Jim forty dollars for his troubles. Jim declares that the omen ofhis hairy chest has come true. Tom makes afull recovery, and has the bullet inserted into awatch hewears around his neck. Heand Huck would like togoon another adventure, toIndian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). But Huck worries Pap has taken all his money. Jim tells him that couldn «thave happened: the dead body they found way back onthe houseboat, that Jim would not let Huck see, belonged toPap. Huck has nothing more towrite about. Heis«rotten glad, «since writing abook turned out tobequite atask. Hedoes not plan any future writings. Instead, hehopes tomake the trip out toIndian Territory, since Aunt Sally isalready trying to«sivilize «him, and he«p.s had enough ofthat.


Robert Penn Warren was one ofthe twentieth century «p.s outstanding men ofletters. Hefound great success asanovelist, apoet, acritic, and ascholar, and enjoyed acareer showered with acclaim. Hewon two Pulitzer Prizes, was Poet Laureate ofthe United States, and was presented with aCongressional Medal ofFredom. Hefounded the Southern Review and was animportant contributor tothe New Criticism of1930s and «40s.

Born in1905, Warren showed his exceptional intelligence from anearly age; heattended college atVanderbilt University, where hebefriended some ofthe most important contemporary figures inSouthern literature, including Allan Tate and John Crowe Ransom, and where hewon aRhodes Scholarship tostudy atOxford University inEngland. During astay inItaly, Warren wrote averse drama called Proud Flesh, which dealt with themes ofpolitical power and moral corruption. Asaprofessor atLouisiana State University, Warren had observed the rise ofLouisiana political boss Huey Long, who embodied, inmany ways, the ideas Warren tried towork into Proud Flesh. Unsatisfied with the result, Warren began torework his elaborate drama into anovel, set inthe contemporary South, and based inpart onthe person ofHuey Long.

The result was All the King «sMen, Warren «p.s best and most acclaimed book. First published in1946, Allthe King «p.s Men isone ofthe best literary documents dealing with the American South during the Great Depression. The novel won the Pulitzer Prize, and was adapted into amovie that won anAcademy Award in1949.

All the King «p.s Men focuses onthe lives ofWillie Stark, anupstart farm boy who rises through sheer force ofwill tobecome Governor ofanunnamed Southern state during the 1930s, and Jack Burden, the novel «p.s narrator, acynical scion ofthe state «p.s political aristocracy who uses his abilities asahistorical researcher tohelp Willie blackmail and control his enemies.

The novel deals with the large question ofthe responsibility individuals bear for their actions within the turmoil ofhistory, and itisperhaps appropriate that the impetus ofthe novel «p.s story comes partly from real historical occurrences.

Jack Burden isentirely acreation ofRobert Penn Warren, but there are anumber ofimportant parallels between Willie Stark and Huey Long, who served Louisiana asboth Governor and Senator from 1928 until his death in1935.

Like Huey Long, Willie Stark isanuneducated farm boy who passed the state bar exam; like Huey Long, herises topolitical power inhis state byinstituting liberal reform designed tohelp the state «p.s poor farmers. And like Huey Long, Willie isassassinated atthe peak ofhis power byadoctor Dr. Adam Stanton inWillie «p.s case, Dr. Carl A. Weiss inLong «p.s. (Unlike Willie, however, Long was assassinated after becoming aSenator, and was infact inthe middle ofchallenging Franklin D. Roosevelt for the Presidential nomination ofthe Democratic Party.).


Jack Burden— Willie Stark «p.s political right-hand man, the narrator ofthe novel and inmany ways its protagonist. Jack comes from aprominent family (the town hegrew upin, Burden «p.s Landing, was named for his ancestors), and knows many ofthe most important people inthe state.

Despite his aristocratic background, Jack allies himself with the liberal, amoral Governor Stark, tothe displeasure ofhis family and friends. Heuses his considerable skills asaresearcher touncover the secrets ofWillie «p.s political enemies. Jack was once married toLois Seager, but has left her bythe time ofthe novel. Jack «p.s main characteristics are his intelligence and his curious lack ofambition; heseems tohave noagency ofhis own, and for the most part heiscontent totake his direction from Willie. Jack isalso continually troubled bythe question ofmotive and responsibility inhistory: hequit working onhis PhD thesis inhistory when hedecided hecould not comprehend Cass Mastern «p.s motives. Hedevelops the Great Twitch theory toconvince himself that noone can beheld responsible for anything that happens. During the course ofthe novel, however, Jack rejects the Great Twitch theory and accepts the idea ofresponsibility.

Willie Stark— Jack Burden «p.s boss, who rises from poverty tobecome the governor ofhis state and its most powerful political figure. Willie takes control ofthe state through acombination ofpolitical reform (heinstitutes sweeping liberal measures designed totax the rich and ease the burden onthe state «p.s many poor farmers) and underhanded guile (heblackmails and bullies his enemies into submission). While Jack isintelligent and inactive, Willie isessentially all motive power and direction. The extent ofhis moral philosophy ishis belief that everyone and everything isbad, and that moral action involves making goodness out ofthe badness.

Willie ismarried toLucy Stark, with whom hehas ason, Tom. But his voracious sexual appetite leads him into anumber ofafiairs, including one with Sadie Burke and one with Anne Stanton. Willie ismurdered byAdam Stanton toward the end ofthe novel.

Anne Stanton— Jack Burden «p.s first love, Adam Stanton «p.s sister, and, for atime, Willie Stark «p.s mistress. The daughter ofGovernor Stanton, Anne israised tobelieve inastrict moral code, abelief which isthreatened and nearly shattered when Jack shows her proof ofher father «p.s wrongdoing.

Adam Stanton— Abrilliant surgeon and Jack Burden «p.s closest childhood friend. Anne Stanton «p.s brother. Jack persuades Adam toput aside his moral reservations about Willie and become director ofthe new hospital Willie isbuilding, and Adam later cares for Tom Stark after his injury. But two revelations combine toshatter Adam «p.s worldview: helearns that his father illegally protected Judge Irwin after hetook abribe, and helearns that his sister has become Willie Stark «p.s lover. Driven mad with the knowledge, Adam assassinates Willie inthe lobby ofthe Capitol towards the end ofthe novel.

Judge Montague Irwin— Aprominent citizen ofBurden «p.s Landing and aformer state Attorney General; also afriend tothe Scholarly Attorney and afather figure toJack. When Judge Irwin supports one ofWillie «p.s political enemies inaSenate election, Willie orders Jack todig upsome information onthe judge. Jack discovers that his old friend accepted abribe from the American Electric Power Company in1913 tosave his plantation. (Inreturn for the money, the judge dismissed acase against the Southern Belle Fuel Company, asister corporation toAmerican Electric.) When heconfronts the judge with this information, the judge commits suicide; when Jack learns ofthe suicide from his mother, healso learns that Judge Irwin was his real father.

Sadie Burke— Willie Stark «p.s secretary, and also his mistress. Sadie has been with Willie from the beginning, and believes that she made him what heis. Despite the fact that heis amarried man, she becomes extremely jealous ofhis relationships with other women, and they often have long, passionate fights. Sadie istough, cynical, and extremely vulnerable; when Willie announces that heisleaving her togoback toLucy, she tells Tiny Dufiy inafit ofrage that Willie issleeping with Anne Stanton. Tiny tells Adam Stanton, who assassinates Willie. Believing herself toberesponsible for Willie «p.s death, Sadie checks into asanitarium. .

Tiny Dufiy— Lieutenant-Governor ofthe state when Willie isassassinated. Fat, obsequious, and untrustworthy, Tiny swallows Willie «p.s abuse and contempt for years, but finally tells Adam Stanton that Willie issleeping with Anne. When Adam murders Willie, Tiny becomes Governor. Sugar-Boy O «Sheean— Willie Stark «p.s driver, and also his bodyguard— Sugar-Boy isacrack Shot with a .38 special and abrilliant driver. Astuttering Irishman, Sugar-Boy follows Willie blindly.

Lucy Stark— Willie «p.s long-sufiering wife, who isconstantly disappointed byher husband «p.s failure tolive uptoher moral standards. Lucy eventually leaves Willie tolive ather sister «p.s poultry farm. They are inthe process ofreconciling when Willie ismurdered.

Tom Stark— Willie «p.s arrogant, hedonistic son, afootball star for the state university. Tom lives alife ofdrunkenness and promiscuity before hebreaks his neck inafootball accident. Permanently paralyzed, hedies ofpneumonia shortly thereafter. Tom isaccused ofimpregnating Sibyl Frey, whose child isadopted byLucy atthe end ofthe novel.

Jack «p.s mother— Abeautiful, «famished-cheeked «woman from Arkansas, Jack «p.s mother isbrought back toBurden «p.s Landing bythe Scholarly Attorney, but falls inlove with Judge Irwin and begins anafiair with him; Jack isaproduct ofthat afiair. After the Scholarly Attorney leaves her, she marries asuccession ofmen (the Tycoon, the Count, the Young Executive). Jack «p.s realization that she iscapable oflove—and that she really loved Judge Irwin— helps him put aside his cynicism atthe end ofthe novel.

Sam MacMurfee— Willie «p.s main political enemy within the state «p.s Democratic Party, and governor before Willie. After Willie crushes him inthe gubernatorial election, MacMurfee continues tocontrol the Fourth District, from which heplots ways toclaw his way back into power.

Ellis Burden— The man whom Jack believes tobehis father for most ofthe book, before learning his real father isJudge Irwin. After discovering his wife «p.s afiair with the judge, the «Scholarly Attorney «(asJack characterizes him) leaves her. Hemoves tothe state capital where heattempts toconduct aChristian ministry for the poor and the unfortunate.

Theodore Murrell— The «Young Executive, «asJack characterizes him; Jack «p.s mother «p.s husband for most ofthe novel.

Governor Joel Stanton— Adam and Anne «p.s father, governor ofthe state when Judge Irwin was Attorney General. Protects the judge after hetakes the bribe tosave his plantation.

Hugh Miller— Willie Stark «p.s Attorney General, anhonorable man who resigns following the Byram White scandal.

Joe Harrison— Governor ofthe state who sets Willie upas adummy candidate tosplit the MacMurfee vote, and thereby enables Willie «p.s entrance onto the political stage. When Willie learns how Harrison has treated him, hewithdraws from the race and campaigns for MacMurfee, who wins the election. Bythe time Willie crushes MacMurfee inthe next election, Harrison «p.s days ofpolitical clout are over.

Mortimer L. Littlepaugh— The man who preceded Judge Irwin ascounsel for the American Electric Power Company inthe early 1900s. When Judge Irwin took Littlepaugh «p.s job aspart ofthe bribe, Littlepaugh confronted Governor Stanton about the judge «p.s illegal activity. When the governor protected the judge, Littlepaugh committed suicide.

Miss Lily Mae Littlepaugh— Mortimer Littlepaugh «p.s sister, anold spiritual medium who sells her brother «p.s suicide note toJack, giving him the proof heneeds about Judge Irwin and the bribe.

Gummy Larson— MacMurfee «p.s most powerful supporter, awealthy businessman. Willie isforced togive Larson the building contract tothe hospital sothat Larson will call MacMurfee off about the Sibyl Frey controversy, and thereby preserve Willie «p.s chance togoto the Senate.

Lois Seager— Jack «p.s sexy first wife, whom heleaves when hebegins toperceive her asaperson rather than simply asamachine for gratifying his desires.

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Byram B. White— The State Auditor during Willie «p.s first term asgovernor. His acceptance ofgraft money propels ascandal that eventually leads toanimpeachment attempt against Willie. Willie protects White and blackmails his enemies into submission, adecision which leads tohis estrangement from Lucy and the resignation ofHugh Miller.

Hubert Coffee— Aslimy MacMurfee employee who tries tobribe Adam Stanton into giving the hospital contract toGummy Larson.

Sibyl Frey— Ayoung girl who accuses Tom Stark ofhaving gotten her pregnant; Tom alleges that Sibyl has slept with somany men, she could not possibly know hewas the father ofher child. Marvin Frey— Sibyl Frey «p.s father, who threatens Willie with apaternity suit. (Heisbeing used byMacMurfee.).

Cass Mastern— The brother ofJack «p.s grandmother. During the middle ofthe nineteenth century, Cass had anafiair with Annabelle Trice, the wife ofhis friend Duncan. After Duncan «p.s suicide, Annabelle sold aslave, Phebe; Cass tried totrack down Phebe, but failed. Hebecame anabolitionist, but fought inthe Confederate Army during the Civil War, during which hewas killed. Jack tries touse his papers asthe basis ofhis Ph.D. dissertation, but walked away from the project when hewas unable tounderstand Cass Mastern «p.s motivations.

Gilbert Mastern— Cass Mastern «p.s wealthy brother.

Annabelle Trice— Cass Mastern «p.s lover, the wife ofDuncan Trice. When the slave Phebe brings her Duncan «p.s wedding ring following his suicide, Annabelle says that she cannot bear the way Phebe looked ather, and sells her.

Duncan Trice— Cass Mastern «p.s hedonistic friend inLexington, Annabelle Trice «p.s husband. When helearns that Cass has had anafiair with Annabelle, Duncan takes off his wedding ring and shoots himself.

Phebe— The slave who brings Annabelle Trice her husband «p.s wedding ring following his suicide. Asaresult, Annabelle sells her.


All the King «p.s Men isthe story ofthe rise and fall ofapolitical titan inthe Deep South during the 1930s. Willie Stark rises from hardscrabble poverty tobecome governor ofhis state and its most powerful political figure; heblackmails and bullies his enemies into submission, and institutes aradical series ofliberal reforms designed totax the rich and ease the burden ofthe state «p.s poor farmers. Heisbeset with enemies—most notably Sam MacMurfee, adefeated former governor who constantly searches for ways toundermine Willie «p.s power—and surrounded byarough mix ofpolitical allies and hired thugs, from the bodyguard Sugar-Boy O «Sheean tothe fat, obsequious Tiny Dufiy.

All the King «p.s Men isalso the story ofJack Burden, the scion ofone ofthe state «p.s aristocratic dynasties, who turns his back onhis genteel upbringing and becomes Willie Stark «p.s right-hand man. Jack uses his considerable talents asahistorical researcher todig upthe unpleasant secrets ofWillie «p.s enemies, which are then used for purposes ofblackmail. Cynical and lacking inambition, Jack has walked away from many ofhis past interests—he left his dissertation inAmerican History unfinished, and never managed tomarry his first love, Anne Stanton, the daughter ofaformer governor ofthe state.

When Willie asks Jack tolook for skeletons inthe closet ofJudge Irwin, afather figure from Jack «p.s childhood, Jack isforced toconfront his ideas concerning consequence, responsibility, and motivation. Hediscovers that Judge Irwin accepted abribe, and that Governor Stanton covered itup; the resulting blackmail attempt leads toJudge Irwin «p.s suicide. Italso leads toAdam Stanton «p.s decision toaccept the position ofdirector ofthe new hospital Willie isbuilding, and leads Anne tobegin anafiair with Willie.

When Adam learns ofthe afiair, hemurders Willie inarage, and Jack leaves politics forever. Willie «p.s death and the circumstances inwhich itoccurs force Jack torethink his desperate belief that noindividual can ever beresponsible for the consequences ofany action within the chaos and tumult ofhistory and time. Jack marries Anne Stanton and begins working onabook about Cass Mastern, the man whose papers hehad once tried touse asthe source for his failed dissertation inAmerican History.

Chapter 1.

Summary Jack Burden describes driving down Highway 58 with his boss, Governor Willie Stark, inthe Boss «p.s big black Cadillac—Sugar-Boy isdriving, and inthe car with them were the Boss «p.s wife Lucy, son Tommy, and the Lieutenant Governor, Tiny Dufiy. Sugar-Boy drives them into Mason City, where Willie isgoing topose for apress photo with his father, who lives onanearby farm. The Cadillac isfollowed byacar full ofpress men and photographers, overseen byWillie «p.s secretary, Sadie Burke. Itissummer, 1936, and scorching hot outside.

InMason City, Willie immediately attracts anadoring throng ofpeople. The group goes inside the drugstore, where Doc pours them glasses ofCoke. The crowd pressures Willie for aspeech, but hedeclines, saying he«p.s just come tosee his «pappy ». Hethen delivers anefiective impromptu speech onthe theme ofnot delivering aspeech, saying hedoesn «thave tostump for votes onhis day off. The crowd applauds, and the group drives out tothe Stark farm.

Onthe way, Jack remembers his first meeting with Willie, in1922, when Jack was areporter for the Chronicle and Willie was only the County Treasurer ofMason County. Jack had gone tothe back room ofSlade «p.s pool hall toget some information from deputy-sherifi Alex Michel and Tiny Dufiy (then the Tax Assessor, and anally ofthen-Governor Harrison). While hewas there, Dufiy tried tobully Willie into drinking abeer, which Willie claimed not towant, instead ordering anorange soda. Dufiy ordered Slade tobring Willie abeer, and Slade said that heonly served alcohol tomen who wanted todrinkit. Hebrought Willie the orange soda. When Prohibition was repealed after Willie «p.s rise topower, Slade was one ofthe first men toget aliquor license; hegot alease atanexceptional location, and was now arich man.

Atthe farm, Willie and Lucy pose for apicture with spindly Old Man Stark and his dog. Then the photographers have Willie pose for apicture inhis old bedroom, which still contains all his schoolbooks. Toward sunset, Sugar-Boy isout shooting cans with his .38 special, and Jack goes outside for adrink from his ask and alook atthe sunset. Asheleans against the fence, Willie approaches him and asks for adrink. Then Sadie Burke runs uptothem with apiece ofnews, which she reveals only after Willie stops teasing her: Judge Irwin has just endorsed Callahan, aSenate candidate running against Willie «p.s man, Masters. After dinner atthe Stark farm, Willie announces that he, Jack, and SugarBoy will begoing for adrive. Heorders Sugar-Boy todrive the Cadillac toBurden «p.s Landing, more than ahundred miles away. Jack grew upinBurden «p.s Landing, which was named for his ancestors, and hecomplains about the long drive this late atnight. Asthey approach Jack «p.s old house, hethinks about his mother lying inside with Theodore Murrell—not Jack «p.s first stepfather. And hethinks about Anne and Adam Stanton, who lived nearby and used toplay with him asachild. Healso thinks about Judge Irwin, who lives near the Stanton and Burden places, and who was afather figure toJack after his own father left. Jack tells Willie that Judge Irwin won «tscare easily, and inwardly hopes that what hesays istrue. The three men arrive atJudge Irwin «p.s, where Willie speaks insouciantly and insolently tothe gentlemanly old judge. Judge Irwin insults Jack for being employed bysuch aman, and tells Willie that heendorsed Callahan because ofsome damning information hehad been given about Masters. Willie says that itwould bepossible tofind dirt onanyone, and advises the judge toretract his endorsement, lest some dirt should turn uponhim. Heheavily implies that Judge Irwin would lose his position asajudge. Judge Irwin angrily throws the men out ofhis house, and onthe drive back toMason City, Willie orders Jack tofind some dirt onthe judge, and to«make itstick. «Writing in1939, three years after that scene, Jack reects that Masters— who did get elected tothe Senate—is now dead, and Adam Stanton isdead, and Judge Irwin isdead, and Willie himself isdead: Willie, who told Jack tofind some dirt onJudge Irwin and make itstick. And Jack remembers: «Little Jackie made itstick, all right. «Chapter 2 Summary Jack Burden remembers the years during which Willie Stark rose topower. While Willie was Mason County Treasurer, hebecame embroiled inacontroversy over the building contract for the new school. The head ofthe city council awarded the contract tothe business partner ofone ofhis relatives, nodoubt receiving ahealthy kickback for doingso. The political machine attempted torun this contract over Willie, but Willie insisted that the contract beawarded tothe lowest bidder. The local bigshots responded byspreading the story that the lowest bidder would import black labor toconstruct the building, and, Mason County being redneck country, the people sided against Willie, who was trounced inthe next election. Jack Burden covered all this inthe Chronicle, which sided with Willie. After hewas beaten out ofoffce, Willie worked onhis father «p.s farm, hit the law books atnight, and eventually passed the state bar exam. Heset uphis own law practice. Then one day during afire drill atthe new school, afire escape collapsed due tofaulty construction and three students died. Atthe funeral, one ofthe bereaved fathers stood byWillie and cried aloud that hehad been punished for voting against anhonest man. After that, Willie was alocal hero. During the next gubernatorial election, inwhich Harrison ran against MacMurfee, the vote was pretty evenly divided between city-dwellers, who supported Harrison, and country folk, who supported MacMurfee. The Harrison camp decided tosplit the MacMurfee vote bysecretly setting upanother candidate who could draw some ofMacMurfee «p.s support inthe country. They settled onWillie. One day Harrison «p.s man, Tiny Dufiy, visited Willie inMason City and convinced him that hewas God «p.s choice torun for governor. Willie wanted the offce desperately, and sohebelieved him. Willie stumped the state, and Jack Burden covered his campaign for the Chronicle. Willie was aterrible candidate. His speeches were full offacts and figures; henever stirred the emotions ofthe crowd. Eventually Sadie Burke, who was with the Harrison camp and followed Willie «p.s campaign, revealed toWillie that hehad been setup. Enraged, Willie gulped down awhole bottle ofwhiskey and passed out inJack Burden «p.s room. The next day, hestruggled tomake ittohis campaign barbecue inthe city ofUpton. Tohelp Willie overcome his hangover, Jack had tofill him full ofwhiskey again. Atthe barbecue, the furious, drunken Willie gave the crowd afire-and-brimstone speech inwhich hedeclared that hehad been set up, that hewas just ahick like everyone else inthe crowd, and that hewas withdrawing from the race tosupport MacMurfee. But ifMacMurfee didn «tdeliver for the little people, Willie admonished the hearers tonail him tothe door. Willie said that ifthey passed him the hammer he«dnail him tothe door himself. Tiny Dufiy tried tostop the speech, but fell off the stage. Willie stumped for MacMurfee, who won the election. Afterwards, Willie returned tohis law practice, atwhich hemade agreat deal ofmoney and won some highproffle cases. Jack didn «tsee Willie again until the next election, when the political battlefield had changed: Willie now owned the Democratic Party. Jack quit his job atthe Chronicle because the paper was forcing him tosupport MacMurfee inhis column, and slumped into adepression. Hespent all his time sleeping and piddling around—he called the period «the Great Sleep, «and said ithad happened twice before, once just before hewalked away from his doctoral dissertation inAmerican History, and once after Lois divorced him. During the Great Sleep Jack occasionally visited Adam Stanton, took Anne Stanton todinner afew times, and visited his father, who now spent all his time handing out religious iers. Atsome point during this time Willie was elected governor. One morning Jack received aphone call from Sadie Burke, saying that the Boss wanted tosee him the next morning atten. Jack asked who the Boss was, and she replied, «Willie Stark, Governor Stark, ordon «tyou read the papers? «Jack went tosee Willie, who offered him ajob for $3,600 ayear. Jack asked Willie who hewould beworking for—Willie orthe state. Willie said hewould beworking for him, not the state. Jack wondered how Willie could afiord topay him $3,600 ayear when the governorship only paid $5,000. But then heremembered the money Willie had made asalawyer. Heaccepted the job, and the next night hewent tohave dinner atthe Governor «p.s mansion. Chapter 3 Summary Jack Burden tells about going home toBurden «p.s Landing tovisit his mother, some time in1933. His mother disapproves ofhis working for Willie, and Theodore Murrell (his mother «p.s husband, whom Jack thinks ofas«the Young Executive ») irritates him with his questions about politics. Jack remembers being happy inthe family «p.s mansion until hewas six years old, when his father («the Scholarly Attorney ») left home todistribute religious pamphlets, and Jack «p.s mother told him hehad gone because hedidn «tlove her anymore. She then married asuccession ofmen: the Tycoon, the Count, and finally the Young Executive. Jack remembers picnicking with Adam and Anne Stanton, and swimming with Anne. Heremembers arguing with his mother in1915 over his decision togoto the State University instead oftoHarvard. That night in1933, Jack, his mother, and the Young Executive gotoJudge Irwin «p.s for adinner party; the assembled aristocrats talk politics, and are staunchly opposed toWillie Stark «p.s liberal reforms. Jack isforced toentertain the pretty young Miss Dumonde, who irritates him. When hedrives back toWillie «p.s hotel, hekisses Sadie Burke onthe forehead, simply because she isn «tnamed Dumonde. Onthe drive back, Jack thinks about his parents intheir youth, when his father brought his mother toBurden «p.s Landing from her home inArkansas. InWillie «p.s room, hell isbreaking loose: MacMurfee «p.s men inthe Legislature are mounting animpeachment attempt onByram B. White, the state auditor, who has been involved inagraft scandal. Willie humiliates and insults White, but decides toprotect him. This decision causes Hugh Miller, Willie «p.s Attorney General, toresign from offce, and nearly provokes Lucy into leaving Willie. Willie orders Jack todig updirt onMacMurfee «p.s men inthe Legislature, and hebegins frenetically stumping the state, giving speeches during the day and intimidating and blackmailing MacMurfee «p.s men atnight. Stunned byhis aggressive activity, MacMurfee «p.s men attempt toseize the offensive byimpeaching Willie himself. But the blackmailing efiorts work, and the impeachment iscalled off before the vote can betaken. Still, the day ofthe impeachment, ahuge crowd descends onthe capital insupport ofWillie. Willie tells Jack that after the impeachment heisgoing tobuild amassive, state-of-the-art hospital; Willie wins his next election byalandslide. During all this time, Jack reects onWillie «p.s sexual conquests—he has begun along-term afiair with Sadie Burke, who isfiercely jealous ofhis other mistresses, but Lucy seems toknow nothing aboutit. Lucy does eventually leave Willie, spending time inSt. Augustine and then ather sister «p.s poultry farm, but they keep upthe appearance ofmarriage. Jack speculates that Lucy does not sever all her ties with Willie for Tommy «p.s sake, though teen-aged Tommy has become anarrogant football star with astring ofsexual exploits ofhis own. Chapter 4 Summary Returning tothe night in1936 when he, Willie, and Sugar-Boy drove away from Judge Irwin «p.s house, Jack reects that his inquiry into Judge Irwin «p.s past was really his second major historical study. Herecalls his first, asagraduate student atthe State University, studying for his Ph.D. inAmerican History. Jack lived inaslovenly apartment with apair ofslovenly roommates, and blew all the money his mother sent him ondrinking binges. Hewas writing his dissertation onthe papers ofCass Mastern, his father «p.s uncle. Asastudent atTranslyvania College inthe 1850s, Cass Mastern had had anafiair with Annabelle Trice, the wife ofhis friend Duncan Trice. When Duncan discovered the afiair, hetook off his wedding ring and Shot himself, asuicide that was chalked uptoaccident. But Phebe, one ofthe Trices «slaves, had found the ring, and taken ittoAnnabelle Trice. Annabelle had been unable tobear the knowledge that Phebe knew about her sin, and soshe sold her. Appalled tolearn that Annabelle had sold Phebe instead ofsetting her free—and appalled tolearn that she had separated the slave from her husband—Cass set out tofind and free Phebe; but hefailed, wounded inafight with aman who insinuated that hehad sexual designs onPhebe. After that, heset tofarming aplantation hehad obtained with the help ofhis wealthy brother Gilbert. But hefreed his slaves and became adevout abolitionist. Even so, when the war started, heenlisted asaprivate inthe Confederate Army. Complicating matters further, though aConfederate soldier hevowed not tokill asingle enemy soldier, since hebelieved himself already responsible for the death ofhis friend. Hewas killed inabattle outside Atlanta in1864. After leaving tofind Phebe, hehad never set eyes onAnnabelle Trice again. One day Jack simply gave upworking onhis dissertation. Hecould not understand why Cass Mastern acted the way hedid, and hewalked away from the apartment without even boxing upthe papers. Alandlady sent them tohim, but they remained unopened asheendured along stretch ofthe Great Sleep. The papers remained intheir unopened box throughout the time hespent with his beautiful wife Lois; after heleft her, they remained unopened. The brown paper parcel yellowed, and the name «Jack Burden, «written ontop, slowly faded. Chapter 5 Summary In1936, Jack mulls over the problem offinding dirt onJudge Irwin. Hethinks the judge would have been motivated byambition, love, fear, ormoney, and settles onmoney asthe most likely reason hemight have been driven over the line. Hegoes tovisit his father, but the Scholarly Attorney ispreoccupied taking care ofan«unfortunate «named George, and refuses toanswer his «foul «questions. Hevisits Anne and Adam Stanton attheir father «p.s musty old mansion, and learns from Adam that the judge was once broke, back in1913. But Anne tells him that the judge got out ofhis financial problems bymarrying arich woman. Atsome time during this period, Jack goes toone ofTommy «p.s football games with Willie. Tommy wins the game, and Willie says that hewill beanAllAmerican. Tommy receives the adulation ofWillie and all his cohorts, and lives anarrogant life full ofwomen and alcohol. Also during this time, Jack learns from Tiny Dufiy that Willie isspending six million dollars onthe new hospital. Soon after, Anne tells Jack that she herself had lunch with Willie, inasuccessful attempt toget state funding for one ofher charities. Jack decides toinvestigate the judge «p.s financial past further. Delving into court documents and old newspapers, hediscovers that the judge had not married into money, but had taken out amortgage onhis plantation, which hewas nearly unable topay. Asudden windfall enabled him tostop foreclosure proceedings toward the end ofhis term asAttorney General under Governor Stanton. Also, after his term hehad been given alucrative job atAmerican Electric Power Company. After some further digging, Jack extracts aletter from astrange old spiritual medium named Lily Mae Littlepaugh, from her brother George Littlepaugh, whom Judge Irwin replaced atthe power company. The letter, asuicide note, reveals that the judge received agreat deal ofstock and the lucrative position atthe power company asabribe for dismissing acourt case brought against the Southern Belle Fuel Company, which had the same parent company asAmerican Electric Power. Littlepaugh says that hevisited Governor Stanton totry toconvince him tobring the matter tolight, but Stanton chose toprotect his friend the judge; when Miss Littlepaugh visited the governor after her brother «p.s suicide, heagain protected the judge, and threatened Miss Littlepaugh with prosecution for insurance fraud. After seven months ofdigging, Jack has his proof. Chapter 6 Summary During the time Jack isinvestigating Judge Irwin «p.s background, Tommy Stark, drunk, wraps his car around atree, severely injuring the young girl riding with him. Her father, atrucker, raises atremendous noise about the accident, but heisquieted when heisreminded that truckers drive onstate highways and many truckers have state contracts. Lucy islivid about Tommy «p.s crash, even though Tommy isunhurt; she insists that Willie make him stop playing football and living his rambunctious life, but Willie says that hewon «tsee his son turn into asissy, and that hewants Tommy tohave fun. Willie is, during this time, completely committed tohis six-million-dollar hospital project, and heinsists, toJack «p.s bemusement, that itwill becompleted without any illicit wheeling and dealing. Willie isfurious when Tiny Dufiy tries toconvince him togive the contract toGummy Larson, aMac-Murfee supporter who would throw his support toWillie ifhereceived the building contract. (Hewould also throw asubstantial sum ofmoney toTiny himself.) But Willie insists that the project will becompletely clean, and seems tothink ofitas his legacy—he even says that hedoes not care whether itwins him any votes. Heinsists aswell that Jack convince Adam Stanton torunit. Jack knows that Adam hates the entire Stark administration, but hevisits his friend «p.s apartment tomake the offer nevertheless. Adam isoutraged, but heseems tempted when Jack points out how much good hewould beable todoas director ofthe hospital. Eventually, after Anne becomes involved, Adam agrees totake the job. Hehas aconversation with Willie during which Willie espouses his moral theory—that the only thing for aman todois create goodness out ofbadness, because everything isbad, and the only reason something becomes good isbecause aperson thinks itmakes things better. Adam iswary ofWillie, but hestill takes the job—after hereceives Willie «p.s promise not tointerfere inthe running ofthe hospital. During this time Jack learns that Anne has found out that Adam received the offer torun the hospital. She visits Jack, and says that she desperately wants Adam totakeit. Inamoment ofbitterness, Jack tells her about how her father illegally protected Judge Irwin after hetook the bribe. Anne iscrushed; but she visits Adam with the information, and that iswhat prompts Adam tocompromise his ideals and take the directorship. Anne, Adam, and Jack attend aspeech Willie gives, during which heannounces his intention togive the citizens ofthe state free medical care and free educations. Anne asks urgently ifWillie really means it, and Jack replies, «How the hell should Iknow? «But something nags the back ofJack «p.s mind: heisunable tofigure out how Anne learned that Adam had been offered the directorship ofthe hospital. Adam didn «ttell her, and Willie says that hedidn «ttell her, and Jack didn «ttell her. Hefinds out that Sadie Burke told her, inajealous rage—for Sadie says that Anne isWillie «p.s new slut, that she has become his mistress. Jack isshocked, but when hevisits Anne, she gives him awordless nod that confirms Sadie «p.s accusation. Chapter 7 Summary After learning about Anne «p.s afiair with Willie Stark, Jack ees westward. Hespends several days driving toCalifornia, then, after hearrives, three days inLong Beach. Onthe way, heremembers his past with Anne Stanton, and tries tounderstand what happened that led her toWillie. When they were children, Jack spent most ofhis time with Adam Stanton, and Anne simply tagged along. But the summer after his junior year atthe State University, when hewas twenty-one and Anne was seventeen, Jack fell inlove with Anne, and spent the summer with her. They played tennis together, and swam together atnight, and pursued anincreasingly intense physical relationship— Jack remembers that Anne was not prudish, that she seemed toregard her body assomething they both possessed, and that they had toexplore together. Two nights before Anne was scheduled toleave for her boarding school, they found themselves alone inJack «p.s house during athunderstorm, and nearly made love for the first time—but Jack hesitated, and then his mother came home early, ending their chance. The next day Jack tried toconvince Anne tomarry him, but she demurred, saying that she loved him, but seemed tofeel that something inhis unambitious character was animpediment toher giving intoher love. After Anne left for school, they continued towrite every day, but their feelings dwindled, and the next few times they saw each other, things were difierent between them. Over Christmas, Anne wouldn «tlet Jack make love toher, and they had afight aboutit. Eventually the letters stopped, and Jack got thrown out oflaw school, and began tostudy history, and then eventually hewas married toLois, abeautiful sexpot whose friends hedespised and who did not interest him asaperson. Toward the end oftheir marriage, heentered into aphase ofthe Great Sleep, and then left her altogether. After two years atavery refined women «p.s college inVirginia, Anne returned toBurden «p.s Landing tocare for her ailing father. She was engaged several times but never married, and after her father died, she became anold maid, though she kept her looks and her charm. She devoted herself toher work atthe orphanage and her other charities. Jack feels asthough she could never marry him because ofsome essential confidence helacked, and that she was drawn toWillie Stark because hepossessed that confidence. Jack also feels that because herevealed toAnne the truth ofher father «p.s duplicity inprotecting Judge Irwin after heaccepted the bribe, heisresponsible for Anne «p.s afiair with Willie. But hetries toconvince himself that the only human motivation isacertain kind ofbiological compulsion, akind ofitch inthe blood, and that therefore, heisnot responsible for Anne «p.s behavior. Hesays this attitude was a«dream «that made his trip west deliver onits promise of«innocence and anew start «—if hewas able tobelieve the dream. Chapter 8 Summary Jack drives eastward back tohis life. Hestops atafilling station inNew Mexico, where hepicks upanold man heading back toArkansas. (The old man was driven toleave for California bythe Dust Bowl, but discovered that California was nobetter than his home.) The old man has afacial twitch, ofwhich heseems entirely unaware. Jack, thinking about the twitch, decides that itis ametaphor for the randomness and causelessness oflife— the very ideas hehad been soothing himself with inCalifornia, ideas which excused him from responsibility for Willie and Anne «p.s afiair—and begins torefer tothe process oflife asthe «Great Twitch. «Feeling detached from the rest ofthe world because ofhis new «secret knowledge, «ashecalls the idea ofthe Great Twitch, Jack visits Willie and resumes his normal life. Hesees Adam afew times and goes towatch him perform aprefrontal lobotomy onaschizophrenic patient, which seems tohim another manifestation ofthe Great Twitch. One night, Anne calls Jack, and hemeets her atanall-night drugstore; she tells him that aman named Hubert Coffee tried tooffer Adam abribe tothrow the building contract for the new hospital toGummy Larson. Inarage, Adam hit the man, threw himout, and wrote aletter resigning from his post asdirector ofthe hospital. Anne asks Jack toconvince Adam tochange his mind; Jack says that hewill try, but that Adam isacting irrationally, and therefore may not listen toreason. Hesays hewill tell Willie tobring charges against Hubert Coffee for the attempted bribe, which will convince Adam that Willie isnot corrupt, atleast when itcomes tothe hospital. Anne offers totestify, but Jack dissuades her—if she did testify, hesays, her afiair with Willie would become agrantly and unpleasantly public. Jack asks Anne why she has given herself toWillie, and Anne replies that she loves Willie, and that she will marry him after heiselected tothe Senate next year. Willie agrees tobring the charges against Coffee, and Jack isable topersuade Adam toremain director ofthe hospital. That crisis isaverted, but amore serious crisis arises when aman named Marvin Frey—a man, not coincidentally, from MacMurfee «p.s district—accuses Tom Stark ofhaving impregnated his daughter Sibyl. Then one ofMacMurfee «p.s men visits Willie and says that Marvin Frey wants Tom tomarry his daughter—but that Frey will see reason if, say, Willie were tolet MacMurfee win the Senate seat next year. Willie delays his answer, hoping tocome upwith abetter solution. Inthe meantime, Jack goes tovisit Lucy Stark ather sister «p.s poultry farm, where heexplains toher what has happened with Tom. Lucy iscrestfallen, and says that Sibyl Frey «p.s child isinnocent ofevil and innocent ofpolitics, and deserves tobecared for. Willie comes upwith ashrewd solution for dealing with MacMurfee and Frey. Remembering that MacMurfee owes most ofhis current political clout, such asitis, tothe fact that Judge Irwin supports him, Willie asks Jack ifhewas able todiscover anything sordid inJudge Irwin «p.s past. Jack says that hewas, but herefuses totell Willie what itisuntil hegives Judge Irwin the opportunity tolook atthe evidence and answer for himself. Jack travels toBurden «p.s Landing, where hegoes for aswim and watches ayoung couple playing tennis, feeling alump inhis throat athis memories ofAnne. Hethen goes tovisit the judge, who ishappy tosee Jack, and who apologizes for being soangry the last time they spoke. Jack tells the judge what MacMurfee istrying todoand asks him tocall MacMurfee off. The judge says that herefuses tobecome mixed upinthe matter, and Jack isforced toask him about the bribe and Mortimer Littlepaugh «p.s suicide. The judge admits that hedid take the bribe, and accepts responsibility for his actions, saying that healso did some good inhis life. Herefuses togive intothe blackmail attempt. Jack goes back tohis mother «p.s house, where hehears ascream from upstairs. Running upstairs, hefinds his mother sobbing insensibly, the phone receiver off the hook and onthe oor. When she sees Jack she cries out that Jack has killed Judge Irwin—whom she refers toasJack «p.s father. Jack learns that Judge Irwin has committed suicide, byshooting himself inthe heart, atthe same moment helearns that Judge Irwin, and not the Scholarly Attorney, was his real father. Jack realizes that the Scholarly Attorney must have left Jack «p.s mother when helearned ofher afiair with the judge. Inaway, Jack isglad tobeunburdened ofhis father «p.s weakness, which hefelt asacurse, and iseven glad tohave traded aweak father for astrong one. But heremembers his father giving him achocolate when hewas achild, and says that hewas not sure how hefelt. Jack goes back tothe capital, where helearns the next day that hewas Judge Irwin «p.s sole heir. Hehas inherited the very estate that the judge took the bribe inorder tosave. The situation seems socrazily logical— Judge Irwin takes the bribe inorder tosave the estate, then fathers Jack, who tries toblackmail his father with information about the bribe, which causes Judge Irwin tocommit suicide, which causes Jack toinherit the estate; had Judge Irwin not taken the bribe, Jack would have had nothing toinherit, and had Jack not tried toblackmail Judge Irwin, the judge would not have killed himself, and Jack would not have inherited the estate when hedid—so crazily logical that Jack bursts out laughing. But before long heissobbing and saying «the poor old bugger «over and over again. Jack says this islike the ice breaking upafter along, cold winter. Chapter 9 Summary Jack goes tovisit Willie, who asks him about Judge Irwin «p.s death. Jack tells the Boss that hewill nolonger have anything todowith blackmail, even onMacMurfee, and heisset towork onatax bill. Over the next few weeks, Tom continues toshine athis football games, but the Sibyl Frey incident has left Willie irritable and dour ashetries toconcoct aplan for dealing with MacMurfee. Inthe end, Willie isforced togive the hospital contract toGummy Larson, who can control MacMurfee, who can call off Marvin Frey. Jack goes tothe Governor «p.s Mansion the night the deal ismade, and finds Willie adrunken wreck; Willie insults and threatens Gummy Larson, and throws adrink inTiny Dufiy «p.s face. Tom continues tospiral out ofcontrol. Hegets inafight with some yokels atabar, and issuspended for the game against Georgia, which the team loses. Two games later, Tom isinjured inthe game against Tech, and iscarried off the field unconscious. Willie watches the rest ofthe game, which State wins easily, then goes tothe hospital tocheck onTom. Jack goes back tothe offce, where hefinds Sadie Burke sitting alone inthe dark, apparently very upset. Sadie leaves when Jack tells her about Tom «p.s injury, then calls from the hospital totell Jack tocome over right away. Jack goes tothe hospital, where the Boss sends him topick upLucy. Jack does so, and upon their arrival they learn that the specialist Adam Stanton called intolook atTom has been held upbyfog inBaltimore. Willie isfrantic, but eventually the specialist arrives. His diagnosis matches Adam «p.s: Tom has fractured two vertebrae, and the two doctors recommend arisky surgery tosee ifthe damage can berepaired. They undertake the surgery, and Willie, Jack, and Lucy wait. Willie tells Lucy that heplans toname the hospital after Tom, but Lucy says that things like that don «tmatter. Atsix o«clock inthe morning, Adam returns, and tells the group that Tom will live, but that his spinal cord iscrushed, and hewill beparalyzed for the rest ofhis life. Lucy takes Willie home, and Jack calls Anne with the news. The operation was accomplished just before dawn onSunday. OnMonday, Jack sees the piles oftelegrams that have come into the offce from political allies and well-wishers, and talks tothe obsequious Tiny. When Willie comes in, hedeclares toTiny that heiscanceling Gummy Larson «p.s contract. Heimplies that heplans tochange the way things are done atthe capital. Jack istaking some tax-bill figures tothe Senate when helearns that Sadie has just stormed out ofthe offce, and receives word that Anne has just called with anurgent message. Jack goes tosee Anne, who says that Adam has learned about her relationship with Willie, and believes the afiair tobethe reason hewas given the directorship ofthe hospital. She tells Jack that Willie has broken off the afiair because heplans togoback tohis wife. She asks Jack tofind Adam and tell him that that isn «tthe way things happened. Jack spends the day trying totrack down Adam, but hefails tofind him. That night, Jack ispaged togoto the Capitol, where the vote onthe tax bill istaking place. Here, Jack greets Sugar-Boy and watches the Boss talk tohis political hangers-on. The Boss tells Jack that hewants totell him something. Asthey walk across the lobby, they see arain-and-mud-soaked Adam Stanton leaning against the pedestal ofastatue. Willie reaches out his hand toshake Adam «p.s; inablur, Adam draws agun and shoots Willie, then isShot himself bySugar-Boy and ahighway patrolman. Jack runs toAdam, who isalready dead. Willie survives for afew days, and atfirst the prognosis from the hospital isthat hewill recover. But then hecatches aninfection, and Jack realizes that heisgoing todie. Just before the end, hesummons Jack tohis hospital bed, where hesays over and over again that everything could have been difierent. After hedies, heisgiven amassive funeral. Jack says that the other funeral hewent tothat week was quite difierent: itwas Adam Stanton «p.s funeral atBurden «p.s Landing. Chapter 10 Summary After Adam «p.s funeral and Willie «p.s funeral, Jack spends some time inBurden «p.s Landing, spending his days quietly with Anne. They never discuss Willie «p.s death orAdam «p.s death; instead they sit wordlessly together, orJack reads aloud from abook. Then one day Jack begins towonder how Adam learned about Anne and Willie «p.s afiair. Heasks her, but she says she does not know— aman called and told him, but she does not know who itwas. Jack goes tovisit Sadie Burke inthe sanitarium where she has gone torecover her nerves. She tells Jack that Tiny Dufiy (now the governor ofthe state) was the man who called Adam; and she confesses that Tiny learned about the afiair from her. She was soangry about Willie leaving her togoback toLucy that she told Tiny out ofrevenge, knowing that, bydoing so, she was all but guaranteeing Willie «p.s death. Jack blames Tiny rather than Sadie, and Sadie agrees tomake astatement which Jack can use tobring about Tiny «p.s downfall. Aweek later, Dufiy summons Jack tosee him. Heoffers Jack his job back, with asubstantial raise over Jack «p.s already substantial income. Jack refuses, and tells Tiny heknows about his role inWillie «p.s death. Tiny isstunned, and frightened, and when Jack leaves hefeels heroic. But his feeling ofmoral heroism quickly dissolves into anacidic bitterness, because herealizes heistrying tomake Tiny the sole villain asaway ofdenying his own share ofresponsibility. Jack withdraws into numbness, not even opening aletter from Anne when hereceivesit. Hereceives aletter from Sadie with her statement, saying that she ismoving away and that she hopes Jack will let matters drop—Tiny has nochance towin the next gubernatorial election anyway, and ifJack pursues the matter Anne «p.s name will bedragged through the mud. But Jack had already decided not topursueit. Atthe library Jack sees Sugar-Boy, and asks him what hewould doifhe learned that there was aman besides Adam who was responsible for Willie «p.s death. Sugar-Boy says hewould kill him, and Jack nearly tells him about Tiny «p.s role. But hedecides not toatthe last second, and instead tells Sugar-Boy that itwas ajoke. Jack also goes tosee Lucy, who has adopted Sibyl Frey «p.s child, which she believes isTom «p.s. She tells Jack that Tom died ofpneumonia shortly after the accident, and that the baby isthe only thing that enabled her tolive. She also tells him that she believes—and has tobelieve—that Willie was agreat man. Jack says that healso believesit. Jack goes tovisit his mother atBurden «p.s Landing, where helearns that she isleaving Theodore Murrell, the Young Executive. Heissurprised tolearn that she isdoing sobecause she loved Judge Irwin all along. This knowledge changes Jack «p.s long-held impression ofhis mother asawoman without aheart, and helps toshatter his belief inthe Great Twitch. Atthe train station, helies tohis mother, and tells her that Judge Irwin killed himself not because ofanything that Jack did, but because ofhis failing health. Hethinks ofthis lie ashis last gift toher. After his mother leaves, hegoes tovisit Anne, and tells her the truth about his parentage. Eventually, heand Anne are married, and inthe early part of1939, when Jack iswriting his story, they are living inJudge Irwin «p.s house inBurden «p.s Landing. The Scholarly Attorney, now frail and dying, lives with them. Jack isworking onabook about Cass Mastern, whom hebelieves hecan finally understand. After the old man dies and the book isfinished, Jack says, heand Anne will leave Burden «p.s Landing—stepping «out ofhistory into history and the awful responsibility ofTime. «.


(Joseph Heller).

SOME INFOON JOSEPH HELLER b. May 1, 1923, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.

American writer whose novel Catch-22 (1961) was one ofthe most significant works ofprotest literature toappear after World WarII. The satirical novel was both acritical and apopular success, and afilm version appeared in1970. Heller flew 60 combat missions asabombardier with the U.S. Air Force inEurope. Hereceived an M.A. atColumbia University in1949 and was aFulbright scholar atthe University ofOxford (1949;50). Hetaught English atPennsylvania State University (1950;52) and worked asanadvertising copywriter for the magazines Time (1952;56) and Look (1956;58) and aspromotion manager for McCall «p.s (1958;61), meanwhile writing Catch-22 inhis spare time. The plot ofthe novel centres onthe antihero Captain John Yossarian, stationed atanairstrip onaMediterranean island inWorld War II, and portrays his desperate attempts tostay alive. The «catch «inCatch-22 involves amysterious Air Force regulation, which asserts that aman isconsidered insane ifhewillingly continues tofly dangerous combat missions; but, ifhemakes the necessary formal request toberelieved ofsuch missions, the very act ofmaking the request proves that heissane and therefore ineligible toberelieved. The term Catch-22 thereafter entered the English language asareference toaproviso that trips one upnomatter which way one turns. His later novels including Something Happened (1974), anunrelievedly pessimistic novel, Good asGold (1979), asatire onlife inWashington, D.C., and God Knows (1984), awry, contemporary-vernacular monologue inthe voice ofthe biblical King David, were less successful. Closing Time, asequel toCatch- 22, appeared in1994. Heller «p.s dramatic work includes the play WeBombed inNew Haven (1968).


Joseph Heller was born inBrooklyn in1923. Heserved asanAir Force bombardier inWorld War II, and has enjoyed along career asawriter and ateacher. His bestselling books include Something Happened, Good asGold, Picture This, God Knows, and Closing Time—but his first novel, Catch-22, remains his most famous and acclaimed work.

Written while Heller worked producing adcopy for aNew York City marketing firm, Catch-22 draws heavily onHeller «p.s Air Force experience, and presents awar story that isatonce hilarious, grotesque, bitterly cynical, and utterly stirring. The novel generated agreat deal ofcontroversy upon its publication; critics tended either toadore itordespise it, and those who hated itdid sofor the same reason asthe critics who lovedit. Over time, Catch-22 has become one ofthe defining novels ofthe twentieth century. Itpresents anutterly unsentimental vision ofwar, stripping all romantic pretense away from combat, replacing visions ofglory and honor with akind ofnightmarish comedy ofviolence, bureaucracy, and paradoxical madness.

Unlike other anti-romantic war novels, such asRemarque «p.s All Quiet onthe Western Front, Catch-22 relies heavily onhumor toconvey the insanity ofwar, presenting the horrible meaninglessness ofarmed conflict through akind ofdesperate absurdity, rather than through graphic depictions ofsuffering and violence. Catch-22 also distinguishes itself from other antiromantic war novels byits core values: Yossarian «p.s story isultimately not one ofdespair, but one ofhope; the positive urge tolive and tobefree can redeem the individual from the dehumanizing machinery ofwar. The novel istold asadisconnected series ofloosely related, tangential stories innoparticular chronological order; the final narrative that emerges from this structural tangle upholds the value ofthe individual inthe face ofthe impersonal, collective military mass; atevery stage, itmocks insincerity and hypocrisy even when they appear tobetriumphant.


Chapters 1−5.

Yossarian isin amilitary hospital inItaly with aliver condition that isn «tquite jaundice. Heisnot really even sick, but heprefers the hospital tothe war outside, sohepretends tohave apain inhis liver. The doctors are unable toprove him wrong, sothey let him stay, perplexed athis failure todevelop jaundice. Yossarian shares the hospital ward with his friend Dunbar; abandaged, immobile man called the soldier inwhite; and apair ofnurses Yossarian suspect hate him. One day anaffable Texan isbrought into the ward, where hetries toconvince the other patients that «decent folk «should get extra votes. The Texan issonice that everyone hates him. Achaplain comes tosee Yossarian, and although heconfuses the chaplain badly during their conversation, Yossarian isfilled with love for him. Less than ten days after the Texan issent tothe ward, everyone but the soldier inwhite flees the ward, recovering from their ailments and returning toactive duty.

Outside the hospital there isawar going on, and millions ofboys are bombing each other todeath. Noone seems tohave aproblem with this arrangement except Yossarian, who once argued with Clevinger, anofficer inhis group, about the war. Yossarian claimed that everyone was trying tokill him. Clevinger argued that noone was trying tokill Yossarian personally, but Yossarian has nopatience for Clevinger «p.s talk ofcountries and honor and insists that they are trying tokill him. After being released from the hospital, Yossarian sees his roommate Orr and notices that Clevinger isstill missing. Heremembers the last time heand Clevinger called each other crazy, during anight atthe officers «club when Yossarian announced toeveryone present that hewas superhuman because noone had managed tokill him yet. Yossarian issuspicious ofeveryone when hegets out ofthe hospital; hehas ameal inMilo «p.s mess hall, then talks toDoc Daneeka, who enrages Yossarian bytelling him that Colonel Cathcart has raised tofifty the number ofmissions required before asoldier can bedischarged. The previous number was forty-five. Yossarian has flown forty missions.

Yossarian talks toOrr, who tells him anirritating story about how heliked tokeep crab apples inhis cheeks when hewas younger. Yossarian briefly remembers the time awhore had beaten Orr over the head with her shoe inRome outside Nately «p.s whore «p.s kid sister «p.s room. Yossarian notices that Orr iseven smaller than Huple, who lives near Hungry Joe «p.s tent. Hungry Joe has nightmares whenever heisn «tscheduled tofly amission the next day; his screaming keeps the whole camp awake. Hungry Joe «p.s tent isnear aroad where the men sometimes pick upgirls and take them out tothe the tall grass near the open-air movie theater that a U.S.O. troupe visited that same afternoon. The troupe was sent byanambitious general named P.P. Peckem, who hopes totake over the command ofYossarian «p.s wing from General Dreedle. General Peckem «p.s troubleshooter Colonel Cargill, who used tobe aspectacular failure asamarketing executive and who isnow aspectacular failure asacolonel. Yossarian feels sick, but Doc Daneeka still refuses toground him. Doc Daneeka advises Yossarian tobelike Havermeyer and make the best ofit; Havermeyer isafearless lead bombardier. Yossarian thinks that hehimself isalead bombardier filled with avery healthy fear. Havermeyer likes toshoot mice inthe middle ofthe night; once, hewoke Hungry Joe and caused him todive into one ofthe slit trenchs that have appeared nightly beside every tent since Milo Minderbinder, the mess officer, bombed the squadron.

Hungry Joe iscrazy, and though Yossarian tries tohelp him, Hungry Joe won «tlisten tohis advice because hethinks Yossarian iscrazy. Doc Daneeka doesn «tbelieve Hungry Joe has problems—he thinks only hehas problems, because his lucrative medical practice was ended bythe war. Yossarian remembers trying todisrupt the educational meeting inCaptain Black «p.s intelligence tent byasking unanswerable questions, which caused Group Headquarters tomake arule that the only people who could ask questions were the ones who never did. This rule comes from Colonel Cathcart and Lieutenant Colonel Korn, who also approved the skeet shooting range where Yossarian can never hit anything. Dunbar loves shooting skeet because hehates itand itmakes the time gomore slowly; his goal istolive aslong aspossible byslowing down time, soheloves boredom and discomfort, and heargues about this with Clevinger.

Doc Daneeka lives inatent with analcoholic Indian named Chief White Halfoat, where hetells Yossarian about some sexually inept newlyweds hehad inhis office once. Chief White Halfoat comes inand tells Yossarian that Doc Daneeka iscrazy and then relates the story ofhis own family: everywhere they went, someone struck оіл, and so оіл companies sent agents and equipment tofollow them wherever they went. Doc Daneeka still refuses toground Yossarian, who asks ifhewould begrounded ifhewere crazy. Doc Daneeka says yes, and Yossarian decides togocrazy. But that solution istoo easy: there isacatch. Doc Daneeka tells Yossarian about Catch-22, which holds that, tobegrounded for insanity, apilot must ask tobegrounded, but that any pilot who asks tobegrounded must besane. Impressed, Yossarian takes Doc Daneeka «p.s word for it, just ashehad taken Orr «p.s word about the flies inAppleby «p.s eyes. Orr insists there are flies inAppleby «p.s eyes, and though Yossarian has noidea what Orr means, hebelieves Orr because hehas never lied tohim before. They once told Appleby about the flies, sothat Appleby was worried onthe way toabriefing, after which they all took off inB-25s for abombing run. Yossarian shouted directions tothe pilot, McWatt, toavoid antiaircraft fire while Yossarian dropped the bombs. Another time while they were taking evasive action Dobbs went crazy and started screaming «Help him, «while the plane spun out ofcontrol and Yossarian believed hewas going todie. Inthe back ofthe plane, Snowden was dying.

Chapters 6−10.

Hungry Joe has his fifty missions, but the orders tosend him home never come, and hecontinues toscream all through every night. Doc Daneeka persists infeeling sorry for himself while ignoring Hungry Joe «p.s problems. Hungry Joe isdriven crazy bynoises, and ismad with lust—he isdesperate totake pictures ofnaked women, but the pictures never come out. Hepretends tobean important Life magazine photographer, and the irony isthat hereally was aphotographer for Life before the war. Hungry Joe has flown six tours ofduty, but every time hefinishes one Colonel Cathcart raises the number ofmissions required before Hungry Joe issent home. When this happens, the nightmares stop until Hungry Joe finishes another tour. Colonel Cathcart isvery brave about sending his men into dangerous situations—no situation istoo dangerous, just asnoping-pong Shot istoo hard for Appleby. One night Orr attacked Appleby inthe middle ofagame; afight broke out, and Chief White Halfoat busted Colonel Moodus, General Dreedle «p.s son-in-law, inthe nose. General Dreedle enjoyed that somuch hekept calling Chief White Halfoat intorepeat the performance—but the Indian remains amarginal figure inthe camp, much like Major Major, who was promoted tosquadron commander while playing basketball and who has been ostracized ever since. Also, Ex-P.F.C. Wintergreen explains toYossarian how Catch-22 requires him tofly the extra missions Colonel Cathcart orders, even though Twenty-Seventh Air Force regulations only demand forty missions.

Yossarian «p.s pilot, McWatt, ispossibly the craziest ofall the men, because heisperfectly sane but hedoes not mind the war. Heissmiling and polite and loves towhistle show tunes. Heisimpressed with Milo—but not asimpressed asMilo was with the letter Yossarian got from Doc Daneeka about his liver, which ordered the mess hall togive Yossarian all the fresh fruit hewanted, which, inturn, Yossarian refused toeat, because ifhis liver improved hecouldn «tgoto the hospital whenever hewanted. Milo isinvolved inthe black market, and hetries toconvince Yossarian togoin with him inselling the fruit, but Yossarian refuses. Milo isindignant when helearns that a C.I.D. (Criminal Investigation Division) man issearching for acriminal who has been forging Washington Irving «p.s name incensored letters—it isYossarian who used topass time inthe hospital bywriting the letters. But Milo isconvinced the C.I.D. man istrying toset him upbecause ofhis black market activity. Milo wants toorganize the men into asyndicate, ashedemonstrates byreturning McWatt «p.s stolen bedsheet inpieces—half for McWatt, aquarter for Milo, and soon. Milo has agrasp onsome confusing economics: hemanages tomake aprofit buying eggs inMalta for seven cents apiece and selling them inPianosa for five cents apiece.

Not even Clevinger understands that, but though heis adope, heusually understands everything, except why Yossarian insists that somany people are trying tokill him. Yossarian remembers training inAmerica with Clevinger under Lieutenant Scheisskopf, who was obsessed with parades, and whose wife, along with her friend Dori Duz, used tosleep with all the men under her husband «p.s command. Lieutenant Scheisskopf hated Clevinger, and finally got him sent totrial under abelligerant colonel. Clevinger isstunned when herealizes that Lieutenant Scheisskopf and the colonel truly hate him, inaway that noenemy soldier ever could.

Given ahorrible name atbirth because ofhis father «p.s horrible sense ofhumor, Major Major Major was chagrined when, the day hejoined the army, hewas promoted toMajor byanIBM machine with anequally horrible sense ofhumor, making him Major Major Major Major. Major Major Major Major also looks vaguely like Henry Fonda, and did sowell inschool that hewas suspected ofbeing aCommunist and monitored bythe FBI. His sudden promotion stunned his drill sergeant, who had totrain aman who was suddenly his superior officer. Luckily, Major Major applied for aviation cadet training, and was sent toLieutenant Scheisskopf. Not long after arriving inPianosa, hewas made squadron commander byanirate Colonel Cathcart, after which helost all his new friends. Major Major has always been adrab, mediocre sort ofperson, and had never had friends before; helapses into anawkward depression and refuses tobeseen inhis office except when heisn «tthere. Tomake himself feel better, Major Major forges Washington Irving «p.s name toofficial documents. Heisconfused about everything, including his official relationship toMajor ——- deCoverley, his executive officer: Hedoesn «tknow whether heisMajor ——- deCoverlay «p.s subordinate, orvice versa. A C.I.D. man comes toinvestigate the Washington Irving scandal, but Major Major denies knowledge, and the incompetent C.I.D. man believes him—as does another C.I.D. man who arrives shortly thereafter, then leaves toinvestigate the first C.I.D. man. Major Major takes towearing dark glasses and afalse mustache when forging Washington Irving «p.s name. One day Major Major istackled byYossarian, who demands tobegrounded. Sadly, Major Major tells Yossarian that there isnothing hecan do.

Clevinger «p.s plane disappeared inacloud off the coast ofElba, and heispresumed dead. Yossarian finds the disappearance asstunning asthat ofawhole squadron ofsixty-four men who all deserted inone day. Then hetells ex-P.F.C. Wintergreen the news, but ex-P.F.C. Wintergreen isn «timpressed with the disappearance. Ex-P.F.C. Wintergreen continually goes AWOL, then isrequired todig holes and fill them upagain—work heseems toenjoy. One day ex-P.F.C. Wintergreen nicked awater pipe, and water sprayed everywhere, leading tomass confusion much like that ofthe night seven months later when Milo bombed the camp. Word spread that the water was оіл, and Chief White Halfoat was kicked off the base. Around this time, Appleby tried toturn Yossarian infor not taking his Atabrine tablets, but the only time hewas allowed togointo Major Major «p.s office was when Major Major wasn «tthere. Yossarian remembers Mudd, asoldier who died immediately after arriving atthe camp, and whose belongings are still inYossarian «p.s tent. The belongings are contaminated with death inthe same way that the whole camp was contaminated before the deadly mission ofthe Great Big Siege ofBologna, for which Colonel Cathcart bravely volunteered his men. During this time even sick men were not allowed tobegrounded bydoctors. Dr. Stubbs isoverwhelmed with cynicism, and asks what the point isofsaving lives when everyone dies anyway. Dunbar says that the point istolive aslong asyou can and forget about the fact that you will eventually die.

Chapters 11−16.

Captain Black ispleased tohear the news that Colonel Cathcart has volunteered the men for the lethally dangerous mission ofbombing Bologna. Captain Black thinks the men are bastards, and gloats about their terrifying, violent task. Captain Black isextremely ambitious, and hoped tobepromoted tosquadron commander; when Major Major was picked over him, helapsed into adeep depression, which the Bologna mission lifts him outof. Captain Black first tried toget revenge onMajor Major byinitiating the Glorious Loyalty Oath Crusade, when heforced all the men toswear elaborate oaths ofloyalty before doing basic things like eating meals. Herefused tolet Major Major sign aloyalty oath, and hoped thereby tomake him appear disloyal. The Glorious Loyalty Oath Crusade was amajor event inthe camp, until the fearsome Major ——- deCoverley put astop toitby hollering «Give meeat! «inthe mess hall without signing anoath.

Itrains interminably before the Bologna mission, and the bombing run isdelayed bythe rain. The men all hope itwill never stop raining, and when itdoes, Yossarian moves the bomb line onthe map sothat the commanding officers will think Bologna has already been captured. Then the rain starts again. Inthe meantime, Ex-P.F.C. Wintergreen tries tosell Yossarian acigarette lighter, thus going into competition with Milo asablack market trader. Heisaghast that Milo has cornered the entire world market for Egyptian cotton but isunable tounload any ofit. The men are terrified and miserable over Bologna. Clevenger and Yossarian argue about whether itisYossarian «p.s duty tobomb Bologna, and bythe middle ofthe second week ofwaiting, everyone inthe squadron looks like Hungry Joe. One night Yossarian, Nately, and Dunbar gofor adrunken drive with Chief White Halfoat; they crash the jeep, and realize ithas stopped raining. Back inthe tents, Hungry Joe istrying toshoot Huple «p.s cat, which has been giving him nightmares, and the men force Hungry Joe tofight the cat fairly. The cat runs away, and Hungry Joe isthe self-satisfied winner; then hegoes back tosleep and has another nightmare about the cat.

Major ——- deCoverley isadaunting, majestic man with alion «p.s mane ofwhite hair, aneagle «p.s gaze, and atransparent eyepatch. Everyone isafraid ofhim, and noone will talk tohim. His sole duties include travelling tomajor cities captured bythe Americans and renting rooms for his men totake rest leaves in; hespends the rest ofhis time playing horseshoes. Heisso good athis roomrenting duties that healways manages tobephotographed with the first wave ofAmerican troops moving into acity, afact which perplexes both the enemy and the American commanders. Major ——- deCoverley isaforce ofnature, but when Yossarian moved the bomb line, hewas fooled and traveled toenemycontrolled Bologna; hestill has not returned. Once, Milo approached him onthe horseshoe range and convinced him toauthorize Milo toimport eggs with Air Force planes. This elated the men, except for Colonel Cathcart, whose spur-of-the-moment attempt topromote Major Major failed, unlike his attempt togive Yossarian amedal some time earlier, which succeeded. Back when Yossarian was brave, hecircled over atarget twice inorder tohit it; onthe second overpass, Mudd was killed byshrapnel. The authorities didn «tknow how torebuke Yossarian for his foolhardiness, sothey decided tostave off criticism bygiving him amedal.

The squadron finally receives the go-ahead tobomb Bologna, and bythis time Yossarian doesn «tfeel like going over the target even once. Hepretends that his plane «p.s intercom system isbroken and orders his men toturn back. They land atthe deserted airfield just before dawn, feeling strangely morose; Yossarian takes anap onthe beach and wakes upwhen the planes fly back. Not asingle plane has been hit. Yossarian thinks that there must have been too many clouds for the men tobomb the city, and that they will have tomake another attempt, but heiswrong. There was noantiaircraft fire, and the city was bombed with nolosses tothe Americans.

Captain Pilchard and Captain Wren ineffectually reprimand Yossarian and his crew for turning back, then inform the men that they will have tobomb Bologna again, asthey missed the ammunition dumps the first time. Yossarian confidently flies in, assuming there will benoantiaircraft fire, and isstunned when shrapnel begins firing uptoward him through the skies. Hefuriously directs McWatt through evasive maneuvers, and fights with the strangely cheerful Aarfy until the bombs are dropped; Yossarian doesn «tdie, and the plane lands safely. Heheads immediately for emergency rest leave inRome, where hemeets Luciana the same night.

Luciana isabeautiful Italian girl Yossarian meets atabar inRome. After hebuys her dinner and dances with her, she agrees tosleep with him, but not right then—she will come tohis room the next morning. She does, then angrily refuses tosleep with Yossarian until she cleans his room—she disgustedly calls him apig. Finally, she lets him sleep with her. Afterward, Yossarian falls inlove with her and asks her tomarry him; she says she can «tmarry him because he«p.s crazy, and he«p.s crazy because hewants tomarry her, because noone intheir right mind would marry agirl who wasn «tavirgin. She tells him about ascar she got when the Americans bombed her town. Suddenly, Hungry Joe rushes inwith his camera, and Yossarian and Luciana have toget dressed. Laughing, they gooutside, where they part ways. Luciana gives Yossarian her number, telling him she expects that hewill tear itupas soon asshe leaves, self-impressed that such apretty girl would sleep with him for free. Heasks her why onEarth hewould dosuch athing. Assoon asshe leaves, Yossarian, self-impressed that such apretty girl would sleep with him for free, tears upher number. Almost immediately, heregrets it, and, after learning that Colonel Cathcart has raised the number ofmissions toforty, hemakes the anguished decision togostraight tothe hospital.

Chapters 17−21.

Things are better atthe hospital, Yossarian decides, than they are onabomb run with Snowden dying inthe back whispering «I «mcold. «Atthe hospital, Death isorderly and polite, and there isnoinexplicable violence. Dunbar isinthe hospital with Yossarian, and they are both perplexed bythe soldier inwhite, aman completely covered inplaster bandages. The men inthe hospital discuss the injustice ofmortality—some men are killed and some aren «t, some men get sick and some don «t, with noreference towho deserves what. Some time earlier Clevinger saw justice init, but Yossarian was too busy keeping track ofall the forces trying tokill him tolisten. Later, heand Hungry Joe collect lists offatal diseases with which they worry Doc Daneeka, who isthe only person who can ground Yossarian, according toMajor Major. Doc Daneeka tells Yossarian tofly his fifty-five missions, and he«llthink about helping him.

The first time Yossarian ever goes tothe hospital, heisstill aprivate. Hefeigns anabdominal pain, then mimics the mysterious ailment ofthe soldier who saw everything twice. Hespends Thanksgiving inthe hospital, and vows tospend all future Thanksgivings there; but hespends the next Thanksgiving inbed with Lieutenant Scheisskopf «p.s wife, arguing about God. Once Yossarian is«cured «ofseeing everything twice, heisasked topretend tobe adying soldier for amother and father who have traveled tosee their son, who died that morning. Yossarian allows them tobandage his face, and pretends tobethe soldier.

The ambitious Colonel Cathcart browbeats the chaplain, demanding prayer before each bombing run, then abandons the idea when herealizes that the Saturday Evening Post, where hegot the idea, probably wouldn «tgive him any publicity forit. The chaplain timidly mentions that some ofthe men have complained about Colonel Cathcart «p.s habit ofraising the number ofmissions required every few weeks, but Colonel Cathcart ignores him. Onhis way home, the chaplain meets Colonel Korn, Colonel Cathcart «p.s wily, cynical sidekick, who mocks Colonel Cathcart infront ofthe chaplain and ishighly suspicious ofthe plum tomato Colonel Cathcart gave the chaplain. Athis tent inthe woods, the chaplain encounters the hostile Corporal Whitcomb, his atheist assistant, who resents him deeply for holding back his career. Corporal Whitcomb tells the chaplain that a C.I.D. man suspects him ofsigning Washington Irving «p.s name toofficial papers, and ofstealing plum tomatoes. The poor chaplain isvery unhappy, helpless toimprove anyone «p.s life.

Colonel Cathcart ispreoccupied with the problem ofYossarian, who has become areal black eye for him, most recently bycomplaining about the number ofmissions, but previously byappearing naked athis own medal ceremony shortly after Snowden «p.s death. Colonel Cathcart wishes heknew how tosolve the problem and impress General Dreedle, his commanding officer. General Dreedle doesn «tcare what his men do, aslong asthey remain reliable military quantities. Hetravels everywhere with abuxom nurse, and worries mostly about Colonel Moodus, his despised son inlaw, whom heoccasionally asks Chief White Halfoat topunch inthe nose. Once Colonel Korn tried toundercut Colonel Cathcart bygiving aflamboyant briefing toimpress General Dreedle; General Dreedle told Colonel Cathcart that Colonel Korn made him sick.

Chapters 22−26.

Yossarian loses his nerve onthe mission that follows Colonel Korn «p.s extravagant briefing, the mission where Snowden iskilled and spattered all over Yossarian «p.s uniform when Dobbs goes crazy and seizes the plane «p.s controls from Huple. Ashedies, Snowden pleads with Yossarian tohelp him; hesays heiscold. Dobbs isaterrible pilot and awreck ofaman, and helater tells Yossarian heplans tokill Colonel Cathcart before heraises the mission total again; heasks Yossarian togive him the go-ahead, but Yossarian isunable todoso, soDobbs abandons his plan. Yossarian thinks that Dobbs isalmost asbad asOrr, with whom Yossarian and Milo recently took atrip tostock uponsupplies. Asthey travel, Orr and Yossarian gradually realize the extent ofMilo «p.s control over the black market and vast international influence: heisthe mayor ofPalermo, the Assistant Governor-General ofMalta, the Vice-Shah ofOran, the Caliph ofBaghdad, the Imam ofDamascus, the Sheik ofAraby, and isworshipped asagod inparts ofAfrica. Each region has embraced him because herevitalized their economy with his syndicate, inwhich everybody has ashare. Nevertheless, throughout their trip, Orr and Yossarian are forced tosleep inthe plane while Milo enjoys lavish palaces, and they are finally awakened inthe middle ofthe night sothat Milo can rush his shipment ofred bananas totheir next stop.

One evening Nately finds his whore inRome again after along search. Hetries toconvince Yossarian and Aarfy totake two ofher friends for thirty dollars each. Aarfy objects that hehas never had topay for sex. Nately «p.s whore issick ofNately, and begins toswear athim; then Hungry Joe arrives, and the group abandons Aarfy and goes tothe apartment building where the girls live. Here they find aseemingly endless flow ofnaked young women; Hungry Joe istorn between taking inthe scene and rushing back for his camera. Nately argues with anold man who lives atthe building about nationalism and moral duty—the old man claims Italy isdoing better than America inthe war because ithas already been occupied, soItalian boys are nolonger being killed. Hegleefully admits toswearing loyalty towhatever nation happens tobein power. The patriotic, idealistic Nately cannot believe his ears, and argues somewhat haltingly for America «p.s international supremacy and the values itrepresents. But heistroubled because, though they are absolutely nothing alike, the old man reminds him ofhis father.

ByApril, Milo «p.s influence ismassive. The mess officer controls the international black market, plays amajor role inthe world economy, and uses Air Force planes from countries all over the world tocarry shipments ofhis supplies; the planes are repainted with an«M & MEnterprises «logo, but Milo continues toinsist that everybody has ashare inhis syndicate. Milo contracts with the Germans tobomb the Americans, and with the Americans toshoot down German planes. German anti-aircraft guns contracted byMilo even Shot down Mudd, the dead man inYossarian «p.s tent, for which Yossarian holds agrudge against Milo. Milo wants Yossarian «p.s help concocting asolution for unloading his massive holdings ofEgyptian cotton, which hecannot sell and which threatens toruin his entire operation. One evening after dinner, Milo «p.s planes begin tobomb Milo «p.s own camp: Hehas landed another contract with the Germans, and dozens ofmen are wounded and killed during the attack. Almost everyone wants toend M & MEnterprises right then, but Milo shows them how much money they have all made, and the survivors almost all forgive him. While Yossarian sits naked inatree watching Snowden «p.s funeral, Milo seeks him out totalk tohim about the cotton; hegives Yossarian some chocolate-covered cotton and tries toconvince him itisreally candy. Yossarian tells Milo toask the government tobuy his cotton, and Milo isstruck bythe intelligence behind the idea.

The chaplain istroubled. Noone seems totreat him asaregular human being; everyone isuncomfortable inhis presence, heisintimidated bythe soldiers—especially Colonel Cathcart—and heisgenerally ineffectual asareligious leader. Hegrows increasingly miserable, and issustained solely bythe thought ofthe religious visions hehas seen since his arrival, such asthe vision ofthe naked man inthe tree atSnowden «p.s funeral. Ofcourse, the naked man was Yossarian. Hedreams ofhis wife and children dying horribly inhis absence. Hetries tosee Major Major about the number ofmissions the men are asked tofly, but, like everyone else, finds that Major Major will not allow him into his office except when heisout. Onthe way tosee Major Major asecond time, the chaplain encounters Flume, Chief White Halfoat «p.s old roommate who issoafraid ofhaving his throat slit while hesleeps that hehas taken toliving inthe forest. The chaplain then learns that Corporal Whitcomb has been promoted tosergeant byColonel Cathcart for anidea that the colonel believes will land him inthe Saturday Evening Post. The chaplain tries tomingle with the men atthe officers «club, but Colonel Cathcart periodically throws him out. The chaplain takes todoubting everything, even God.

The night Nately falls inlove with his whore, she sits naked from the waist down inaroom full ofenlisted men playing blackjack. She isalready sick ofNately, and tries tointerest one ofthe enlisted men, but none ofthem notice her. Nately follows her out, then tothe officers «apartments inRome, where she tries the same trick onNately «p.s friends. Aarfy calls her aslut, and Nately isdeeply offended. Aarfy isthe navigator ofthe flight onwhich Yossarian isfinally hit byflak; heiswounded inthe leg and taken tothe hospital, where heand Dunbar change identities byordering lower-ranking men totrade beds with them. Dunbar pretends tobe A. Fortiori. Finally they are caught byNurse Cramer and Nurse Duckett, who takes Yossarian bythe ear and puts him back tobed.

Chapters 27−31.

The next morning, while Nurse Duckett issmoothing the sheets atthe foot ofhis bed, Yossarian thrusts his hand upher skirt. She shrieks and rushes away, and Dunbar grabs her bosom from behind. When she isfinally rescued byafurious doctor, Yossarian tries toplead insanity—he says hehas arecurring dream about afish—so heisassigned anappointment with Major Sanderson, the hospital psychiatrist. Sanderson ismore interested indiscussing his own problems than his patient «p.s. Yossarian «p.s friends visit him inthe hospital—Dobbs offers again tokill Colonel Cathcart—and finally, after Yossarian admits that hethinks people are trying tokill him and that hehas not adjusted tothe war, Major Sanderson decides that Yossarian really iscrazy and decides tosend him home. But because ofthe identity mixup perpetrated byYossarian and Dunbar earlier intheir hospital stay, there isamistake, and A. Fortiori issent home instead. Furiously, Yossarian goes tosee Doc Daneeka, but Doc Daneeka will not ground Yossarian for reasons ofinsanity. Who else but acrazy man, heasks, would goout tofight?

Yossarian goes tosee Dobbs, and tells him togoahead and kill Colonel Cathcart. But Dobbs has finished his sixty missions, and iswaiting tobesent home; henolonger needs tokill Colonel Cathcart. When Yossarian says that Colonel Cathcart will simply raise the number ofmissions again, Dobbs says he«llwait and see, but that perhaps Orr would help Yossarian kill the colonel. Orr crashed his plane again while Yossarian was inthe hospital and was fished out ofthe ocean—none ofthe life jackets inhis plane worked, because Milo took out the carbon dioxide tanks touse for making ice-cream sodas. Now, Orr istinkering with the stove heistrying tobuild inhis and Yossarian «p.s tent; hesuggests that Yossarian should try flying amission with him for practice incase heever has tomake acrash landing. Yossarian broods about the rumored second mission toBologna. Orr ismaking noise and irritating him, and Yossarian imagines killing him, which Yossarian finds arelaxing thought. They talk about women—Orr says they don «tlike Yossarian, and Yossarian replies that they «recrazy. Orr tells Yossarian that heknows Yossarian has asked not tofly with him, and offers totell Yossarian the story ofwhy that naked girl was hitting him with her shoe outside Nately «p.s whore «p.s kid sister «p.s room inRome. Yossarian laughingly declines, and the next time Orr goes upheagain crashes his plane into the ocean. This time, his survival raft drifts away from the others and disappears.

The men are dismayed when they learn that General Peckem has had Scheisskopf, now acolonel, transferred onto his staff. Peckem ispleased because hethinks the move will increase his strength compared tothat ofhis rival General Dreedle. Colonel Scheisskopf isdismayed bythe news that hewill nolonger beable toconduct parades every afternoon. Scheisskopf immediately irritates his colleagues inGroup Headquarters, and Peckem takes him along for aninspection ofColonel Cathcart «p.s squadron briefing. Atthe preliminary briefing, the men are displeased tolearn they will bebombing anundefended village into rubble simply sothat Colonel Cathcart can impress General Peckem with the clean aerial photography their bomb patterns will allow. When Peckem and Scheisskopf arrive, Cathcart isangry that another colonel has appeared torival him. Hegives the briefing himself, and though hefeels shaky and unconfident, hemakes itthrough, and congratulates himself onajob well done under pressure.

Onthe bombing run, Yossarian flashes back tothe mission when Snowden died, and hesnaps. During evasive action, hethreatens tokill McWatt ifhedoesn «tfollow orders. Heisworried that McWatt will hold agrudge, but after the mission McWatt only seems concerned about Yossarian. Yossarian has begun seeing Nurse Duckett, and heenjoys making love toher onthe beach. Sometimes, while they sit looking atthe ocean, Yossarian thinks about all the people who have died underwater, including Orr and Clevinger. One day, McWatt isbuzzing the beach inhis plane asajoke, when agust ofwind causes the plane todrop for asplit second—just long enough for the propellor toslice Kid Sampson inhalf. Kid Samson «p.s body splatters all over the beach. Back atthe base, everyone isoccupied with the disaster; McWatt will not land his plane, but keeps flying higher and higher. Yossarian runs down the runway yelling atMcWatt tocome down, but heknows what McWatt isgoing todo, and McWatt does it, crashing his plane into the side ofamountain, killing himself. Colonel Cathcart issoupset that heraises the number ofmissions tosixty-five.

When Colonel Cathcart learns that Doc Daneeka was also killed inthe crash, heraises the number ofmissions toseventy. Actually, Doc Daneeka was not killed inthe crash, but the records—which Doc Daneeka, hating tofly, bribed Yossarian toalter—maintain that the doctor was inthe plane with McWatt, collecting some flight time. Doc Daneeka isstartled tohear that heisdead, but Doc Daneeka «p.s wife inAmerica, who receives aletter tothat effect from the military, isshattered. Heroically, she finds the strength tocarry on, and ischeered tolearn that she will bereceiving anumber ofmonthly payments from various military departments for the rest ofher life, aswell assizable life insurance payments from her husband «p.s insurance company. Husbands ofher friends begin toflirt with her, and she dies her hair. InPianosa, Doc Daneeka finds himself ostracized bythe men, who blame him for the raise inthe number ofmissions they are required tofly. Heisno longer allowed topractice medicine and realizes that, inone sense, hereally isdead. Hesends apassionate letter tohis wife begging her toalert the authorities that heisstill alive. She considers the possibility, but after receiving aform letter from Colonel Cathcart expressing regret over her husband «p.s death, she moves her children toLansing, Michigan and leaves noforwarding address.

Chapters 32−37.

The cold weather comes, and Kid Sampson «p.s legs are left onthe beach; noone will retrieve them. The first things Yossarian remembers when hewakes upeach morning are Kid Sampson «p.s legs and Snowden. When Orr never returns, Yossarian isgiven four new roommates, agroup ofshiny-faced twentyone year-olds who have never seen combat. They clown around, calling Yossarian «Yo-Yo «and rousing inhim amurderous hatred. Yossarian tries toconvince Chief White Halfoat tomove inwith them and scare the new officers away, but Halfoat has decided tomove into the hospital todie ofpneumonia. Slowly, Yossarian begins tofeel more protective toward the men, but then they burn Orr «p.s birch logs and suddenly move Mudd «p.s belongings out ofthe tent—the dead man who has lived there for solong isabruptly gone. Yossarian panics and flees toRome with Hungry Joe the night before Nately «p.s whore finally gets agood night «p.s sleep and wakes upinlove.

InRome, Yossarian misses Nurse Duckett and goes searching invain for Luciana. Nately languishes inbed with his whore, when suddenly Nately «p.s whore «p.s kid sister dives into bed with them. Nately begins tocherish wild fantasies ofmoving his whore and her sister back toAmerica and bringing the sister uplike his own child, but when his whore hears that henolonger wants her togoout hustling she becomes furious, and anargument ensues. The other men try tointervene, and Nately tries toconvince them that they can all move tothe same suburb and work for his father. Hetries toforbid his whore from ever speaking again tothe old man inthe whores «hotel, and she becomes even angrier, but she still misses Nately when heleaves and isfurious with Yossarian when hepunches Nately inthe face, breaking his nose.

Yossarian breaks Nately «p.s nose onThansksgiving, after Milo gets all the men drunk onbottles ofcheap whiskey. Yossarian goes tobed early, but wakes uptothe sound ofmachine gun fire. Atfirst heisterrified, but hequickly realizes that agroup ofmen are firing machine guns asaprank. Heisfurious, and takes his .45 inpursuit ofrevenge. Nately tries tostop him, and Yossarian breaks his nose. Hefires atsomeone inthe darkness, but when areturn Shot comes Yossarian recognizes itasDunbar «p.s. Heand Dunbar call out toeach other, and goback tohelp Nately. They cannot find him, and discover him inthe hospital the next morning. Yossarian feels terribly guilty for having broken Nately «p.s nose. They encounter the chaplain inthe hospital; hehas lied toget in, claiming tohave adisease called Wisconsin shingles, and feels wonderful—he has learned how torationalize vice into virtue. Suddenly the soldier inwhite iswheeled into the room, and Dunbar panics; hebegins screaming, and soon everyone inthe ward joinsin. Nurse Duckett warns Yossarian that she overheard some doctors talking about how they planned to«disappear «Dunbar. Yossarian goes towarn his friend, but cannot find him.

When Chief White Halfoat finally dies ofpneumonia and Nately finishes his seventy missions, Yossarian prays for the first time inhis life, asking God tokeep Nately from volunteering tofly more than seventy missions. But Nately does not want tobesent home until hecan take his whore with him. Yossarian goes for help from Milo, who immediately goes tosee Colonel Cathcart about having himself assigned tomore combat missions. Milo has finally been exposed asthe tyrannical fraud heis; hehas nointention ofgiving anyone areal share ofthe syndicate—but his power and influence are attheir peak and everyone admires him. Hefeels guilty for not doing his duty and flying missions, and asks the deferential Colonel Cathcart toassign him tomore dangerous combat duties. Milo tells Colonel Cathcart that someone else will have torun the syndicate, and Colonel Cathcart volunteers himself and Colonel Korn. When Milo explains the complex operations ofthe business toCathcart, the colonel declares Milo the only man who could possibly run it, and forbids Milo from flying another combat mission. Hesuggests that hemight make the other men fly Milo «p.s missions for him, and ifone ofthose men wins amedal, Milo will get the medal. Toenable this, hesays, hewill ratchet the number ofrequired missions uptoeighty. The next morning the alarm sounds and the men fly off onamission that turns out tobeparticularly deadly. Twelve men are killed, including Dobbs and Nately.

The chaplain isdevastated byNately «p.s death. When helearns that twelve men have been killed, heprays that Yossarian, Hungry Joe, Nately, and his other friends will not beamong them. But when herides out tothe field, heunderstands from the despairing look onYossarian «p.s face that Nately isdead. Suddenly, the Chaplain isdragged away byagroup ofmilitary police who accuse him ofanunspecified crime. Heisinterrogated byacolonel who claims the chaplain has forged his name inletters—his only evidence isaletter Yossarian forged inthe hospital and signed with the chaplain «p.s name some time ago. Then heaccuses the chaplain ofstealing the plum tomato from Colonel Cathcart and ofbeing Washington Irving. The men inthe room idiotically find him guilty ofunspecified crimes they assume hehas committed, then order him togoabout his business while they think ofaway topunish him. The chaplain leaves and furiously goes toconfront Colonel Korn about the number ofmissions the men are required tofly. Hetells Colonel Korn heplans tobring the matter directly toGeneral Dreedle «p.s attention, but the colonel replies gleefully that General Dreedle has been replaced with General Peckem aswing commander. Hethen tells the chaplain that heand Colonel Cathcart can make the men fly asmany missions asthey want tomake them fly—they «veeven transferred Dr. Stubbs, who had offerred toground any man with seventy missions, tothe Pacific.

General Peckem «p.s victory sours quickly. Onhis first day incharge ofGeneral Dreedle «p.s old operation, helearns that Scheisskopf has been promoted tolieutenant general and isnow the commanding officer for all combat operations: Heisin charge ofGeneral Peckem and his entire group. And heintends tomake every single man present march inparades.

Chapters 38−42.

Yossarian marches around backwards sonoone can sneak upbehind him and refuses tofly inany more combat missions. When they are informed ofthis, Colonel Cathcart and Colonel Korn decide totake brief pity onYossarian for the death ofhis friend Nately, and send him toRome, where hebreaks the news ofNately «p.s death toNately «p.s whore, who tries tokill Yossarian with apotato peeler for bringer her the bad news. When heresists, she tries toseduce him, then stabs athim with aknife again when heseems tohave relaxed. Nately «p.s whore «p.s kid sister materializes, and tries tostab Yossarian aswell. Yossarian loses patience, picks upNately «p.s whore «p.s kid sister and throws her bodily atNately «p.s whore, then leaves the apartment. Henotices people are staring athim, and suddenly realizes that hehas been stabbed several times and isbleeding everywhere. Hegoes toaRed Cross building and cleans his wounds, and when heemerges Nately «p.s whore iswaiting inambush and tries tostab him again. Hepunches her inthe jaw, catches her asshe passes out and sets her down gently. Hungry Joe flies him back toPianosa, where Nately «p.s whore iswaiting tokill him with asteak knife. Heeludes her, but she continues totry tokill him atevery opportunity. Yossarian walks around backwards; asword spreads that hehas refused tofly more combat missions, men begin toapproach him, only atnight, and toask him ifit«p.s true, and totell him they hope hegets away withit. One day Captain Black tells him that Nately «p.s whore and her kid sister have been flushed out oftheir apartment by M.P. «p.s, and Yossarian, suddenly worried about them, goes toRome without permission totry tofind them.

Hetravels with Milo, who isdisappointed inhim for refusing tofly more combat missions. Rome has been bombed, and lies inruins; the apartment complex where the whores lived isadeserted shambles. Nately finds the old woman who lived inthe complex sobbing; she tells Yossarian that the only right the soldiers had tochase the girls away was the right ofCatch-22, which says «they have aright todoanything wecan «tstop them from doing. «Yossarian asks ifthey had Catch-22 written down, and ifthey showed ittoher; she says that the law stipulates that they don «thave toshow her Catch-22, and that the law that says soisCatch-22. She says that the her old man isdead. Yossarian goes toMilo and says that hewill fly asmany more combat missions asColonel Cathcart wants ifMilo uses his influence tohelp him track down the kid sister. Milo agrees, but becomes distracted when helearns about huge profits tobemade intrafficking illegal tobacco. Heslinks away, and Yossarian isleft towander the dark streets through ahorrible night filled with grotesqueries and loathsome sights; hereturns tohis apartments late inthe night tofind that Aarfy has raped and killed amaid. The M.P. «p.s burstin. They apologize toAarfy for intruding, and arrest Yossarian for being inRome without apass.

Back atPianosa, Colonel Cathcart and Colonel Korn offer Yossarian adeal: they will allow him never tofly another combat mission and will even send him home, ifonly hewill agree tolike them. Hewill bepromoted tomajor and all hewill have todois tomake speeches inAmerica insupport ofthe military and the war effort, and insupport ofthe two colonels inparticular. Yossarian realizes itis ahideous deal and afrank betrayal ofthe men inhis squadron, who will still have tofly the eighty missions, but heconvinces himself totake the deal anyway, and isfilled with joy atthe prospect ofgoing home. Onhis way out ofColonel Cathcart «p.s office, Nately «p.s whore appears, disguised asaprivate, and stabs him until hefalls unconscious.

Inthe hospital, agroup ofdoctors argues over Yossarian while the fat, angry colonel who interrogated the chaplain interrogates him. Finally the doctors knock him out and operate onhim; when heawakes, hedimly perceives visits from Aarfy and the chaplain. Hetells the chaplain about his deal with Cathcart and Korn, then assures him that heisn «tgoing todoit. Hevaguely remembers amalignant, almost supernatural man jeering athim «We «vegot your pal «shortly after his operation,. Hethen and hetells the chaplain that his «pal «must have been one ofhis friends who was killed inthe war. Herealizes that his only friend still living isHungry Joe, and but then the chaplain tells him that Hungry Joe has died—in his sleep, with Huple «p.s cat onhis face. Later, Yossarian wakes uptofind amean-looking man inahospital gown leering saying «We «vegot your pal. «Heasks who his pal is, and the man tells Yossarian that he«llfind out. Yossarian lunges for him, but the man glides away and vanishes. Heflashes back tothe scene ofSnowden «p.s death, which herelives inall its agony— Snowden smiling athim wanly, whimpering «I «mcold, «Yossarian reassuring him and trying tomend the wound until heopens upSnowden «p.s flak suit and Snowden «p.s insides spill out all over him. Hethen —and remembers the secret hehad read inthose entrails: «The spirit gone, man isgarbage. «man ismatter, and without the spirit hewill rot like garbage.

Inthe hospital, Yossarian tries toexplain toMajor Danby why hecan nolonger gothrough with the deal with Cathcart and Korn: hewon «tsell himself soshort, and hewon «tbetray the memory ofhis dead friends. Hetells Danby heplans torun away, but Danby tells him there isnohope, and heagrees. Suddenly the chaplain bursts inwith the news that Orr has washed ashore inSweden. Yossarian realizes that Orr must have planned his escape all along, and joyfully decides there ishope after all. Hehas the chaplain retrieve his uniform, and decides todesert the army and run toSweden, where hecan save himself from the madness ofthe war. Ashesteps outside, Nately «p.s whore tries tostab him again, and heruns into the distance.


Yossarian— The protagonist and hero ofthe novel. Yossarian isacaptain inthe Air Force and alead bombardier inhis squadron, but hehates the war. His powerful desire tolive has led him tothe conclusion that millions ofpeople are trying tokill him, and hehas decided either tolive forever or, ironically, die trying.

Milo Minderbinder— The fantastically powerful mess officer, Milo controls aninternational black market syndicate and isrevered inobscure corners all over the world. Heruthlessly chases after profit and bombs his own men aspart ofacontract with Germany. Milo insists that everyone inthe squadron will benefit from being part ofthe syndicate, and that «everyone has ashare. «.

Colonel Cathcart— The ambitious, unintelligent colonel incharge ofYossarian «p.s squadron. Colonel Cathcart wants tobe ageneral, and hetries toimpress his superiors bybravely volunteering his men for dangerous combat duty whenever hegets the chance. Hecontinually raises the number ofcombat missions required ofthe men before they can besent home. Colonel Cathcart tries toscheme his way ahead; hethinks ofsuccessful actions as«feathers inhis cap «and unsuccessful ones as«black eyes. «.

The Chaplain— The timid, thoughtful chaplain who becomes Yossarian «p.s friend. Heishaunted byasensation ofdeja vuand begins tolose his faith inGod asthe novel progresses.

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Hungry Joe— Anunhinged member ofYossarian «p.s squadron. Hungry Joe isobsessed with naked women, and hehas horrible nightmares onnights when heisn «tscheduled tofly acombat mission the next morning.

Nately— Agood-natured nineteen year-old boy inYossarian «p.s squadron. Nately comes from awealthy home, falls inlove with awhore, and generally tries tokeep Yossarian from getting into trouble.

Nately «p.s whore— The beautiful whore Nately falls inlove with inRome. After agood night «p.s sleep, she falls inlove with Nately aswell. When Yossarian tells her about Nately «p.s death, she begins apersistent campaign toambush Yossarian and stab him todeath.

Clevinger— Anidealistic member ofYossarian «p.s squadron who argues with Yossarian about concepts such ascountry, loyalty, and duty, inwhich Clevinger firmly believes. Clevinger «p.s plane disappears inside acloud during the Parma bomb run, and heisnever heard from again.

Doc Daneeka— The medical officer. Doc Daneeka feels very sorry for himself because the war interrupted his lucrative private practice inthe States, and herefuses tolisten toother people «p.s problems. Doc Daneeka isthe first person toexplain Catch-22 toYossarian.

Dobbs— Aco-pilot, Dobbs seizes the controls from Huple during the mission toAvignon, the same mission onwhich Snowden dies. Dobbs later develops aplan tomurder Colonel Cathcart, and eventually awaits only Yossarian «p.s go-ahead toput itinaction.

McWatt— Acheerful, polite pilot who often pilots Yossarian «p.s planes. McWatt likes tojoke around with Yossarian, and sometimes buzzes the squadron. One day heaccidentally flies intoo low, and slices Kid Sampson inhalf with his propellor; hethen commits suicide byflying his plane into amountain.

Major— The supremely mediocre squadron commander. Born Major Major Major, heispromoted tomajor onhis first day inthe army byamischievous computer. Major Major ispainfully awkward, and will only see people inhis office when heisn «tthere.

Aarfy— Yossarian «p.s navigator. Aarfy infuriates Yossarian bypretending hecannot hear Yossarian «p.s orders during bomb runs. Toward the end ofthe novel, Aarfy stuns Yossarian when herapes and murders the maid ofthe officers «apartments inRome.

Orr— Yossarian «p.s often maddening roommate. Orr almost always crashes his plane orisShot down oncombat missions, but healways seems tosurvive.

Appleby— Ahandsome, athletic member ofthe squadron and asuperhuman ping-pong player. Orr enigmatically says that Appleby has flies inhis eyes.

Captain Black— The squadron «p.s bitter intelligence officer. Hewants nothing more than tobesquadron commander. Captain Black exults inthe men «p.s discomfort and does everything hecan increase it; when Nately falls inlove with awhore inRome, Captain Black begins tobuy her services regularly just totaunt him.

Colonel Korn— Colonel Cathcart «p.s wily, cynical sidekick.

Major deCoverley— The fierce, intense executive officer for the squadron. Major ——- deCoverley isrevered and feared bythe men—they are even afraid toask his first name— though all hedoes isplay horseshoes and rent apartments for the officers incities taken byAmerican forces. When Yossarian moves the bomb line onamap tomake itappear that Bologna has been captured, Major ——- deCoverely disappears inBologna trying torent anofficers «apartment.

Major Danby— The timid operations officer. Before the war, hewas acollege professor; now, hedoes his best for his country. Inthe end, hehelps Yossarian escape.

General Dreedle— The grumpy old general incharge ofthe wing inwhich Yossarian «p.s squadron isplaced. General Dreedle isthe victim ofaprivate war waged against him bythe ambitious General Peckem.

Nurse Duckett— Anurse inthe Pianosa hospital who becomes Yossarian «p.s lover.

Dunbar— Yossarian «p.s friend, the only other person who seems tounderstand that there isawar goingon. Dunbar has decided tolive aslong aspossible bymaking time pass asslowly aspossible, sohetreasures boredom and discomfort. Heismysteriously «disappeared «aspart ofaconspiracy toward the end ofthe novel.

Chief White Halfoat— Analcoholic Indian from Oklahoma who has decided todie ofpneumonia.

Havermeyer— Afearless lead bombardier. Havermeyer never takes evasive action, and heenjoys shooting field mice atnight.

Huple— Afifteen year-old pilot; the pilot onthe mission toAvignon onwhich Snowden iskilled. Huple isHungry Joe «p.s roommate, and his cat likes tosleep onHungry Joe «p.s face.

Washington Irving— Afamous American author whose name Yossarian signs toletters during one ofhis many stays inthe hospital. Eventually, military intelligence believes Washington Irving tobethe name ofacovert insubordinate, and two C.I.D. (Criminal Investigation Division) men are dispatched toferret him out ofthe squadron.

Luciana— Abeautiful girl Yossarian meets, sleeps with, and falls inlove with during abrief period inRome.

Mudd— Generally referred toas«the dead man inYossarian «p.s tent, «Mudd was asquadron member who was killed inaction before hecould beprocessed asanofficial member ofthe squadron. Asaresult, heislisted asnever having arrived, and noone has the authority tomove his belongings out ofYossarian «p.s tent.

Lieutenant Scheisskopf— Later Colonel Scheisskopf and eventually General Scheisskopf. Hehelps train Yossarian «p.s squadron inAmerica and shows anunsettling passion for elaborate military parades. («Scheisskopf «isGerman for «shithead. »).

The Soldier inWhite— Abody completely covered with bandages inYossarian and Dunbar «p.s ward inthe Pianosa hospital.

Snowden— The young gunner whose death over Avignon shattered Yossarian «p.s courage and opened his eyes tothe madness ofthe war. Snowden died inYossarian «p.s arms with his entrails splattered all over Yossarian «p.s uniform, atrauma which isgradually revealed throughout the novel.

Corporal Whitcomb— Later Sergeant Whitcomb, the chaplain «p.s atheist assistant. Corporal Whitcomb hates the chaplain for holding back his career, and makes the chaplain asuspect inthe Washington Irving scandal. ex-P.F.C. Wintergreen— The mail clerk atthe Twenty-Seventh Air Force Headquarters, Wintergreen isable tointercept and forge documents, and thus wields enormous power inthe Air Force. Hecontinually goes AWOL (Absent Without Leave), and iscontinually punished with loss ofrank.

General Peckem— The ambitious special operations general who plots incessantly totake over General Dreedle «p.s position.

Kid Sampson— Apilot inthe squadron. Kid Sampson issliced inhalf byMcWatt «p.s propeller when McWatt jokingly buzzes the beach with his plane.

Lieutenant Colonel Korn— Colonel Cathcart «p.s wily, condescending sidekick.

Colonel Moodus— General Dreedle «p.s son-in-law. General Dreedle despises Colonel Moodus, and enjoys watching Chief White Halfoat bust him inthe nose.

Flume— Chief White Halfoat «p.s old roommate who issoafraid ofhaving his throat slit while hesleeps that hehas taken toliving inthe forest.

Dori Duz— Afriend ofScheisskopf «p.s wife. Together, they sleep with all the men training under him while heisstationed inthe U.S.

The Catcher inthe Rye.

Chapter One: The Catcher inthe Rye begins with the statement bythe narrator, Holden Caulfield, that hewill not tell about his «lousy «childhood and «all that David Copperfield kind ofcrap «because such details bore him. Hedescribes his parents asnice, but «touchy ashell. «Instead, Holden vows totell about what happened tohim around last Christmas, before hehad totake iteasy. Healso mentions his brother, D.B., who isnearby inHollywood «being aprostitute. «Holden was astudent atPencey Prep inAgerstown, Pennsylvania, and hemocks their advertisements, which claim tohave been molding boys into clear-thinking young men since 1888. Holden begins his story during the Saturday ofthe football game with Saxon Hall, which was supposed tobe avery big deal atPencey. Selma Thurmer, the daughter ofthe headmaster, isatthe game. Although she isunattractive and abit pathetic, toHolden she seems nice enough, for she does not lavish praise upon her father. Holden, the manager ofthe fencing team, had just returned from New York with the team. Although they were supposed tohave ameet with the McBurney School, Holden left the foils onthe subway. The fencing team was angry atHolden, but hethought the entire event was funny inaway. Holden does not attend the football game, instead choosing tosay goodbye toSpencer, his history teacher, who knew that Holden was not coming back toPencey. Holden had recently been expelled for failing four classes. Chapter Two: Holden finds the Spencer «p.s house somewhat depressing, smelling ofVicks Nose Drops and clearly indicating the old age ofits inhabitants. Mr. Spencer sits inaratty old bathrobe, and asks Holden tosit down. Holden tells him how Dr. Thurmer told him about how «life isagame «and you should «play itaccording tothe rules «when heexpelled him. Mr. Spencer tells him that Dr. Thurmer was correct, and Holden agrees with him, but thinks instead that life isonly agame ifyou are onthe right side. Holden tells Mr. Spencer that his parents will beupset, for this ishis fourth private school sofar. Holden tells that, atsixteen, heisover six feet tall and has some gray hair, but still acts like achild, asothers often tell him. Spencer says that hemet with Holden «p.s parents, who are «grand «people, but Holden dismisses that word as«phony. «Spencer then tells Holden that hefailed him inHistory because heknew nothing, and even reads his exam essay about the Egyptians tohim. Atthe end ofthe exam, Holden left anote for Mr. Spencer, admitting that heisnot interested inthe Egyptians, despite Spencer «p.s interesting lectures, and that hewill accept ifMr. Spencer fails him. AsHolden and Mr. Spencer continue totalk, Holden «p.s mind wanders; hethinks about ice skating inCentral Park. When Mr. Spencer asks why Holden quit Elkton Hills, hetells Mr. Spencer that itis along story, but explains innarration that the people there were phonies. Hementions the particular quality ofthe headmaster, Mr. Haas, who would becharming toward everyone but the «funnylooking parents. «Holden claims hehas little interest inthe future, and assures Mr. Spencer that heisjust going through aphase. AsHolden leaves, hehears Mr. Spencer say «good luck, «aphrase that heparticularly loathes. Chapter Three: Holden claims that heisthe most terrific liar one could meet. Headmits that helied toSpencer bytelling him that hehad togoto the gym. AtPencey, Holden lives inthe Ossenburger Memorial Wing ofthe new dorms. Ossenburger isawealthy undertaker who graduated from the school; Holden tells how false Ossenburger seemed when hegave aspeech exalting faith inJesus and how another student farted during the ceremony. Holden returns tohis room, where heputs onared hunting hat they hebought inNew York. Holden discusses the books that helikes toread: heprefers Ring Lardner, but isnow reading Dinesen «p.s Out ofAfrica. Ackley, astudent whose room isconnected toHolden «p.s, barges inonHolden. Holden describes Ackley ashaving aterrible personality and aneven worse complexion. Holden tries toignore him, then pretends that heisblind toannoy Ackley. Ackley cuts his nails right infront ofHolden, and asks about Ward Stradlater, Holden «p.s roommate. Ackley claims that hehates Stradlater, that «goddamn sonuvabitch, «but Holden tells Ackley that hehates Stradlater for the simple reason that Stradlater told him that heshould actually brush his teeth. Holden defends Stradlater, claiming that heisconceited, but still generous. Stradlater arrives, and isfriendly toHolden (inaphony sort ofway), and asks toborrow ajacket from Holden. Stradlater walks around shirtless toshow off his build. Chapter Four: Since hehas nothing else todo, Holden goes down tothe bathroom tochat with Stradlater asheshaves. Stradlater, incomparison toAckley, is a«secret «slob, who would always shave with arusty razor that hewould never clean. Stradlater is a«Yearbook «kind ofhandsome guy. Heasks Holden towrite acomposition for him for English. Holden realizes the irony that heisflunking out ofPencey, yet isstill asked todowork for others. Stradlater insists, however, that Holden not write ittoo well, for Hartzell knows that Holden isahot-shot inEnglish. Onanimpulse, Holden gives Stradlater ahalf nelson, which greatly annoys Stradlater. Stradlater talks about his date that night with Jane Gallagher. Although hecannot even get her name correct, Holden knows her well, for she lived next door tohim several summers ago and they would play checkers together. Stradlater barely listens ashefixes his hair with Holden «p.s gel. Holden asks Stradlater not totell Jane that hegot kicked out. Hethen borrows Holden «p.s hound «s-tooth jacket and leaves. Ackley returns, and Holden isactually glad tosee him, for hetakes his mind off ofother matters. Chapter Five: OnSaturday nights atPencey the students are served steak; Holden believes this occurs because parents visit onSunday and students can thus tell them that they had steak for dinner the previous night, asifit were acommon occurrence. Holden goes with Ackley and Mal Brossard into New York City tosee amovie, but since Ackley and Brossard had both seen that particular Cary Grant comedy, they play pinball and get hamburgers instead. When they return, Ackley remains inHolden «p.s room, telling about agirl hehad sex with, but Holden knows that heislying, for whenever hetells that same story, the details always change. Holden tells him toleave sothat hecan write Stradlater «p.s composition. Hewrites about his brother Allie «p.s baseball mitt. Allie, born two years after Holden, died ofleukemia in1946. The night that Allie died, Holden broke all ofthe windows inhis garage with his fist. Chapter Six: Stradlater returned late that night, thanked Holden for the jacket and asked ifhedid the composition for him. When Stradlater reads it, hegets upset atHolden, for itissimply about abaseball glove. Since Stradlater isupset, Holden tears upthe composition. Holden starts smoking, just toannoy Stradlater. Holden asks about the date, but Stradlater doesn «tgive very much information, only that they spent most ofthe time inEdBanky «p.s car. Finally heasks ifStradlater «gave her the time «there. Stradlater says that the answer is a«professional secret, «and Holden responds bytrying topunch Stradlater. Stradlater pushes him down and sits with his knees onHolden «p.s chest. Heonly lets Holden gowhen heagrees tosay nothing more about Stradlater «p.s date. When hecalls Stradlater amoron, heknocks Holden out. Holden then goes tothe bathroom towash the blood off his face. Even though heclaims tobe apacifist, Holden enjoys the look ofblood onhis face. Chapter Seven: Ackley, who was awakened bythe fight, comes inHolden «p.s room toask what happened. Hetells Holden that heisstill bleeding and should put something onhis wounds. Holden asks ifhecan sleep inAckley «p.s room that night, since his roommate isaway for the weekend, but Ackley says that hecan «tgive him permission. Holden feels solonesome that hewishes hewere dead. Holden worries that Stradlater had sex with Jane during their date, because heknew that Stradlater was capable ofseducing girls quickly. Holden asks Ackley whether ornot one has tobeCatholic tojoin amonastery. Hethen decides toleave Pencey immediately. Hedecides totake aroom inahotel inNew York and take iteasy until Wednesday. Hepacks ice skates that his mother had just sent him. The skates make him sad, because they are not the kind that hewanted. According toHolden, his mother has away ofmaking him sad whenever hereceives apresent. Holden wakes upWoodruff, awealthy student, and sells him his typewriter for twenty bucks. Before heleaves, heyells «Sleep tight, yamorons. «Chapter Eight: Since itistoo late tocall acab, Holden walks tothe train station. Onthe train, awoman gets onatTrenton and sits right beside him, even though the train isnearly empty. She strikes upaconversation with him, noticing the Pencey sticker onhis suitcase, and says that her son, Ernest Morrow, goes toPencey aswell. Holden remembers him as«the biggest bastard that ever went toPencey. «Holden tells her that his name isRudolf Schmidt, the name ofthe Pencey janitor. Holden lies toMrs. Morrow, pretending that helikes Pencey and that heisgood friends with Ernest. She thinks that her son is Њsensitive, «anidea that Holden finds laughable, but Holden continues totell lies about Ernest, such asthat hewould have been elected class president, but hewas too modest toaccept the nomination. Holden asks ifshe would like tojoin him for acocktail inthe club car. Finally, hetells her that heisleaving Pencey early because hehas tohave anoperation; heclaims hehas atumor onhis brain. When she invites Holden tovisit during the summer, hesays that hewill bespending the summer inSouth America with his grandmother. Chapter Nine: When Holden reaches New York, hedoes not know whom tocall. Heconsiders calling his kid sister, Phoebe, but she would beasleep and his parents would overhear. Healso considers calling Jane Gallagher orSally Hayes, another friend, but finally does not call anybody. Hegets into acab and absentmindedly gives the driver his home address, but soon realizes that hedoes not want toget home. Hegoes tothe Edmond Hotel instead, where hestays inashabby room. Helooks out ofthe window and could see the other side ofthe hotel. From this view hecan see other rooms; inone ofthem, aman takes off his clothes and puts onladies «clothing, while inanother aman and awoman spit their drinks atone another. Holden thinks that he«p.s the «biggest sex maniac you ever saw, «but then claims that hedoes not understand sex atall. Hethen thinks ofcalling Jane Gallagher but again decides against it, and instead considers calling awoman named Faith Cavendish, who was formerly aburlesque stripper and isnot quite aprostitute. When hecalls her, hecontinues toask whether ornot they could get adrink together, but she turns him down atevery opportunity. Chapter Ten: Holden describes more about his family inthis chapter. His sister Phoebe isthe smartest little kid that hehas ever met, and Holden himself isthe only dumb one. Phoebe reminds Holden ofAllie inphysical appearance, but she isvery emotional. She writes books about Hazle Weatherfield, agirl detective. Holden goes down tothe Lavender Room, anightclub inthe hotel. The band there isputrid and the people are mostly old. When heattempts toorder adrink, the waiter asks for identification, but since hedoes not have proof ofhis age, hebegs the waiter toput rum inhis Coke. Holden «gives the eye «tothree women atanother table, inparticular ablonde one. Heasks the blonde one toDance, and Holden judges her tobean excellent dancer, but amoron. Holden isoffended when the woman, Bernice Krebs, asks his age and when heuses profanity infront ofher. Hetells these women, who are visiting from Seattle, that his name isJim Steele. Since they keep mentioning how they saw Peter Lorre that day, Holden claims that hejust saw Gary Cooper, who just left the Lavender Room. Holden thinks that the women are sad for wanting togoto the first show atRadio City Music Hall. Chapter Eleven: Upon leaving the Lavender Room, Holden begins tothink ofJane Gallagher and worries that Stradlater seduced her. Holden met Jane when his mother became irritated that the Gallagher «p.s Doberman pinscher relieved itself ontheir lawn. Several days later, heintroduced himself toher, but ittook some time before hecould convince her that hedidn «tcare what their dog did. Holden reminisces about Jane «p.s smile, and admits that she isthe only person whom heshowed Allie «p.s baseball mitt. The one time that heand Jane did anything sexual together was after she had afight with Mr. Cudahy, her father-in-law. Holden suspected that hehad tried to«get wise with «Jane. Holden decides togoto Ernie «p.s, anightclub inGreenwich village that D.B. used tofrequent before hewent toHollywood. Chapter Twelve: Inthe cab toErnie «p.s, Holden chats with Horwitz, the cab driver. Heasks what happens tothe ducks inCentral Park during the winter, but the two get into anargument when Horwitz thinks that Holden «p.s questions are stupid. Ernie «p.s isfilled with prep school and college jerks, asHolden calls them. Holden notices aJoe Yale-looking guy with abeautiful girl; heistelling the girl how aguy inhis dorm nearly committed suicide. Aformer girlfriend ofHolden «p.s brother, D.B., recognizes him. The girl, Lillian Simmons, asks about D.B. and introduces Holden toaNavy commander she isdating. Holden notices how she blocks the aisle inthe place asshe drones onabout how handsome Holden has become. Rather than spend time with Lillian Simmons, Holden leaves. Chapter Thirteen: Holden walks back tohis hotel, although itisforty-one blocks away. Heconsiders how hewould confront aperson who had stolen his gloves. Although hewould not dosoaggressively, hewishes that hecould threaten the person who stole them. Holden finally concludes that hewould yell atthe thief but not have the courage tohit him. Holden reminisces about drinking with Raymond Goldfarb atWhooton. While back atthe hotel, Maurice the elevator man asks Holden ifheis interested inalittle tail tonight. Heoffers aprostitute for five dollars. When she arrives, she does not believe that heistwenty-two, asheclaims. Holden finally tells the prostitute, Sunny, that hejust had anoperation onhis clavichord, asanexcuse not tohave sex. She isangry, but hestill pays her, even though they argue over the price. Hegives her five dollars, although she demands ten. Chapter Fourteen: After the prostitute leaves, Holden sits inachair and talks aloud tohis brother Allie, which heoften does whenever heisdepressed. Finally hegets inbed and feels like praying, although heis«sort ofanatheist. «Heclaims that helikes Jesus, but the Disciples annoy him. Other than Jesus, the Biblical character helikes best isthe lunatic who lived inthe tombs and cut himself with stones. Holden tells that his parents disagree onreligion and none ofhis siblings attend church. Maurice and Sunny knock onthe door, demanding more money. Holden argues with Maurice and threatens tocall the cops, but Maurice says that his parents would find out that hespent the night with awhore. AsHolden starts tocry, Sunny takes the money from his wallet. Maurice punches him inthe stomach before leaving. After Maurice isgone, Holden imagines that hehad taken abullet and would shoot Maurice inthe stomach. Holden feels like committing suicide byjumping out the window, but hewouldn «twant people looking athis gory body onthe sidewalk. Chapter Fifteen: Holden calls Sally Hayes, who goes tothe Mary A. Woodruff School. According toHolden, Sally seems quite intelligent because she knows agood deal about the theater and literature, but isactually quite stupid. Hemakes adate tomeet Sally for amatinee, but she continues tochat with Holden onthe phone despite his lack ofinterest. Holden tells that his father isawealthy corporation attorney and his mother has not been healthy since Allie died. AtGrand Central Station, where Holden checks inhis bags after leaving the hotel, hesees two nuns with cheap suitcases. Holden reminisces about his roommate atElkton Hills, Dick Slagle who had cheap suitcases and would complain about how everything was bourgeois. Hechats with the nuns and gives them adonation. Hewonders what nuns think about sex when hediscusses Romeo and Ju-liet with them. Chapter Sixteen: Before meeting Sally Hayes, Holden goes tofind arecord called «Little Shirley Beans «for Phoebe byEstelle Fletcher. Ashewalks through the city, hehears apoor kid playing with his parents, singing the song «Ifabody catch abody coming through the rye. «Hearing the song makes Holden feel less depressed. Holden buys tickets for IKnow MyLove, aplay starring the Lunts. Heknew that Sally would enjoy it, for itwas supposed tobevery sophisticated. Holden goes tothe Mall, where Phoebe usually plays when she isinthe park, and sees acouple ofkids playing there. Heasks ifany ofthem know Phoebe. They do, and claim that she isprobably inthe Museum ofNatural History. Hereminisces about going tothe Museum when hewas ingrade school. Heremembers how hewould gothere often with his class, but while the exhibits would beexactly the same, hewould bedifferent each time. Holden considers going tothe museum tosee Phoebe, but instead goes tothe Biltmore for his date with Sally. Chapter Seventeen: Holden meets Sally atthe Biltmore, and when hesees her heimmediately feels like marrying her, even though hedoesn «tparticularly like her. After the play, when Sally keeps mentioning that she thinks she knows people she sees, Holden replies «Why don «tyou goonover and give him abig soul kiss, ifyou know him? He «llenjoy it. «Finally, Sally does gototalk tothe boy she knows, George from Andover. Holden notes how phony the conversation between Sally and Georgeis. Holden and Sally goice skating atRadio City, then toeat. Sally asks Holden ifheis coming over tohelp her trim the Christmas tree. Holden asks her ifshe ever gets fedup. Hetells her that hehates everything: taxicabs, living inNew York, phony guys who call the Lunts angels. Sally tells him not toshout. Hetells her that she isthe only reason that heisin New York right now. Ifnot for her, hewould beinthe woods, heclaims. Hecomplains about the cliques atboarding schools, and tells her that he«p.s inlousy shape. Hesuggests that they borrow acar from afriend inGreenwich Village and drive uptoNew England where they can stay inacabin camp until their money runs out. They could get married and live inthe woods. Sally tells him that the idea isfoolish, for they are both practically children who would starve todeath. She tells him that they will have alot oftime todothose things after college and marriage, but heclaims that there wouldn «tbe«oodles «ofplaces togo, for itwould beentirely different. Hecalls her a«royal pain inthe ass, «and she starts tocry. Holden feels somewhat guilty, and realizes that hedoesn «teven know where hegot the idea about going toNew England. Chapter Eighteen: Holden once again considers giving Jane acall toinvite her togodancing. Heremembers how she danced with AlPike from Choate. Although Holden thought that hewas «all muscles and nobrains, «Jane claimed that hehad aninferiority complex and felt sorry for him. Holden thinks that girls divide guys into two types, nomatter what their personality: agirl will justify bad behavior aspart ofaninferiority complex for those she likes, while claim those that she doesn «tlike are conceited. Holden calls Carl Luce, afriend from the Whooton School who goes toColumbia, and plans tomeet him that night. Hethen goes tothe movies and isannoyed when awoman beside him becomes too emotional. The movie isawar film, which makes Holden think about D.B. «p.s experience inthe war. Hehated the army, but had Holden read AFarewell toArms, which inHolden «p.s view celebrates soldiers. Holden thinks that ifthere isawar, heisglad that the atomic bomb has been invented, for hewould volunteer tosit right ontop ofit. Chapter Nineteen: Holden meets Carl Luce atthe Wicker Bar. Carl Luce used togossip about people who were «flits «(homosexuals) and would tell which actors were actually gay. Holden claims that Carl was abit «flitty «himself. When Carl arrives, heasks Holden when heisgoing togrow up, and isnot amused byHolden «p.s jokes. Carl isannoyed that heishaving a«typical Caulfield conversation «about sex. Carl admits that heisseeing anolder woman inthe Village who isasculptress from China. Holden asks questions that are too personal about Carl «p.s sex life with his girlfriend until Carl insists that hedrop the subject. Carl reminds him that the last time hesaw Holden hetold him tosee his father, apsychiatrist. Chapter Twenty: Holden remains inthe Wicker Bar getting drunk. Hecontinues topretend that hehas been Shot. Finally, hecalls Sally, but her grandmother answers and asks why heiscalling solate. Finally, Sally gets onthe phone and realizes that Holden isdrunk. Inthe restroom ofthe Wicker Bar, hetalks tothe «flitty-looking «guy, asking ifhewill see the «Valencia babe «who performs there, but hetells Holden togohome. Holden finally leaves. Ashewalks home, Holden drops Phoebe «p.s record and nearly starts tocry. Hegoes toCentral Park and sits down onabench. Hethinks that hewill get pneumonia and imagines his funeral. Heisreassured that his parents won «tlet Phoebe come tohis funeral because heistoo young. Hethinks about what Phoebe would feel ifhegot pneumonia and died, and figures that heshould sneak home and see her, incase hedid die. Chapter Twenty-One: Holden returns home, where heisvery quiet asnot toawake his parents. Phoebe isasleep in D.B. «p.s room. Hesits down at D.B. «p.s desk and looks atPhoebe «p.s stuff, such asher math book, where she has the name «Phoebe Weatherfield Caulfield «written onthe first page (her middle name isactually Josephine). Hewakes upPhoebe and hugs her. She tells about how she isplaying Benedict Arnold inher school play. She tells about how she saw amovie called The Doctor, and how their parents are out for the night. Holden shows Phoebe the broken record, and admits that hegot kicked out. She tells him that «Daddy «p.s going tokill you, «but Holden says that heisgoing away toaranch inColorado. Phoebe places apillow over her head and refuses totalk toHolden. Chapter Twenty-Two: Phoebe tells Holden that she thinks his scheme togoout toColorado isfoolish, and asks why hefailed out ofyet another school. Heclaims that Pencey isfull ofphonies. Hetells her about how everyone excluded Robert Ackley asasign ofhow phony the students are. Holden admits that there were acouple ofnice teachers, including Mr. Spencer, but then complains about the Veterans «Day ceremonies. Phoebe tells Holden that hedoesn «tlike anything that happens. She asks Holden for one thing that helikes alot. Hethinks oftwo things. The first isthe nuns atGrand Central. The second isaboy atElkton Hills named James Castle, who had afight with aconceited guy named Phil Stabile. Hethreatened James, who responded byjumping out the window, killing himself. However, hetells Phoebe that helikes Allie, and helikes talking toPhoebe right now. Holden tells Phoebe that hewould like tobe acatcher inthe rye: hepictures alot ofchildren playing inabig field ofrye around the edge ofacliff. Holden imagines that hewould catch them ifthey started togoover the cliff. Holden decides tocall upMr. Antolini, aformer teacher atElkton Hills who now teaches English atNYU. Chapter Twenty-Three: Holden tells that Mr. Antolini was his English teacher atElkton Hills and was the person who carried James Castle tothe infirmary. Holden and Phoebe Dance tothe radio, but their parents come home and Holden hides inthe closet. When hebelieves that itissafe, Holden asks Phoebe for money and she gives him eight dollars and change. Hestarts tocry asheprepares toleave, which frightens Phoebe. Hegives Phoebe his hunting hat and tells her that hewill give her acall. Chapter Twenty-Four: Mr. Antolini had married anolder woman who shared similar intellectual interests. When hearrives athis apartment, Holden finds Mr. Antolini inabathrobe and slippers, drinking ahighball. Holden and Mr. Antolini discuss Pencey, and Holden tells how hefailed Oral Expression (debate). Hetells Holden how hehad lunch with his father, who told him that Holden was cutting classes and generally unprepared. Hewarns Holden that heisriding for some kind ofterrible fall. Hesays that itmay bethe kind where, atthe age ofthirty, hesits insome bar hating everyone who comes inlooking asifhe played football incollege orhating people who use improper grammar. Hetells Holden that the fall that heisriding for isaspecial and horrible kind, and that hecan see Holden dying nobly for some highly unworthy cause. Hegives Holden aquote from the psychoanalyst Wilhelm Stekel: «The mark ofthe immature man isthat hewants todie nobly for acause, while the mark ofthe mature man isthat hewants tolive humbly for one. «Hefinally tells Holden that once hegets past the things that annoy him, hewill beable tofind the kind ofinformation that will bedear tohis heart. Holden goes tosleep, and wakes uptofind Mr. Antolini «p.s hand onhis head. Hetells Holden that heis«simply sitting here, admiring‹ «but Holden interrupts him, gets dressed and leaves, claiming that hehas toget his bags from Grand Central Station and hewill beback soon. Chapter Twenty-Five: When Holden gets outside, itisgetting light out. Hewalks over toLexington totake the subway toGrand Central, where heslept that night. Hethinks about how Mr. Antolini will explain Holden «p.s departure tohis wife. Holden feels some regret that hedidn «tcome back tothe Antolini «p.s apartment. Holden starts reading amagazine atGrand Central; when hereads anarticle about hormones, hebegins toworry about hormones, and worries about cancer when hereads about cancer. AsHolden walks down Fifth Avenue, hefeels that hewill not get tothe other side ofthe street each time hecomes tothe end ofablock. Hefeels that hewould just godown. Hemakes believe that heiswith Allie every time hereaches acurb. Holden decides that hewill goaway, never gohome again and never gotoanother prep school. Hethinks hewill pretend tobe adeaf-mute sothat hewon «thave todeal with stupid conversations. Holden goes toPhoebe «p.s school tofind her and say goodbye. Atthe school hesees «fuck you «written onthe wall, and becomes enraged ashetries toscratch itoff. Hewrites her anote asking her tomeet him near the Museum ofArt sothat hecan return her money. While waiting for Phoebe atthe Museum, Holden chats with two brothers who talk about mummies. Hesees another «fuck you «written onthe wall, and isconvinced that someone will write that below the name onhis tombstone. Holden, suffering from diarrhea, goes tothe bathroom, and asheexits the bathroom hepasses out. When heregains consciousness, hefeels better. Phoebe arrives, wearing Holden «p.s hunting hat and dragging Holden «p.s old suitcase. She tells him that she wants tocome with him. She begs, but herefuses and causes her tostart crying. She throws the red hunting hat back atHolden and starts towalk away. She follows Holden tothe zoo, but refuses totalk tohim orget near him. Hebuys Phoebe aticket for the carousel there, and watches her goaround onitas«Smoke Gets inYour Eyes «plays. Afterwards, she takes back the red hunting hat and goes back onthe carousel. Asitstarts torain, Holden cries while watching Phoebe. Chapter Twenty-Six: Holden ends his story there. Herefuses totell what happened after hewent home and how hegot sick. Hesays that people are concerned about whether hewill apply himself next year. Hetells that D.B. visits often, and heoften misses Stradlater, Ackley, and even Maurice. However, headvises not totell anybody anything, because itisthis that causes aperson tostart missing others.



The first son ofClarence Edmonds Hemingway, adoctor, and Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest Miller Hemingway was born inasuburb ofChicago. Hewas educated inthe public schools and began towrite inhigh school, where hewas active and outstanding, but the parts ofhis boyhood that mattered most were summers spent with his family onWalloon Lake inupper Michigan. Ongraduation from high school in1917, impatient for aless sheltered environment, hedid not enter college but went toKansas City, where hewas employed asareporter for the Star. Hewas repeatedly rejected for military service because ofadefective eye, but hemanaged toenter World War Iasan ambulance driver for the American Red Cross. OnJuly 8, 1918, not yet 19 years old, hewas injured onthe Austro-Italian front atFossalta diPiave. Decorated for heroism and hospitalized inMilan, hefell inlove with aRed Cross nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky, who declined tomarry him. These were experiences hewas never toforget.

After recuperating athome, Hemingway renewed his efforts atwriting, for awhile worked atodd jobs inChicago, and sailed for France asaforeign correspondent for the Toronto Star. Advised and encouraged byother American writers inParis—F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound— hebegan tosee his nonjournalistic work appear inprint there, and in1923 his first important book, acollection ofstories called InOur Time, was published inNew York City. In1926 hepublished The Sun Also Rises, anovel with which hescored his first solid success. Apessimistic but sparkling book, itdeals with agroup ofaimless expatriates inFrance and Spain—members ofthe postwar «lost generation, «aphrase that Hemingway scorned while making itfamous. This work also introduced him tothe limelight, which heboth craved and resented for the rest ofhis life. Hemingway «p.s The Torrents ofSpring, aparody ofthe American writer Sherwood Anderson «p.s book Dark Laughter, also appeared in1926. The writing ofbooks occupied him for most ofthe postwar years. Heremained based inParis, but hetraveled widely for the skiing, bullfighting, fishing, orhunting that bythen had become part ofhis life and formed the background for much ofhis writing. His position asamaster ofshort fiction had been advanced byMen Without Women in1927 and thoroughly established with the stories inWinner Take Nothing in1933.

Among his finest stories are «The Killers, «» The Short Happy Life ofFrancis Macomber, «and «The Snows ofKilimanjaro. «Atleast inthe public view, however, the novel AFarewell toArms (1929) overshadowed such works. Reaching back tohis experience asayoung soldier inItaly, Hemingway developed agrim but lyrical novel ofgreat power, fusing love story with war story. While serving with the Italian ambulance service during World War I, the American lieutenant Frederic Henry falls inlove with the English nurse Catherine Barkley, who tends him during his recuperation after being wounded. She becomes pregnant byhim, but hemust return tohis post. Henry deserts during the Italians «disastrous retreat after the Battle ofCaporetto, and the reunited couple flee Italy bycrossing the border into Switzerland. There, however, Catherine and her baby die during childbirth, leaving Henry desolate atthe loss ofthe great love ofhis life.

Hemingway «p.s love ofSpain and his passion for bullfighting resulted inDeath inthe Afternoon (1932), alearned study ofaspectacle hesaw more astragic ceremony than assport. Similarly, asafari hetook in1933;34 inthe big-game region ofTanganyika resulted inThe Green Hills ofAfrica (1935), anaccount ofbig-game hunting. Mostly for the fishing, hebought ahouse inKey West, Florida, and bought his own fishing boat. Aminor novel of1937 called ToHave and Have Not isabout aCaribbean desperado and isset against abackground oflower-class violence and upper-class decadence inKey West during the Great Depression. Bynow Spain was inthe midst ofcivil war. Still deeply attached tothat country, Hemingway made four trips there, once more acorrespondent. Heraised money for the Republicans intheir struggle against the Nationalists under General Francisco Franco, and hewrote aplay called The Fifth Column (1938), which isset inbesieged Madrid. Asinmany ofhis books, the protagonist ofthe play isbased onthe author. Following his last visit tothe Spanish war hepurchased Finca Vigia («Lookout Farm »), anunpretentious estate outside Havana, Cuba, and went tocover another war—the Japanese invasion ofChina.

The harvest ofHemingway «p.s considerable experience ofSpain inwar and peace was the novel For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), asubstantial and impressive work that some critics consider his finest novel, inpreference toAFarewell toArms. Itwas also the most successful ofall his books asmeasured insales. Set during the Spanish Civil War, ittells ofRobert Jordan, anAmerican volunteer who issent tojoin aguerrilla band behind the Nationalist lines inthe Guadarrama Mountains. Most ofthe novel concerns Jordan «p.s relations with the varied personalities ofthe band, including the girl Maria, with whom hefalls inlove. Through dialogue, flashbacks, and stories, Hemingway offers telling and vivid profiles ofthe Spanish character and unsparingly depicts the cruelty and inhumanity stirred upbythe civil war. Jordan «p.s mission istoblow upastrategic bridge near Segovia inorder toaid acoming Republican attack, which herealizes isdoomed tofail. Inanatmosphere ofimpending disaster, heblows upthe bridge but iswounded and makes his retreating comrades leave him behind, where heprepares alast-minute resistance tohis Nationalist pursuers. All ofhis life Hemingway was fascinated bywar—in AFarewell toArms hefocused onits pointlessness, inFor Whom the Bell Tolls onthe comradeship itcreates—and asWorld WarII progressed hemade his way toLondon asajournalist. Heflew several missions with the Royal Air Force and crossed the English Channel with American troops onD-Day (June 6, 1944).

Attaching himself tothe 22nd Regiment ofthe 4th Infantry Division, hesaw agood deal ofaction inNormandy and inthe Battle ofthe Bulge. Healso participated inthe liberation ofParis and, although ostensibly ajournalist, heimpressed professional soldiers not only asaman ofcourage inbattle but also asareal expert inmilitary matters, guerrilla activities, and intelligence collection. Following the war inEurope, Hemingway returned tohis home inCuba and began towork seriously again. Healso traveled widely, and onatrip toAfrica hewas injured inaplane crash. Soon after (in1953), hereceived the Pulitzer Prize infiction for The Old Man and the Sea (1952), ashort, heroic novel about anold Cuban fisherman who, after anextended struggle, hooks and boats agiant marlin only tohave iteaten byvoracious sharks during the long voyage home.

This book, which played arole ingaining for Hemingway the Nobel Prize for Literature in1954, was asenthusiastically praised ashis previous novel, Across the River and into the Trees (1950), the story ofaprofessional army officer who dies while onleave inVenice, had been damned. By1960 Fidel Castro «p.s revolution had driven Hemingway from Cuba. Hesettled inKetchum, Idaho, and tried tolead his life and dohis work asbefore. For awhile hesucceeded, but, anxiety-ridden and depressed, hewas twice hospitalized atthe Mayo Clinic inRochester, Minnesota, where hereceived electroshock treatments. Two days after his return tothe house inKetchum, hetook his life with ashotgun. Hemingway had married four times and fathered three sons. Heleft behind asubstantial amount ofmanuscript, some which has been published. AMoveable Feast, anentertaining memoir ofhis years inParis (1921;26) before hewas famous, was issued in1964. Islands inthe Stream, three closely related novellas growing directly out ofhis peacetime memories ofthe Caribbean island ofBimini, ofHavana during World War II, and ofsearching for U-boats off Cuba, appeared in1970. Hemingway «p.s characters plainly embody his own values and view oflife.

The main characters ofThe Sun Also Rises, AFarewell toArms, and For Whom the Bell Tolls are young men whose strength and self-confidence nevertheless coexist with asensitivity that leaves them deeply scarred bytheir wartime experiences. War was for Hemingway apotent symbol ofthe world, which heviewed ascomplex, filled with moral ambiguities, and offering almost unavoidable pain, hurt, and destruction. Tosurvive insuch aworld, and perhaps emerge victorious, one must conduct oneself with honour, courage, endurance, and dignity, aset ofprinciples known as«the Hemingway code. «.

Tobehave well inthe lonely, losing battle with life istoshow «grace under pressure «and constitutes initself akind ofvictory, atheme clearly established inThe Old Man and the Sea. Hemingway «p.s prose style was probably the most widely imitated ofany inthe 20th century. Hewished tostrip his own use oflanguage ofinessentials, ridding itofall traces ofverbosity, embellishment, and sentimentality. Instriving tobeas objective and honest aspossible, Hemingway hit upon the device ofdescribing aseries ofactions using short, simple sentences from which all comment oremotional rhetoric have been eliminated. These sentences are composed largely ofnouns and verbs, have few adjectives and adverbs, and rely onrepetition and rhythm for much oftheir effect. The resulting terse, concentrated prose isconcrete and unemotional yet isoften resonant and capable ofconveying great irony through understatement. Hemingway «p.s use ofdialogue was similarly fresh, simple, and natural-sounding. The influence ofthis style was felt worldwide wherever novels were written, particularly from the 1930s through the «50s.A consummately contradictory man, Hemingway achieved afame surpassed byfew, ifany, American authors ofthe 20th century. The virile nature ofhis writing, which attempted tore-create the exact physical sensations heexperienced inwartime, big-game hunting, and bullfighting, infact masked anaesthetic sensibility ofgreat delicacy. Hewas acelebrity long before hereached middle age, but his popularity continues tobevalidated byserious critical opinion.


Ernest Hemingway was born inOak Park, Illinois, inthe summer of1899. Asayoung man, heleft home tobecome anewspaper writer inKansas City. Early in1918, hejoined the Italian Red Cross and became anambulance driver inItaly, serving inthe battlefield inthe First World War, inwhich the Italians allied with the British, the French, and the Americans, against Germany and Austria-Hungary. InItaly, heobserved the carnage and the brutality ofthe Great War firsthand. OnJuly 8, 1918, atrench mortar shell struck him while hecrouched beyond the front lines with three Italian soldiers.

Though Hemingway embellished the story ofhis wounding over the years, this much iscertain: hewas transferred toahospital inMilan, where hefell inlove with aRed Cross nurse named Agnes von Kurowsky. Scholars are divided over Agnes «role inHemingway «p.s life and writing, but there islittle doubt that his affair with her provided the background for AFarewell toArms, which many critics consider tobeHemingway «p.s greatest novel.

Published in1929, AFarewell toArms tells the story ofFrederic Henry, ayoung American ambulance driver and first lieutenant («Tenente ») inthe Italian army. Hit inthe leg byatrench mortar shell inthe fighting between Italy and Austria-Hungary, Henry istransferred toahospital inMilan, where hefalls inlove with anEnglish Red Cross nurse named Catherine Barkley. The similarities toHemingway «p.s own life are obvious.

After the war, when hehad published several novels and become afamous writer, Hemingway claimed that the account ofHenry «p.s wounding inAFarewell toArms was the most accurate version ofhis own wounding hehad ever written. Hemingway «p.s life certainly gave the novel atrenchant urgency, and its similarity tohis own experience nodoubt helped him refine the terse, realistic, descriptive style for which hebecame famous, and which made him one ofthe most influential American writers ofthe twentieth century.


Book I, Chapters 1−6.

Frederic Henry begins his story bydescribing his situation: heisan American inthe Italian army near the front with Austria-Hungary, amile from the fighting. Every day hesees troops marching and hears gunfire; often the King rides through the town. Acholera epidemic has spread through the army, hesays, but only seven thousand die ofit.

His unit moves toatown inGorizia, further from the fighting, which continues inthe mountains beyond. His situation isrelatively enjoyable; the town isnot badly damaged, with nice cafes and two brothels—one for the officers and one for the enlisted men. One day Henry sits inthe mess hall with agroup offellow officers taunting the military priest. Acaptain accuses the priest ofcavorting with women, and the priest blushes; though heisnot religious, Henry treats the priest kindly. After teasing the priest, the Italians argue over where Henry should take his leave; because the winter isapproaching, the fighting will ease, and Henry, anambulance driver, will beable tospend some time away from the front. The priest encourages him tovisit the cold, clear country ofAbruzzo, but the other men have other suggestions.

When hereturns from his leave, Henry discusses his trip with his roommate, the surgeon Rinaldi. Henry claims tohave traveled throughout Italy, and Rinaldi, who isobsessed with beautiful girls, tells him about agroup ofnew English women and claims tobein love with aMiss Barkley. Henry loans him fifty lire (Italian money). Atdinner that night, the priest ishurt that Henry failed tovisit Abruzzi. Henry feels guilty, and tells him that hewanted tovisit Abruzzi.

The next morning, Henry examines the gun batteries and quizzes the mechanics; then hetravels tovisit Miss Barkley and the English nurses with Rinaldi. Heisimmediately struck byMiss Barkley «p.s beauty, and especially byher long blonde hair. Miss Barkley tells Henry that her fiancee was killed inthe battle ofthe Somme, and Henry tells her hehas never loved anyone. Onthe way back, Rinaldi observes that Miss Barkley liked Henry more than she liked Rinaldi, but that her friend, Helen Ferguson, was nice too.

The next day, Henry calls onMiss Barkley again. The head nurse expresses surprise that anAmerican would want tojoin the Italian army, and tells him that Miss Barkley isgone— but says that Henry may come back tosee her atseven o«clock that night. Henry drives back along the trenches, eats dinner, then returns tosee Miss Barkley. Hefinds her waiting with Helen Ferguson; Helen excuses herself, and Henry tries toput his arm around her. She refuses, but allows him tokiss her. Then she begins tocry, and Henry isannoyed. When Henry goes home, Rinaldi isamused.

Three nights later, Henry sees Miss Barkley again; she tells him tocall her Catherine. They walk through the garden, and Henry tells Catherine heloves her, though heknows hedoes not. They kiss again, and hethinks oftheir relationship asanelaborate game. Tohis surprise, she suddenly tells him that heplays the game very well, but that itis arotten game. Henry sees Rinaldi later that evening, and Rinaldi, observing Henry «p.s romantic confusion, feel glad that hedid not become involved with aBritish nurse.

Book I, Chapters 7−12.

Driving back from his post, Henry picks upasoldier with ahernia; they discuss the War, and Henry arranges away toget the man toahospital. Henry thinks about the War, and realizes that hefeels nodanger fromit. Atdinner that night, the men drink and tease the priest; Henry nearly forgets hehad promised togosee Catherine, and before herushes over, Rinaldi gives him some coffee tosober himup. Atthe nurses «villa, Helen Ferguson tells Henry that Catherine issick and will not see him. Henry feels guilty and surprisingly lonely.

The next day anattack isscheduled. Henry goes tosee Catherine, and she gives him aSaint Anthony medal. Hespends the day driving tothe spot where the fighting will take place. Henry and his men wait inthe trenches asthe shelling begins. They are hungry, and Henry risks being Shot tofetch some cheese. Ashesits down toeat it, hehears aloud noise and sees aflash and believes hehas died. Atrench mortar shell has struck him inthe leg. Wounded men fall all around him.

Henry «p.s surviving men carry him tosafety; aBritish doctor treats him onthe field, then sends him inanambulance tothe field hospital. Henry lies inintense pain. Rinaldi comes tovisit him atthe field hospital, and tells Henry that hewill get amedal. Henry shows nointerest inmedals. Rinaldi leaves him abottle ofcognac and promises tosend Miss Barkley tosee him soon.

Atdusk, the priest comes tovisit. They discuss the war, then God. Henry tells the priest hedoes not love God—he says hedoes not love anything much. The priest tells him hewill find love, and itwill make him happy. Henry claims tohave always been happy, but the priest says Henry will know another kind ofhappiness when hefindsit. Half delirious, Henry thinks about Italian towns, then falls asleep.

Rinaldi and aMajor from their group come tovisit Henry the night before hemoves toabetter hospital inMilan. Henry isstill halfdelirious, and they drink profusely. After aconfused conversation, Henry falls into adrunken sleep. The next day, heistaken onatrain toMilan.

Book II, Chapters 13−17.

AtMilan, Frederic Henry istaken tothe American hospital. Ayoung, pretty nurse named Miss Gage makes his bed and takes his temperature. The head nurse, Miss Van Campen, irritates Henry bynot allowing him tohave wine. Henry pays some Italians tosneak wine into his room with the evening papers.

Inthe morning, Miss Gage tells Henry that Miss Barkley has come towork atthe hospital—she claims not tolike her, but Henry tells her she will learn tolike her. The porter brings abarber toshave Henry, but the barber mistakes Henry for anAustrian soldier and threatens tocut his throat. After the barber and the porter leave, Miss Barkley comes in, and Henry realizes heisin love with her. Hepulls her down into the bed with him, and they make love for the first time.

Henry goes through around ofdoctors who remove some ofthe shrapnel from his leg. The doctors seem incompetent, and tell Henry hewill have towait six months for anoperation ifhewants tokeep his leg. Hecannot stand the thought ofspending six months inbed, and asks for another opinion; the house doctor says hewill send for Dr. Valentini. When Dr. Valentini comes, heischeerful, energetic, and competent and says hewill perform the operation inthe morning. Catherine spends the night inHenry «p.s room, and they see abat. Catherine prepares him for the operation, and warns him not totalk about their affair while under the anaesthetic.

After the operation, Henry isvery sick. Asherecovers, three other patients come tothe hospital—a boy from Georgia with malaria, aboy from New York with malaria and jaundice, and aboy who tried tounscrew the fuse cap from anexplosive shell for asouvenir. Henry develops anappreciation for Helen Ferguson, who helps him pass notes toCatherine while she isonduty. Catherine continues tostay with Henry every night, but Henry and Miss Gage finally convince her totake three nights off ofnight duty—Miss Van Campen has commented that Henry always sleeps till noon.

Book II, Chapters 18−24.

That summer Henry learns towalk oncrutches, and heand Catherine enjoy Milan. They befriend the headwaiter atarestaurant called the Gran Italia, and Catherine continues tosee Henry every night. They discuss marriage, but Catherine remains opposed tothe idea for the time being. They pretend tobemarried instead. Catherine tells Henry that her love for him has become her religion.

When not with Catherine, Henry spends time with asoldier named Ettore Moretti, anItalian from San Francisco who isvery proud ofhis war medals. Ettore isextremely boastful about his military prowess, and Catherine finds him annoying and dull. One night Henry and Catherine lie inbed listening tothe rain, and Catherine asks Henry ifhewill always love her. She says she isafraid ofthe rain, and begins tocry.

Henry and Catherine gotothe races with Helen Ferguson, whom Henry now calls «Fergie, «and the boy who tried tounscrew the nose cap onthe shrapnel shell. They bet onahorse backed byaracing expert and former criminal named Mr. Myers; they win, but Catherine feels dissatisfied, sothey pick ahorse for the next race ontheir own. Even though they lose, Catherine feels much better.

BySeptember, Henry «p.s leg isnearly healed. Hereceives some leave time from the hospital, and Catherine tells him she will arrange togowith him. She then gives him apiece ofstartling news: she issix months pregnant. Catherine worries that Henry feels trapped, and promises not tomake trouble for him, but hetells her hefeels cheerful and thinks she iswonderful. Catherine talks about the obstacles they will face, and mentions the old quote about how the coward dies athousand deaths, the brave but one. She says that, inreality, the brave man dies perhaps two thousand deaths inhis imagination—he simply does not mention them.

The next morning itbegins torain, and Henry isdiagnosed with jaundice. Miss Van Campen finds empty liquor bottles inHenry «p.s room, and accuses him ofproducing jaundice through alcoholism toavoid being sent back tothe front. Miss Gage helps Henry clear things up, but inthe end heloses his leave time.

Henry prepares totravel back tothe front. Hebuys anew pistol, and takes Catherine toahotel. The hotel makes Catherine feel like aprostitute, but before the night isover they feel athome there. Before midnight, they walk downstairs and Henry calls acarriage for Catherine. They have abrief good-bye, and Henry boards the crowded train that will take him back tothe war.

Book III, Chapters 25−28.

After returning toGorizia, Henry has atalk with the major about the war—it was abad year, the major says; Henry was lucky toget hit when hedid. Henry then goes tofind Rinaldi; while hewaits for his friend, hethinks about Catherine. Rinaldi comes into the room and isglad tosee Henry; concerned, heexamines Henry «p.s wounded knee. Hesays that hehas become askilled surgeon from the constant work with the wounded, but now that the fighting has died down temporarily hehas afrustrating lack ofwork. They talk about Catherine, and atdinner the officers tease the priest.

After dinner, Henry goes totalk with the priest. The priest thinks the war will end soon, but Henry remains skeptical. After the priest leaves, Henry goes tosleep; hewakes when Rinaldi comes back, but quickly falls asleep again.

(Video) Introduction to American Literature Pre-Reading Thoughts

The next morning, hetravels tothe Bainsizza area, and sees the damage caused bythe war: the whole village isdestroyed. Henry meets aman named Gino, and they discuss the fighting. Gino says the summer «p.s losses were not invain, and Henry falls silent—he says words like those embarrass him. Hesays that the names ofvillages and the numbers ofstreets have more meaning than words like sacred and glorious. That night, the rain comes down hard, and the Croatians begin abombardment. Inthe morning, the Italians learn that the attacking forces include Germans, and they become very afraid—they have had little contact with the Germans inthe war sofar, and prefer tokeep itthat way. The next night, the Italian line has been broken, and the Italian forces begin alarge-scale retreat.

Asthe forces slowly move out, Henry returns tothe villa, but finds itempty; Rinaldi isgone with the hospital. Henry finds the drivers under his command, including Piani, Bonello, and Aymo. Before leaving inthe morning, Henry gets agood night «p.s sleep.

They drive out slowly through the town, inanendless line ofsoldiers and vehicles. Henry takes aturn sleeping, and shortly after hewakes, the column stalls. Hefinds that Bonello has given two engineer sergeants aride, and Aymo has two girls inhis car. Exhausted, Henry falls asleep again, and dreams ofCatherine. That night, columns ofpeasants join the retreating army. Inthe early morning Henry and his men stop briefly atafarmhouse, eating alarge breakfast. Soon, they continue slowly ontheir way, rejoining the line oftrucks and soldiers.

Book III, Chapters 29−32.

Aymo «p.s car gets stuck inthe soft ground; the men are forced tocut brush hurriedly toplace under the tires for traction. Henry orders the two engineer sergeants riding with Bonello tohelp; afraid ofbeing overtaken bythe enemy, they refuse, and try toleave. Henry draws his gun and shoots one ofthem, but the other escapes. Bonello takes Henry «p.s pistol and kills the wounded sergeant.

They begin tocut branches and twigs; inthe end, they are unable tosave the car. Henry gives some money tothe two girls travelling with Aymo and encourages them togodown toanearby village, Aymo gets inHenry «p.s vehicle, and they set out, now cut off from the main column.

Crossing abridge, Henry sees anearby car full ofGerman soldiers. Asthey travel, they begin tonotice more and more signs ofGerman occupation, and they worry that they have been completely cut off from Italiancontrolled land. They proceed with caution; asudden burst ofgunfire kills Aymo. They realize hewas Shot bythe Italian rear guard—the Italians are ahead, but because the rear guard isafraid, they are almost asdangerous asthe Germans.

Fearing death, Bonello leaves inhopes ofbeing taken prisoner. The men hide inabarn that night, and inthe morning they rejoin the Italians. The enlisted men become furious with the officers, and Piani isafraid they will try tokill Henry. Suddenly, two men (battle police) seize hold ofHenry. They seize Henry because heis aforeigner, and inthe chaos ofthe retreat they intend toshoot him for aspy. When they look away for amoment, Henry dives into the river and swims away.

After floating inthe river for what seems like avery long time, Henry climbs out, removes the stars from his shirt, and counts his money. Hecrosses the Venetian plain that day, then jumps aboard amilitary train that evening, hiding under acanvas with guns.

Lying under the canvas, Henry thinks about the army, about the war, and about Catherine. Herealizes that hewill bepronounced dead, and assumes hewill never see Rinaldi again. Rinaldi has been concerned hewill die ofsyphilis, and Henry worries for him. Exhausted and hungry, heimagines finding Catherine and going away with her toasafe place.

Book V, Chapters 38−41.

That fall, Henry and Catherine live inabrown wooden house onthe side ofamountain. They enjoy the company ofMr. and Mrs. Guttingen, who live downstairs, and they remain very happy together; sometimes they walk down the mountain path inMontreux. One day Catherine gets her hair done inMontreux, and afterwards they gotohave abeer—Catherine thinks beer isgood for the baby, because itwill keep itsmall; she isworried about the baby «p.s size because the doctor has said she has anarrow pelvis. They talk again about getting married, but Catherine wants towait until after the baby isborn when she will bethin again.

Three days before Christmas, the snow comes. Catherine asks Henry ifhefeels restless, and hesays no, though hedoes wonder about his friends onthe front, such asRinaldi and the priest.

Henry decides togrow abeard and bymid-January, hehas one. Through January and February heand Catherine remain very happy; inMarch they move into town tobenear the hospital. They stay inahotel there for three weeks; Catherine buys baby clothes, Henry works out inthe gym, and they both feel that the baby will arrive soon.

Finally, around three o«clock one morning, Catherine goes into labor. They gotothe hospital, where Catherine isgiven anightgown and aroom. She encourages Henry togoout for breakfast, and hedoes, talking tothe old man who serves him. When hereturns tothe hospital, hefinds that Catherine has been taken tothe delivery room. Hegoes intosee her; the doctor stands by, and Catherine takes ananaesthetic gas when her contractions become very painful. Attwo o«clock inthe afternoon, Henry goes out for lunch.

Hegoes back tothe hospital; Catherine isnow intoxicated from the gas. The doctor thinks her pelvis istoo narrow toallow the baby topass through, and advises aCaesarian section. Catherine suffers unbearable pain and pleads for more gas. Finally they wheel her out onastretcher toperform the operation. Henry watches the rain outside.

Soon the doctor comes out and takes Henry tosee the baby, aboy. Henry has nofeeling for the child. Hethen goes tosee Catherine, and atfirst worries that she isdead. When she asks him about their son, hetells her hewas fine, and the nurse gives him aquizzical look. Ushering him outside, the nurse tells him that the boy isnot fine—he strangled onthe umbilical cord, and never began tobreathe.

Hegoes out for dinner, and when hereturns the nurse tells him that Catherine ishemorrhaging. Heisfilled with terror that she will die. When heisallowed tosee her, she tells him she will die, and asks him not tosay the same things toother girls. Henry goes into the hallway while they try totreat Catherine, but nothing works; finally, hegoes back into the room and stays with her until she dies.

The doctor offers todrive him back tothe hotel, but Henry declines. Hegoes back into the room and tries tosay good-bye toCatherine, but says that itwas like saying good-bye toastatue. Heleaves the hospital and walks back tohis hotel inthe rain.


Frederic Henry— The novel «p.s protagonist. Ayoung American ambulance driver inthe Italian army during the First World War, Henry isdisciplined and courageous, but feels detached from life. When introduced toCatherine Barkley, Henry discovers acapacity for love hehad not known hepossessed, and begins aprocess ofdevelopment that culminates with his desertion ofthe Italian army. Throughout the novel, the Italian soldiers under Henry «p.s command call him «Tenente «—the Italian word for «lieutenant. «Catherine Barkley— AnEnglish nurse who falls inlove with Frederic Henry. Catherine «p.s fiancee was killed inthe battle ofthe Somme before she met Henry. Catherine has cast aside conventional social values, and lives according toher own values, devoting herself wholly toher love for Henry. Her long, beautiful hair isher most distinctive physical feature. Rinaldi— Frederic «p.s friend, anItalian surgeon. Mischievous and wry, Rinaldi isnevertheless apassionate and skilled doctor. Rinaldi makes apractice ofalways being inlove with abeautiful woman, and atthe beginning ofthe novel isattracted toCatherine Barkley; Rinaldi «p.s infatuation causes him tointroduce Frederic and Catherine toone another. Helen Ferguson— Afriend ofCatherine «p.s. Though she remains fond ofthe lovers and helps them, Helen ismuch more committed tosocial convention than Henry and Catherine; she vocally disapproves oftheir «immoral «love affair. Miss Gage— AnAmerican nurse. Miss Gage becomes afriend toboth Catherine and Henry—in fact, she may beinlove with Henry. Unlike Helen Ferguson, she sets aside conventional social values tosupport their love affair. Miss Van Campen— The superintendent ofnurses atthe American hospital where Catherine works. Miss Van Campen isstrict, cold, and unlikable; she isobsessed with rules and regulations and has nopatience for orinterest inindividual feelings. Dr. Valentini— AnItalian surgeon who comes tothe American hospital. Selfassured and confident, Dr. Valentini isalso ahighly talented surgeon. Frederic Henry takes animmediate liking tohim.

Count Greffi— Aspry ninety-four year old nobleman. Henry knows Count Greffi from his time inStresa, and the two play billiards together toward the end ofthe novel. Despite his advanced age, the count isintelligent, disciplined, and fully committed tolife.

The Grapes ofWrath.

Full Summary Chapter One: Steinbeck begins the novel with adescription ofthe dust bowl climate ofOklahoma. The dust was sothick that men and women had toremain intheir houses, and when they had toleave they tied handkerchiefs over their faces and wore goggles toprotect their eyes. After the wind had stopped, aneven blanket ofdust covered the earth. The corn crop was ruined. Everybody wondered what they woulddo. The women and children knew that nomisfortune was too great tobear iftheir men were whole, but the men had not yet figured out what todo. Chapter Two: Aman approaches asmall diner where alarge red transport truck isparked. The man isunder thirty, with dark brown eyes and high cheekbones. Hewore new clothes that don «tquite fit. The truck driver exits from the diner and the man asks him for aride, despite the «NoRiders «sticker onthe truck. The man claims that sometimes aguy will doagood thing even when arich bastard makes him carry asticker, and the driver, feeling trapped bythe statement, lets the man have aride. While driving, the truck driver asks questions, and the man finally gives his name, Tom Joad. The truck driver claims that guys dostrange things when they drive trucks, such asmake uppoetry, because ofthe loneliness ofthe job. The truck driver claims that his experience driving has trained his memory and that hecan remember everything about aperson hepasses. Realizing that the truck driver ispressing for information, Tom finally admits that hehad just been released from McAlester prison for homicide. Hehad been sentenced toseven years and was released after only four, for good behavior. Chapter Three: Atthe side ofthe roadside, aturtle crawled, dragging his shell over the grass. Hecame tothe embankment atthe road and, with great effort, climbed onto the road. Asthe turtle attempts tocross the road, itisnearby hit byasedan. Atruck swerves tohit the turtle, but its wheel only strikes the edge ofits shell and spins itback off the highway. The turtle lays onits back, but finally pulls itself over. Chapter Four: After getting out ofthe truck, Tom Joad begins walking home. Hesees the turtle ofthe previous chapter and picks itup. Hestops inthe shade ofatree torest and meets aman who sits there, singing «Jesus isMySavior. «The man, Jim Casy, had along, bony frame and sharp features. Aformer minister, herecognizes Tom immediately. Hewas a«Burning Busher «who used to«howl out the name ofJesus toglory, «but helost the calling because hehas too many sinful ideas that seem sensible. Tom tells Casy that hetook the turtle for his little brother, and hereplies that nobody can keep aturtle, for they eventually just gooff ontheir own. Casy claims that hedoesn «tknow where he«p.s going now, and Tom tells him tolead people, even ifhedoesn «tknow where tolead them. Casy tells Tom that part ofthe reason hequit preaching was that hetoo often succumbed totemptation, having sex with many ofthe girls he Њsaved. «Finally herealized that perhaps what hewas doing wasn «tasin, and there isn «treally sin orvirtue there are simply things peopledo. Herealized hedidn «t Њknow Jesus, «hemerely knew the stories ofthe Bible. Tom tells Casy why hewas injail: hewas atadance drunk, and got inafight with aman. The man cut Tom with aknife, sohehit him over the head with ashovel. Tom tells him that hewas treated relatively well inMcAlester. Heate regularly, got clean clothes and bathed. Heeven tells about how someone broke his parole togoback. Tom tells how his father Њstole «their house. There was afamily living there that moved away, sohis father, uncle and grandfather cut the house intwo and dragged part ofitfirst, only tofind that Wink Manley took the other half. They get tothe boundary fence oftheir property, and Tom tells him that they didn «tneed afence, but itgave Paafeeling that their forty acres was forty acres. Tom and Casy get tothe house: something has happened nobody isthere. Chapter Five: This chapter describes the coming ofthe bank representatives toevict the farmers. Some ofthe men were kind because they knew how cruel their job was, while some were angry because they hated tobecruel, and others were merely cold and hardened bytheir job. They are mostly pawns ofasystem that they can merely obey. The tenant system has become untenable for the banks, for one man onatractor can take the place ofadozen families. The farmers raise the possibility ofarmed insurrection, but what would they fight against? They will bemurderers ifthey stay, fighting against the wrong targets. Steinbeck describes the arrival ofthe tractors. They crawled over the ground, cutting the earth like surgery and violating itlike rape. The tractor driver does his job simply out ofnecessity: hehas tofeed his kids, even ifitcomes atthe expense ofdozens offamilies. Steinbeck dramatizes aconversation between atruck driver and anevicted tenant farmer. The farmer threatens tokill the driver, but even ifhedoes so, hewill not stop the bank. Another driver will come. Even ifthe farmer murders the president ofthe bank and board ofdirectors, the bank iscontrolled bythe East. There isnoeffective target which could prevent the evictions. Chapter Six: Casy and Tom approached the Joad home. The house was mashed atone corner and appeared deserted. Casy says that itlooks like the arm ofthe Lord had struck. Tom can tell that Maisn «tthere, for she would have never left the gate unhooked. They only see one resident (the cat), but Tom wonders why the cat didn «tgoto find another family ifhis family had moved, orwhy the neighbors hadn «ttaken the rest ofthe belongings inthe house. Muley Graves approaches, ashort, lean old man with the truculent look ofanornery child. Muley tells Tom that his mother was worrying about him. His family was evicted, and had tomove inwith his Uncle John. They were forced tochop cotton tomake enough money togowest. Casy suggests going west topick grapes inCalifornia. Muley tells Tom and Casy that the loss ofthe farm broke uphis family his wife and kids went off toCalifornia, while Muley chose tostay. Hehas been forced toeat wild game. Hemuses about how angry hewas when hewas told hehad toget off the land. First hewanted tokill people, but then his family left and Muley was left alone and wandering. Herealized that heisused tothe place, even ifhehas towander the land like aghost. Tom tells them that hecan «tgoto California, for itwould mean breaking parole. According toTom, prison has not changed him significantly. Hethinks that ifhesaw Herb Turnbull, the man hekilled, coming after him with aknife again, hewould still hit him with the shovel. Tom tells them that there was aman inMcAlester that read agreat deal about prisons and told him that they started along time ago and now cannot bestopped, despite the fact that they donot actually rehabilitate people. Muley tells them that they have tohide, for they are trespassing onthe land. They have tohide inacave for the night. Chapter Seven: The car dealership owners look attheir customers. They watch for weaknesses, such asawoman who wants anexpensive car and can push her husband into buying one. They attempt tomake the customers feel obliged. The proffts come from selling jalopies, not from new and dependable cars. There are noguarantees, hidden costs and obvious flaws. Chapter Eight: Tom and Casy reach Uncle John «p.s farm. They remark that Muley «p.s lonely and covert lifestyle has obviously driven him insane. According toTom, his Uncle John isequally crazy, and wasn «texpected tolive long, yet isolder than his father. Still, heistougher and meaner than even Grampa, hardened bylosing his young wife years ago. They see PaJoad fixing the truck. When hesees Tom, heassumes that hebroke out ofjail. They gointhe house and see MaJoad, aheavy woman thick with childbearing and work. Her face was controlled and kindly. She worries that Tom went mad inprison. This chapter also introduces Grampa and Granma Joad. She isastough asheis, once shooting her husband while she was speaking intongues. Noah Joad, Tom «p.s older brother, isastrange man, slow and withdrawn, with little pride and few urges. Hemay have been brain damaged atchildbirth. The family has dinner, and Casy says grace. Hetalks about how Jesus went off into the wilderness alone, and how hedid the same. Yet what Casy concluded was that mankind was holy. Patells Tom about Al, his sixteen-year old brother, who isconcerned with little more than girls and cars. Hehasn «tbeen athome atnight for aweek. His sister Rosasharn has married Connie Rivers, and isseveral months pregnant. They have two hundred dollars for their journey. Chapter Nine: This chapter describes the process ofselling belongings. The items pile upinthe yard, selling for ridiculously low prices. Whatever isnot sold must beburned, even items ofsentimental value that simply cannot betaken onthe journey for lack ofspace. Chapter Ten: MaJoad tells Tom that she isconcerned about going toCalifornia, worried that itwon «tturn out well, for the only information they have isfrom flyers they read. Casy asks toaccompany them toCalifornia. Hewants towork inthe fields, where hecan listen topeople rather than preach tothem. Tom says that preaching isatone ofvoice and astyle, being good topeople when they don «trespond toit. Paand Uncle John return with the truck, and prepare toleave. The two children, twelveyear old Ruthie and ten-year old Winfield are there with their older sister, Rose ofSharon (Rosasharn) and her husband. They discuss how Tom can «tleave the state because ofhis parole. They have afamily conference that night and discuss anumber ofissues: they decide toallow Casy togowith them, since it«p.s the only right thing for them todo. They continue with preparations, killing the pigs tohave food totake with them. While Casy helps out MaJoad with food preparation, heremarks toTom that she looks tired, asifshe issick. MaJoad looks through her belongings, going through old letters and clippings she had saved. She has toplace them inthe fire. Before they leave, Muley Graves stops tosay goodbye. Noah tells him that he«p.s going todie out inthe field ifhestays, but Muley accepts his fate. Grampa refuses toleave, sothey decide togive him medicine that will knock him out and take him with them. Chapter Eleven: The houses were left vacant. Only the tractor sheds ofgleaming iron and silver were alive. Yet when the tractors are atrest the life goes out ofthem. The work iseasy and efficient, soeasy that the wonder goes out ofthe work and soefficient that the wonder goes out ofthe land and the working ofit. Inthe tractor man there grows the contempt that comes toastranger who has little understanding and norelation tothe land. The abandoned houses slowly fall apart. Chapter Twelve: Highway 66 isthe main migrant road stretching from the Mississippi toBakersfield, California. Itis aroad offlight for refugees from the dust and shrinking land. The people streamed out on66, possibly breaking down intheir undependable cars onthe way. Yet the travelers face obstacles. California isabig state, but not big enough tosupport all ofthe workers who are coming. The border patrol can turn people back. The high wages that are promised may befalse. Chapter Thirteen: The Joads continue ontheir travels. Alremarks that they may have trouble getting over mountains intheir car, which can barely support its weight. Grampa Joad wakes upand insists that he«p.s not going with them. They stop atagas station where the owner automatically assumes they are broke, and tells them that people often stop, begging for gas. The owner claims that fifty cars per day gowest, but wonders what they expect when they reach their destination. Hetells how one family traded their daughter «p.s doll for some gas. Casy wonders what the nation iscoming to, since people seem unable tomake adecent living. Casy says that heused touse his energy tofight against the devil, believing that the devil was the enemy. However, now hebelieves that there «p.s something worse. The Joad «p.s dog wanders from the car and isrun over inthe road. They continue ontheir journey and begin toworry when they reach the state line. However, Tom reassures them that heisonly indanger ifhecommits acrime. Otherwise, nobody will know that hehas broken his parole byleaving the state. Ontheir next stop for the night, the Joads meet the Wilsons, afamily from Kansas that isgoing toCalifornia. Grampa complains ofillness, and weeps. The family thinks that hemay suffer astroke. Granma tells Casy topray for Grampa, even ifheis nolonger apreacher. Suddenly Grampa starts twitching and slumps. Hedies. The Joads face achoice: they can pay fifty dollars for aproper burial for him orhave him buried apauper. They decide tobury Grampa themselves and leave anote sothat people don «tassume hewas murdered. The Wilsons help them bury Grampa. They write averse from scripture onthe note onhis grave. After burying Grampa, they have Casy say afew words. The reactions tothe death are varied. Rose ofSharon comforts Granma, while Uncle John iscuriously unmoved bythe turn ofevents. Casy admits that heknew Grampa was dying, but didn «tsay anything because hecouldn «thave helped. Heblames the separation from the land for Grampa «p.s death. The Joads and the Sairy Wilson decide tohelp each other onthe journey byspreading out the load between their two cars sothat both families will make ittoCalifornia. Chapter Fourteen: The Western States are nervous about the impending changes, including the widening government, growing labor unity, and strikes. However, they donot realize that these are results ofchange and not causes ofit. The cause isthe hunger ofthe multitude. The danger that they face isthat the people «p.s problems have moved from «I «to «we. «Chapter Fifteen: This chapter begins with adescription ofthe hamburger stands and diners onRoute 66. The typical diner isrun byausually irritated woman who nevertheless becomes friendly when truck drivers consistent customers who can always pay enter. The more wealthy travelers drop names and buy vanity products. The owners ofthe diners complain about the migrating workers, who can «tpay and often steal. Afamily comes in, wanting tobuy aloaf ofbread. The one owner, Mae, tells them that they «renot agrocery store, but Al, the other, tells them tojust sell the bread. Mae sells the family candy for reduced prices. Mae and Alwonder what such families will doonce they reach California. Chapter Sixteen: The Joads and the Wilsons continue ontheir travels. Rose ofSharon discusses with her mother what they will dowhen they reach California. She and Connie want tolive inatown, where hecan get ajob inastore orafactory. Hewants tostudy athome, possibly taking aradio correspondence course. There isarattling inthe Wilson «p.s car, soAlis forced topull over. There are problems with the motor. Sairy Wilson tells them that they should goonahead without them, but MaJoad refuses, telling them that they are like family now and they won «tdesert them. Tom says that heand Casy will stay with the truck ifeveryone goes onahead. They «llfix the car and then moveon. Only Maobjects. She refuses togo, for the only thing that they have left iseach other and she will not break upthe family even momentarily. When everyone else objects toher, she even picks upajack handle and threatens them. Tom and Casy try tofix the car, and Casy remarks about how hehas seen somany cars moving west, but nocars going east. Casy predicts that all ofthe movement and collection ofpeople inCalifornia will change the country. The two ofthem stay with the car while the family goes ahead. Before they leave, Altells Tom that Maisworried that hewill dosomething that might break his parole. Granma has been going crazy, yelling and talking toherself. Alasks Tom about what hefelt when hekilled aman. Tom admits that prison has atendency todrive aman insane. Tom and Alfind ajunkyard where they find apart toreplace the broken con-rod inthe Wilson «p.s car. The one-eyed man working atthe junkyard complains about his boss, and says that hemight kill him. Tom tells off the one-eyed man for blaming all ofhis problems onhis eye, and then criticizes Alfor his constant worry that people will blame him for the car breaking down. Tom, Casy and Alrejoin the rest ofthe family atacampground not far away. Tostay atthe campground, the three would have topay anadditional charge, for they would becharged with vagrancy ifthey slept out inthe open. Tom, Casy and Uncle John eventually decide togoon ahead and meet upwith everyone else inthe morning. Aragged man atthe camp, when hehears that the Joads are going topick oranges inCalifornia, laughs. The man, who isreturning from California, tells how the handbills are afraud. They ask for eight hundred people, but get several thousand people who want towork. This drives down wages. The proprietor ofthe campground suspects that the ragged man istrying tostir uptrouble for labor. Chapter Seventeen: Astrange thing happened for the migrant laborers. During the day, asthey traveled, the cars were separate and lonely, yet inthe evening astrange thing happened: atthe campgrounds where they stayed the twenty orsofamilies became one. Their losses and their concerns became communal. The families were atfirst timid, but they gradually built small societies within the campgrounds, with codes ofbehavior and rights that must beobserved. For transgressions, there were only two punishments: violence orostracism. Leaders emerged, generally the wise elders. The various families found connections toone another Chapter Eighteen: When the Joads reach Arizona, aborder guard stops them and nearly turns them back, but does let them continue. They eventually reach the desert ofCalifornia. The terrain isbarren and desolate. While washing themselves during astop, the Joads encounter migrant workers who want toturn back. They tell them that the Californians hate the migrant workers. Agood deal ofthe land isowned bythe Land and Cattle Company that leaves the land largely untouched. Sheriffs push around migrant workers, whom they derisively call «Okies. «Noah tells Tom that heisgoing toleave everyone, for they don «tcare about him. Although Tom protests, Noah leaves them. Granma remains ill, suffering from delusions. She believes that she sees Grampa. AJehovite woman visits their tent tohelp Granma, and tells Mathat she will die soon. The woman wants toorganize aprayer meeting, but Maorders them not todoso. Nevertheless, soon she can hear from adistance chanting and singing that eventually descends into crying. Granma whines with the whining, then eventually falls asleep. Rose ofSharon wonders where Connieis. Deputies come tothe tent and tell Mathat they cannot stay there and that they don «twant any Okies around. Tom returns tothe tent after the policeman leaves, and isglad that hewasn «tthere; headmits that hewould have hit the cop. Hetells Maabout Noah. The Wilsons decide toremain even ifthey face arrest, since Sairy istoo sick toleave without any rest. Sairy asks Casy tosay aprayer for her. The Joads move on, and atastop aboy remarks how hard-looking Okies are and how they are less than human. Uncle John speaks with Casy, worried that hebrings bad luck topeople. Connie and Rose ofSharon need privacy. Yet again the Joads are pulled over for inspection, but MaJoad insists that they must continue because Granma needs medical attention. The next morning when they reach the orange groves, Matells them that Granma isdead. She died before they were pulled over for inspection. Chapter Nineteen: California once belonged toMexico and its land tothe Mexicans. But ahorde oftattered feverish American poured in, with such great hunger for the land that they tookit. Farming became anindustry asthe Americans took over. They imported Chinese, Japanese, Mexican and Filipino workers who became essentially slaves. The owners ofthe farms ceased tobefarmers and became businessmen. They hated the Okies who came because they could not profft from them. Other laborers hated the Okies because they pushed down wages. While the Californians had aspirations ofsocial success and luxury, the barbarous Okies only wanted land and food. Hoovervilles arose atthe edge ofevery town. The Okies were forced tosecretly plant gardens inthe evenings. The deputies overreacted tothe Okies, spurred bystories that aneleven year old Okie Shot adeputy. The great owners realized that when property accumulates intoo few hands itistaken away and that when amajority ofthe people are hungry and cold they will take byforce what they need. Chapter Twenty: The Joads take Granma tothe Bakersfield coroner «p.s office. They can «tafford afuneral for her. They goto acamp tostay and ask about work. They ask abearded man ifheowns the camp and whether they can stay, and hereplies with the same question tothem. Ayounger man tells them that the crazy old man iscalled the Mayor. According tothe man, the Mayor has likely been pushed bythe police around somuch that he«p.s been made bull-simple (crazy). The police don «twant them tosettle down, for then they could draw relief, organize and vote. The younger man tells them about the handbill fraud, and Tom suggests that everybody organize sothat they could guarantee higher wages. The man warns Tom about the blacklist. Ifheis labeled anagitator hewill beprevented from getting from anybody. Tom talks toCasy, who has recently been relatively quiet. Casy says that the people unorganized are like anarmy without aharness. Casy says that heisn «thelping out the family and should gooff byhimself. Tom tries toconvince him tostay atleast until the next day, and herelents. Connie regrets his decision tocome with the Joads. Hesays that ifhehad stayed inOklahoma hecould have worked asatractor driver. When Maisfixing dinner, groups ofsmall children approach, asking for food. The children tell the Joads about Weedpatch, agovernment camp that isnearby where nocops can push people around and there isgood drinking water. Algoes around looking for girls, and brags about how Tom killed aman. Almeets aman named Floyd Knowles, who tells them that there was nosteady work. Awoman reprimands MaJoad for giving her children stew. Albrings Floyd back tothe family, where hesays that there will bework upnorth around Santa Clara Valley. Hetells them toleave quietly, because everyone else will follow after the work. Alwants togowith Floyd nomatter what. Aman arrives inaChevrolet coupe, wearing abusiness suit. Hetells them about work picking fruit around Tulare County. Floyd tells the man toshow his licensethis isone ofthe tricks that the contractor uses. Floyd points out some ofthe dirty tactics that the contractor isusing, such asbringing along acop. The cop forces Floyd into the car and says that the Board ofHealth might want toshut down their camp. Floyd punched the cop and ran off. Asthe deputy chased after him, Tom tripped him. The deputy raised his gun toshoot Floyd and fires indiscriminately, shooting awoman inthe hand. Suddenly Casy kicked the deputy inthe back ofthe neck, knocking him unconscious. Casy tells Tom tohide, for the contractor saw him trip the deputy. More officers come tothe scene, and they take away Casy, who has afaint smile and alook ofpride. Rose ofSharon wonders where Connie has gone. She has not seen him recently. Uncle John admits that hehad five dollars. Hekept ittoget drunk. Uncle John gives them the five inexchange for two, which isenough for him. Altells Rose ofSharon that hesaw Connie, who was leaving. Paclaims that Connie was too big for his overalls, but Mascolds him, telling him toact respectfully, asifConnie were dead. Because the cops are going toburn the camp tonight, they have toleave. Tom goes tofind Uncle John, who has gone off toget drunk. Tom finds him bythe river, singing morosely. Heclaims that hewants todie. Tom has tohit him tomake him come. Rose ofSharon wants towait for Connie toreturn. They leave the camp, heading north toward the government camp. Chapter Twenty-One: The hostility that the migrant workers faced changed them. They were united astargets ofhostility, and this unity made the little towns ofHoovervilles defend themselves. There was panic when the migrants multiplied onthe highways. The California residents feared them, thinking them dirty, ignorant degenerates and sexual maniacs. The number ofmigrant workers caused the wages togodown. The owners invented anew method: the great owners bought canneries, where they kept the price offruit down toforce smaller farmers out. The owners did not know that the line between hunger and anger isathin one. Chapter Twenty-Two: The Joads reach the government camp, where they are surprised tofind that there are toilets and showers and running water. The watchman atthe camp explains some ofthe other features ofthe camp: there isacentral committee elected bythe camp residents that keeps order and makes rules, and the camp even holds Dance nights. The next morning, two camp residents (Timothy and Wilkie Wallace) give Tom breakfast and tell him about work. When they reach the fields where they are towork, Mr. Thomas, the contractor, tells them that heisreducing wages from thirty totwentyfive cents per hour. Itisnot his choice, but rather orders from the Farmers «Association, which isowned bythe Bank ofthe West. Thomas also shows them anewspaper, which has astory about aband ofcitizens who burn asquatters «camp, infuriated bypresumed communist agitation, and warns them about the dance atthe government camp onSaturday night. There will beafight inthe camp sothat the deputies can goin. The Farmers «Association dislikes the government camps because the people inthe camps become used tobeing treated humanely and are thus harder tohandle. Tom and the Wallaces vow tomake sure that there won «tbe afight. While they work, Wilkie tells Tom that the complaints about agitators are false. According tothe rich owners, any person who wants thirty cents anhour instead oftwenty-five isared. Back atthe camp, Ruthie and Winfield explore the camp, and are fascinated bythe toilets they are frightened bythe flushing sound. MaJoad makes the rest ofthe family clean themselves upbefore the Ladies Committee comes tovisit her. Jim Rawley, the camp manager, introduces himself tothe Joads and tells them some ofthe features ofthe camp. Rose ofSharon goes totake abath, and learns that anurse visits the camp every week and can help her deliver the baby when itistime. Maremarks that she nolonger feels ashamed, asshe had when they were constantly harassed bythe police. Lisbeth Sandry, areligious zealot, speaks with Rose ofSharon about the alleged sin that goes onduring the dances, and complains about people putting onstage plays, which she calls Њsin and delusion and devil stuff. «The woman even blames playacting for amother dropping her child. Rose ofSharon becomes frightened upon hearing this, fearing that she will drop her child. Jessie Bullitt, the head ofthe Ladies Committee, gives MaJoad atour ofthe camp and explains some ofthe problems. Jessie bickers with Ella Summers, the previous committee head. The children play and bicker. Pacomforts Uncle John, who still wants toleave, thinking that hewill bring the family punishment. MaJoad confronts Lisbeth Sandry for frightening Rose and for preaching that every action issinful. Mabecomes depressed about all ofthe losses Granma and Grampa, John and Connie because she now has leisure time tothink about such things. Chapter Twenty-Three: The migrant workers looked for amusement wherever they could find it, whether injokes orstories for amusement. They told stories ofheroism intaming the land against the Indians, orabout arich man who pretended tobepoor and fell inlove with arich woman who was also pretending tobepoor. The workers took small pleasures inplaying the harmonica oramore precious guitar orfiddle, oreven ingetting drunk. Chapter Twenty-Four: The rumors that the police were going tobreak upthe dance reached the camp. According toEzra Huston, the chairman ofthe Central Committee, this isafrequent tactic that the police use. Huston tells Willie Eaton, the head ofthe entertainment committee, that ifhemust hit adeputy, dosowhere they won «tbleed. The camp members say that the Californians hate them because the migrants might draw relief without paying income tax, but they refute this, claiming that they pay sales tax and tobacco tax. Atthe dance, Willie Eaton approaches Tom and tells him where towatch for intruders. Macomforts Rose ofSharon, who isdepressed about Connie. Tom finds the intruders atthe Dance, but the intruders begin afight and immediately the police enter the camp. Huston confronts the police about the intruders, asking who paid them. They only admit that they have tomake money somehow. Once the problem isdefused, the dance goes onwithout any problems. Chapter Twenty-Five: Spring isbeautiful inCalifornia, for behind the fruitfulness ofthe trees inthe orchards are men ofunderstanding who experiment with the seeds and crops todefend them against insects and disease. Yet the fruits become rotten and soft. The rotten grapes are still used for wine, even ifcontaminated with mildew and formic acid. The rationale isthat itisgood enough for the poor toget drunk. The decay ofthe fruit spreads over the state. The men who have created the new fruits cannot create asystem whereby the fruits may beeaten. There isacrime here that goes beyond denunciation, asorrow that weeping cannot symbolize. Children must die from pellagra because the profft cannot betaken from anorange. Chapter Twenty-Six: One evening, MaJoad watches Winfield ashesleeps; hewrithes ashesleeps, and heseems discolored. Inthe month that the Joads have been inWeedpatch, Tom has had only five days ofwork, and the rest ofthe men have had none. Maworries because Rose ofSharon isclose todelivering her baby. Mareprimands them for becoming discouraged. She tells them that insuch circumstances they don «thave the right. Pafears that they will have toleave Weedpatch. When Tom mentions work inMarysville, Madecides that they will gothere, for despite the accommodations atWeedpatch, they have noopportunity tomake money. They plan togonorth, where the cotton will soon beready for harvest. Regarding MaJoad «p.s forceful control ofthe family, Paremarks that women seem tobein control, and itmay betime toget out astick. Mahears this, and tells him that she isdoing her job aswife, but hecertainly isn «tdoing his job ashusband. Rose ofSharon complains that ifConnie hadn «tleft they would have had ahouse bynow. Mapierces Rose ofSharon «p.s ears sothat she can wear small gold earrings. Alparts ways with ablonde girl that hehas been seeing; she rejects his promises that they will eventually get married. Hepromises her that he«llreturn soon, but she does not believe him. Paremarks that heonly notices that hestinks now that hetakes regular baths. Before they leave, Willie remarks that the deputies don «tbother the residents ofWeedpatch because they are united, and that their solution may beaunion. The car starts tobreak down asthe Joads leave Alhas let the battery run down but hefixes the problem and they continue ontheir way. Alisirritable asthey leave. Hesays that he«p.s going out onhis own soon tostart afamily. Onthe road, they get aflat tire. While Tom fixes the tire, abusinessman stops inhis car and offers them ajob picking peaches forty miles north. They reach the ranch atPixley where they are topick oranges for five cents abox. Even the women and children can dothe job. Ruthie and Winfield worry about settling down inthe area and going toschool inCalifornia. They assume that everyone will call them Okies. Atthe nearby grocery store owned byHooper Ranch, Mafinds that the prices are much higher than they would beatthe store intown. The sales clerk lends Maten cents for sugar. She tells him that itisonly poor people who will help out. That night, Tom goes for awalk, but adeputy tells him towalk back tothe cabin atthe ranch. The deputy claims that ifTom isalone, the reds will get tohim. While continuing onhis walk, Tom finds Casy, who has been released from jail. Heiswith agroup ofmen that are onstrike. Casy claims that people who strive for justice always face opposition, citing Lincoln and Washington, aswell asthe martyrs ofthe French Revolution. Casy, Tom and the rest ofthe strikers are confronted bythe police. Ashort, heavy man with awhite pick handle swings itatCasy, hitting him inthe head. Tom fights with the man, and eventually wrenches the club from him and strikes him with it, killing him. Tom immediately fled the scene, crawling through astream toget back tothe cabin. Hecannot sleep that night, and inthe morning tells Mathat hehas tohide. Hetells her that hewas spotted, and warns his family that they are breaking the strike they are getting five cents abox only because ofthis, and today may only get half that amount. When Tom tells Mathat heisgoing toleave that night, she tells him that they aren «tafamily anymore: Alcares about nothing more than girls, Uncle John isonly dragging along, Pahas lost his place asthe head ofthe family, and the children are becoming unruly. Rose ofSharon screams atTom for murdering the man she thinks that his sin will doom her baby. After aday ofwork, Winfield becomes extremely sick from eating peaches. Uncle John tells Tom that when the police catch him, there will bealynching. Tom insists that hemust leave, but Mainsists that they leave asafamily. They hide Tom asthey leave, taking the back roads toavoid police. Chapter Twenty-Seven: Those who want topick cotton must first purchase abag before they can make money. The men who weigh the cotton fix the scales tocheat the workers. The introduction ofacotton-picking machine seems inevitable. Chapter Twenty-Eight: The Joads now stay inaboxcar that stood beside the stream, asmall home that proved better than anything except for the government camp. They were now picking cotton. Winfield tells Mathat Ruthie told about Tom she got into anargument with some other kids, and told them that her brother was onthe run for committing murder. Ruthie returns toMa, crying that the kids stole her Cracker Jack the reason that she threatened them bytelling about Tom but Matells her that itwas her own fault for showing off her candy toothers. That night, inthe pitch black, MaJoad goes out into the woods and finds Tom, who has been hiding out there. She crawls close tohim and wants totouch him toremember what helooked like. She wants togive him seven dollars totake the bus and get away. Hetells her that hehas been thinking about Casy, and remembered how Casy said that hewent out into the woods searching for his soul, but only found that hehad noindividual soul, but rather part ofalarger one. Tom has been wondering why people can «twork together for their living, and vows todowhat Casy had done. Heleaves, but promises toreturn tothe family when everything has blown over. Asshe left, MaJoad did not cry, but rain began tofall. When she returned tothe boxcar, she meets Mr. and Mrs. Wainwright, who have come totalk tothe Joads about their daughter, Aggie, who has been spending time with Al. They «reworried that the two families will part and then find out that Aggie ispregnant. Matells them that she found Tom and that heisgone. Palaments leaving Oklahoma, while Masays that women can deal with change better than aman, because women have their lives intheir arms, and men have itintheir heads. For women, change ismore acceptable because itseems inevitable. Aland Aggie return tothe boxcar, and they announce that they are getting married. They goout before dawn topick cotton before everyone else can get the rest, and Rose ofSharon vows togowith them, even though she can barely move. When they get tothe place where the cotton isbeing picked, there are already anumber offamilies. While picking cotton, itsuddenly starts torain, causing Rose ofSharon tofall ill. Everybody assumes that she isabout todeliver, but she instead suffers from achill. They take her back tothe boxcar and start afire toget her warm. Chapter Twenty-Nine: The migrant families wondered how long the rain would last. The rain damaged cars and penetrated tents. During the rain storms some people went torelief offices, but there were rules: one had tolive inCalifornia ayear before hecould collect relief. The greatest terror had arrived nowork would beavailable for three months. Hungry men crowded the alleys tobeg for bread; anumber ofpeople died. Anger festered, causing sheriffs toswear innew deputies. There would benowork and nofood. Chapter Thirty: After three days ofrain, the Wainwrights decide that they have tokeep ongoing. They fear that the creek will flood. Rose ofSharon goes into labor, and the Joads cannot leave. PaJoad and the rest ofthe man atthe camp build upthe embankment toprevent flooding, but the water breaks through. Pa, Aland Uncle John rush toward the car, but itcannot start. They reach the boxcar and find that Rose ofSharon delivered astillborn baby. They realize that the car will eventually flood, and Mr. Wainwright blames PaJoad for asking them tostay and help, but Mrs. Wainwright offers them help. She tells MaJoad that itonce was the case that family came first. Now they have greater concerns. Uncle John places the dead baby inanapple box and floats itdown the flooded stream asAland build aplatform onthe top ofthe car. Asthe flood waters rise, the family remains onthe platform. The family finds abarn for refuge until the rain stops. Inthe corner ofthe barn there are astarving man and aboy. Maand Rose ofSharon realize what she mustdo. Mamakes everybody leave the barn, while Rose ofSharon gives the dying man her breast milk.

The Great Gatsby.


Chapter One: The novel begins with apersonal note bythe narrator, Nick Carraway. Herelates that hehas atendency toreserve all judgments against people and that hehas been conditioned tobeunderstanding toward those who haven «thad his advantages. Carraway came from aprominent family from the Midwest, graduated from Yale and fought inthe Great War. After the war and aperiod ofrestlessness, hedecided togoEast tolearn the bond business. Atthe book «p.s beginning, Carraway has just arrived inNew York, living inWest Egg village. Hewas going tohave dinner with Tom Buchanan and his wife Daisy. Tom was anenormously wealthy man and anoted football player atYale, and Daisy was Carraway «p.s second cousin. Jordan mentions that, since Carraway lives inWest Egg, hemust know Gatsby. Another woman, Jordan Baker, isalso there. She tells Nick that Tom ishaving anaffair with some woman inNew York. Tom discusses the book «The Rise ofthe Colored Empires, «which claims that the colored races will submerge the white race eventually. Daisy talks toCarraway alone, and claims that she has become terribly cynical and sophisticated. After visiting with the Buchanans, Carraway goes home toWest Egg, where hesees Gatsby come from his mansion alone, looking atthe sea. Hestretches out his arms toward the water, looking atafaraway green light. Chapter Two: Fitzgerald begins this second chapter with the description ofaroad running between West Egg and New York City. Alarge, decaying billboard showing two eyes (advertising anoptometrist «p.s practice) overlooks the desolate area. Itishere, atagas station, where Tom Buchanan introduces Nick Carraway toMyrtle Wilson, the woman with whom heishaving anaffair. Myrtle herself ismarried toGeorge B. Wilson, anauto mechanic. Tom has Myrtle meet them inthe city, where Tom buys her adog. They gotovisit Myrtle «p.s sister and also visit her neighbors, Catherine McKee and her husband, who isanartist. They gossip about Gatsby, and Myrtle discusses her husband, claiming that she was crazy tomarry him, and how she met Tom. Later, Myrtle and Tom argue about whether ornot she has aright tosay Daisy «p.s name, and hebreaks Myrtle «p.s nose. Chapter Three: Nick Carraway describes the customs ofGatsby «p.s weekly parties: the arrival ofcrates oforanges and lemons, acorps ofcaterers and alarge orchestra. Onthe first night that Carraway visits Gatsby «p.s house, hewas one ofthe few guests who had actually been invited. When hearrives, hesees Jordan Baker, who had recently lost agolf tournament. They hear more gossip about Jay Gatsby hesupposedly killed aman, orwas aGerman spy. Jordan and Nick look through Gatsby «p.s library, where she thinks that his books are not real. Later inthe party, aman who recognized Nick from the war talks tohim Nick does not know that itisGatsby. Suddenly, after heidentifies himself, Gatsby gets aphone call from Chicago. Afterwards, Gatsby asks tospeak toJordan Baker alone. When she finishes talking toGatsby, she tells Nick that she heard the most amazing thing and says that she wishes tosee him. Guests leaving the party have acar wreck inGatsby «p.s driveway. This was merely one event inacrowded summer. Carraway, who spent most ofhis time working, began tolike New York. For awhile helost sight ofJordan Baker. Hewas not inlove with her, but had some curiosity toward her. Chapter Four: AtaSunday morning party atGatsby «p.s, young women gossip about Gatsby (he «p.s abootlegger who killed aman who found out that hewas anephew toVon Hindenburg and second cousin tothe devil). One morning Gatsby comes totake Nick for lunch. Heshows off his car: ithad arich cream color and was filled with boxes from Gatsby «p.s purchases. Gatsby asks Nick what his opinion ofhim is, and Nick isevasive. Gatsby gives his story: heisthe son ofwealthy people inthe Middle West, brought upinAmerica and educated atOxford. Carraway does not believe him, for hechokes onhis words. Gatsby continues: helived inthe capitals ofEurope, then enlisted inthe war effort, where hewas promoted tomajor and given anumber ofdeclarations (from every Allied government, even Montenegro). Gatsby admits that heusually finds himself among strangers because hedrifts from here tothere, and that something happened tohim that Jordan Baker will tell Nick atlunch. They drive out past the valley ofashes and Nick even glimpses Myrtle Wilson. When Gatsby isstopped for speeding, heflashes acard tothe policeman, who then does not give him aticket. Atlunch, Gatsby introduces Carraway toMeyer Wolfsheim, asmall, flatnosed Jew. Hetalks ofthe days atthe Metropole when they Shot Rosy Rosenthal, and proudly mentions his cufflinks, which are made from human molars. Wolfsheim isagambler, the man who fixed the 1919 World Series. Tom Buchanan isalso there, and Nick introduces him toGatsby, who appears quite uncomfortable and then suddenly disappears. Jordan Baker tells the story about Gatsby: Back in1917, Daisy was eighteen and Jordan sixteen. They were volunteering with the Red Cross, making bandages, and Daisy asked Jordan tocover for her that day. She was meeting with Jay Gatsby, and there were wild rumors that she was going torun off toNew York with him. OnDaisy «p.s wedding day toTom, she nearly changes her mind, and goes into hysterics. According toJordan, Gatsby bought his house just tobeacross the bay from Daisy. Nick becomes more drawn toJordan, with her scornful and cynical manner. Jordan tells Nick that heissupposed toarrange ameeting between Gatsby and Daisy. Chapter Five: Nick speaks with Gatsby about arranging ameeting with Daisy, and tries tomake itasconvenient for Nick aspossible. Gatsby even offers him ajob, a«confidential sort ofthing, «although heassures Nick that hewould not have towork with Wolfsheim. Onthe day that Gatsby and Daisy are tomeet, Gatsby has arranged everything toperfection. They start atNick «p.s home, where the conversation between the three (Nick, Gatsby, Daisy) isstilted and awkward. They are all embarrassed, and Nick tells Gatsby that he«p.s behaving like alittle boy. They goover toGatsby «p.s house, where Gatsby gives atour. Nick asks Gatsby more questions about his business, and hesnaps back «that «p.s myaffair, «before giving ahalf-hearted explanation. Gatsby shows Daisy newspaper clippings about his exploits, and has Ewing Klipspringer, aboarder, play the piano for them. One ofthe notable mementos that Gatsby shows Daisy isaphotograph ofhim with Dan Cody, his closest friend, onayacht. Asthey leave, Carraway realizes that there must have been moments when Daisy disappointed Gatsby during the afternoon, for his dreams and illusions had been built uptosuch grandiose levels. Chapter Six: Onavague hunch, areporter comes toGatsby «p.s home asking him ifhehad astatement togive out. The actual story ofGatsby isrevealed: hewas born James Gatz inNorth Dakota. Hehad his named legally changed atthe age ofseventeen. His parents were shiftless and unsuccessful farm people, and the young man was consumed byfancies ofwhat hemight achieve. His life changed when herowed out toDan Cody «p.s yacht onLake Superior. Cody was then fifty, aproduct ofthe Nevada silver fields and ofthe Yukon gold rush. Cody took Gatsby inand brought him tothe West Indies and the Barbary Coast asapersonal assistant. When Cody died, Gatsby inherited $25,000, but didn «tget itbecause Cody «p.s mistress, Ella Kaye, claimed all ofit. Gatsby told Nick this much later. Nick had not seen Gatsby for several weeks when hewent over tohis house. Tom Buchanan arrived there. Hehad been horseback riding with awoman and aMr. Sloane. Gatsby invites the group tosupper, but the lady counters with anoffer ofsupper ather home. Mr. Sloane seems quite opposed tothe idea, soNick turns down the offer, but Gatsby accepts. Tom complains about the crazy people that Daisy meets, presumably meaning Gatsby. Onthe following Saturday Tom accompanies Daisy toGatsby «p.s party. Tom isunpleasant and rude during the evening. Tom suspects that Gatsby isabootlegger, since heisone ofthe new rich. After the Buchanans leave, Gatsby isdisappointed, thinking that Daisy surely did not enjoy herself. Nick realizes that Gatsby wanted nothing less ofDaisy than that she should tell Tom that she never loved him. Nick tells Gatsby that hecan «task too much ofDaisy, and that «you can «trepeat the past, «towhich Gatsby replies: «Ofcourse you can! «Chapter Seven: Itwas when curiosity about Gatsby was atits highest that hefailed togive aSaturday night party. Nick goes over tosee ifGatsby issick, and learns that Gatsby had dismissed every servant inhis house and replaced them with ahalf dozen others who would not gossip, for Daisy had been visiting inthe afternoons. Daisy invites Gatsby, Nick and Jordan tolunch. Atthe lunch, Tom issupposedly onthe telephone with Myrtle Wilson. Daisy shows ofher daughter, who isdressed inwhite, toher guests. Tom claims that heread that the sun isgetting hotter and soon the earth will fall into itorrather that the sun isgetting colder. Daisy makes anoffhand remark that she loves Gatsby, which Tom overhears. When Tom goes inside toget adrink, Nick remarks that Daisy has anindiscreet voice. Gatsby says that her voice is«full ofmoney. «They all gototown: Nick and Jordan inTom «p.s car, Daisy inGatsby «p.s. Onthe way, Tom tells Nick that hehas investigated Gatsby, who iscertainly noOxford man, asisrumored. They stop toget gas atWilson «p.s garage. Mr. Wilson wants tobuy Tom «p.s car, for hehas financial troubles and heand Myrtle want togowest. Wilson tells Tom that he«just got wised up«tosomething recently, the reason why heand Myrtle want toget away. While leaving the garage, they see Myrtle peering down atthe car from her window. Her expression was one ofjealous terror toward Jordan Baker, whom she took tobehis wife. Feeling that both his wife and mistress are slipping away from him, Tom feels panicked and impatient. Toescape from the summer heat, they goto asuite atthe Plaza Hotel. Tom begins toconfront Gatsby, irritated athis constant use ofthe term «old sport. «Tom attempts toexpose Gatsby asaliar concerning Gatsby «p.s experience atOxford. Tom rambles onabout the decline ofcivilization, and how there may even beintermarriage between races. Gatsby tells Tom that Daisy doesn «tlove him, and never loved him the only reason why she married him was because Gatsby was poor and Daisy was tired ofwaiting. Daisy hints that there has been trouble inher and Tom «p.s past, and then tells Tom that she never loved him. However, she does concede that she did love Tom once. Gatsby tells Tom that heisnot going totake care ofDaisy anymore and that Daisy isleaving him. Tom calls Gatsby a«common swindler «and abootlegger involved with Meyer Wolfsheim. Nick realizes that today ishis thirtieth birthday. The young Greek, Michaelis, who ran the coffee joint next toWilson «p.s garage was the principal witness atthe inquest. While Wilson and his wife were fighting, she ran out inthe road and was hit byalight green car. She was killed. Tom and Nick learn this when they drive past ontheir way back from the city. Tom realizes that itwas Gatsby who hit Myrtle. When Nick returns home, hesees Gatsby, who explains what happened. Daisy was driving the car when they hit Myrtle. Chapter Eight: Nick cannot sleep that night. Toward dawn hehears ataxi goupGatsby «p.s drive, and heimmediately feels that hehas something towarn Gatsby about. Gatsby isstill there, watching Daisy «p.s mansion across the bay. Nick warns him toget away for aweek, since his car will inevitably betraced, but herefuses toconsiderit. Hecannot leave Daisy until heknew what she woulddo. Itwas then when Gatsby told his entire history toNick. Gatsby still refuses tobelieve that Daisy ever loved Tom. After the war Gatsby searched for Daisy, only tofind that she had married Tom. Nick leaves reluctantly, having togoto work that morning. Before heleaves, Nick tells Gatsby that he«p.s «worth the whole damn bunch put together. «Atwork, Nick gets acall from Jordan, and they have atense conversation. That day Michaelis goes tocomfort Wilson, who isconvinced that his wife was murdered. Hehad found the dog collar that Tom had bought Myrtle hidden the day before, which prompted their sudden decision tomove west. Wilson looks out atthe eyes of T.J. Eckleburg and tells Michaelis that «God sees everything. «Wilson left, «acting crazy «(according towitnesses), and found his way toGatsby «p.s house. Gatsby had gone out tothe pool for one last swim before draining itfor the fall. Wilson Shot him, and then Shot himself. Chapter Nine: Most ofthe reports ofthe murder were grotesque and untrue. Nick finds himself alone onGatsby «p.s side. Tom and Daisy suddenly left town. Meyer Wolfsheim isdifficult tocontact, and offers assistance, but cannot become too involved because ofcurrent entanglements. Nick tracks down Gatsby «p.s father, Henry З. Gatz, asolemn old man, helpless and dismayed bynews ofthe murder. Gatz says that his son would have «helped build upthe country. «Klipspringer, the boarder, leaves suddenly and only returns toget his tennis shoes. Nick goes tosee Wolfsheim, who claims that hemade Gatsby. Hetells Nick «let helearn toshow our friendship for aman when heisalive and not after heisdead, «and politely refuses toattend the funeral. Gatz shows Nick his son «p.s daily schedule, inwhich hehas practically every minute ofhis day planned. Hehad acontinual interest inself-improvement. Atthe funeral, one ofthe few attendees isthe Owl-Eyed man from Gatsby «p.s first party. Nick thinks about the differences between the west and the east, and realizes that he, the Buchanans, Gatsby and Jordan are all Westerners who came east, perhaps possessing some deficiency which made them unadaptable toEastern life. After Gatsby «p.s death the East was haunted and distorted. Hemeets with Jordan Baker, who recalls their conversation about how bad drivers are dangerous only when two ofthem meet. She tells Nick that the two ofthem are both «bad drivers. «Months later Nick saw Tom Buchanan, and Nick scorns him, knowing that hepointed Wilson toward Gatsby. Nick realizes that all ofTom «p.s actions were, tohim, justified. Nick leaves New York toreturn West.

Fitzgerald concludes the novel with afinal note onGatsby «p.s beliefs. Itisthis particular aspect ofhis character his optimistic belief inachievement and the ability toattain one «p.s dreams that defines Gatsby, incontrast tothe compromising cynicism ofhis peers. Yet the final symbol contradicts and deflates the grand optimism that Gatsby held. Fitzgerald ends the book with the sentence «Sowebeat on, boats against the current, borne ceaselessly into the past, «which contradicts Gatsby «p.s fervent belief that one can escape his origins and rewrite his past.

Long Day «p.s Journey Into the Night.

Act I, Part One The play begins inAugust, 1912, atthe summer home ofthe Tyrone family. The setting for all four acts isthe family «p.s living room, which isadjacent tothe kitchen and dining room. There isalso astaircase just off stage, which leads tothe upper-level bedrooms. Itis8:30 am, and the family has just finished breakfast inthe dining room. While Jamie and Edmund, Tyrone enter and embrace, and Mary comments onbeing pleased with her recent weight gain even though she iseating less food.

Tyrone and Mary make conversation, which leads toabrief argument about Tyrone «p.s tendency tospend money onreal estate investing. They are interrupted bythe sound ofEdmund, who ishaving acoughing fit inthe next room. Although Mary remarks that hemerely has abad cold, Tyrone «p.s body language indicates that hemay know more about Edmund «p.s sickness than Mary. Nevertheless, Tyrone tells Mary that she must take care ofherself and focus ongetting better rather than getting upset about Edmund. Mary immediately becomes defensive, saying, «There «p.s nothing tobeupset about. What makes you think I «mupset? «Tyrone drops the subject and tells Mary that heisglad tohave her «dear old self «back again.

Edmund and Jamie are heard laughing inthe next room, and Tyrone immediately grows bitter, assuming they are making jokes about him. Edmund and Jamie enter, and wesee that, even though heisjust 23 years old, Edmund is«plainly inbad health «and nervous. Upon entering, Jamie begins tostare athis mother, thinking that she islooking much better. The conversation turns spiteful, however, when the sons begin tomake fun ofTyrone «p.s loud snoring, asubject about which heissensitive, driving him toanger. Edmund tells him tocalm down, leading toanargument between the two. Tyrone then turns onJamie, attacking him for his lack ofambition and laziness. Tocalm things down, Edmund tells afunny story about atenant named Shaughnessy onthe Tyrone family land inIreland, where the family «p.s origins lie. Tyrone isnot amused bythe anecdote, however, because hecould bethe subject ofalawsuit related toownership ofthe land. Heattacks Edmund again, calling his comments socialist. Edmund gets upsets and exits inafit ofcoughing. Jamie points out that Edmund isreally sick, acomment which Tyrone responds towith a«shut up«look, asthough trying toprevent Mary from finding out something. Mary tells them that, despite what any doctor may say, she believes that Edmund has nothing more than abad cold. Mary has adeep distrust for doctors. Tyrone and Jamie begin tostare ather again, making her self-conscious. Mary reflects onher faded beauty, recognizing that she isinthe stages ofdecline.

AsMary exits, Tyrone chastises Jamie for suggesting that Edmund really may beill infront ofMary, who isnot supposed toworry during her recovery from her addiction tomorphine. Jamie and Tyrone both suspect that Edmund has consumption (better known today astuberculosis), and Jamie thinks itunwise toallow Mary tokeep fooling herself. Jamie and Tyrone argue over Edmund «p.s doctor, Doc Hardy, who charges very little for his services. Jamie accuses Tyrone ofgetting the cheapest doctor, without regard toquality, simply because heis apenny-pincher. Tyrone retorts that Jamie always thinks the worst ofeveryone, and that Jamie does not understand the value ofadollar because hehas always been able totake comfortable living for granted. Tyrone, bycontrast, had towork his own way upfrom the streets. Jamie only squanders loads ofmoney onwhores and liquor intown. Jamie argues back that Tyrone squanders money onreal estate speculation, although Tyrone points out that most ofhis holdings are mortgaged. Tyrone accuses Jamie oflaziness and criticizes his failure tosucceed atanything. Jamie was expelled from several colleges inhis younger years, and henever shows any gratitude towards his father; Tyrone thinks that heis abad influence onEdmund. Jamie counters that hehas always tried toteach Edmund tolead alife different from that which Jamie leads.

Act I, Part Two Tyrone and Jamie continue their discussion about Edmund, who works for alocal newspaper. Tyrone and Jamie have heard that some editors dislike Edmund, but they both acknowledge that hehas astrong creative impulse that drives much ofhis plans. Tyrone and Jamie agree also that they are glad tohave Mary back. They resolve tohelp her inany way possible, and they decide tokeep the truth about Edmund «p.s sickness from her, although they realize that they will not beable todoso ifEdmund has tobecommitted toasanatorium, aplace where tuberculosis patients are treated. Tyrone and Jamie discuss Mary «p.s health, and Tyrone seems tobefooling himself into thinking that Mary ishealthier than she reallyis. Jamie mentions that heheard her walking around the spare bedroom the night before, which may beasign that she istaking morphine again. Tyrone says that itwas simply his snoring that induced her toleave; heaccuses Jamie once again ofalways trying tofind the worst inany given situation.

Between the lines, webegin tolearn that Mary first became addicted tomorphine 23 years earlier, just after giving birth toEdmund. The birth was particularly painful for her, and Tyrone hired avery cheap doctor tohelp ease her pain. The economical but incompetent doctor prescribed morphine toMary, recognizing that itwould solve her immediate pain but ignoring potential future side effects, such asaddiction. Thus wesee that Tyrone «p.s stinginess (orprudence, ashewould call it), has come upinthe past, and itwill bereferred tomany more times during the course ofthe play.

Mary enters just asTyrone and Jamie are about tobegin anew argument. Not wishing toupset her, they immediately cease and decide togooutside totrim the hedges. Mary asks what they were arguing about, and Jamie tells her that they were discussing Edmund «p.s doctor, Doc Hardy. Mary says she knows that they are lying toher. The two stare ather again briefly before exiting, with Jamie telling her not toworry. Edmund then enters inthe midst ofacoughing fit and tells Mary that hefeels ill. Mary begins tofuss over him, although Edmund tells her toworry about herself and not him. Mary tells Edmund that she hates the house inwhich they live because, «I «venever felt itwas myhome. «She puts upwith itonly because she usually goes along with whatever Tyrone wants. She criticizes Edmund and Jamie for «disgracing «themselves with loose women, sothat atpresent norespectable girls will beseen with them. Mary announces her belief that Jamie and Edmund are always cruelly suspicious, and she thinks that they spy onher. She asks Edmund to«stop suspecting me, «although she acknowledges that Edmund cannot trust her because she has broken many promises inthe past. She thinks that the past ishard toforget because itisfull ofbroken promises. The act ends with Edmund «p.s exit. Mary sits alone, twitching nervously.

Act II, Scene і The curtain rises again onthe living room, where Edmund sits reading. Itis12:45 pmonthe same August day. Cathleen, the maid, enters with whiskey and water for pre-lunch drinking. Edmund asks Cathleen tocall Tyrone and Jamie for lunch. Cathleen ischatty and flirty, and tells Edmund that heishandsome. Jamie soon enters and pours himself adrink, adding water tothe bottle afterwards sothat Tyrone will not know they had adrink before hecamein. Tyrone isstill outside, talking toone ofthe neighbors and putting on«anact «with the intent ofshowing off. Jamie tells Edmund that Edmund may have asickness more severe than asimple case ofmalaria. Hethen chastises Edmund for leaving Mary alone all morning. Hetells him that Mary «p.s promises mean nothing anymore. Jamie reveals that heand Tyrone knew ofMary «p.s morphine addiction asmuch asten years before they told Edmund.

Edmund begins acoughing fit asMary enters, and she tells him not tocough. When Jamie makes asnide comment about his father, Mary tells him torespect Tyrone more. She tells him tostop always seeking out the weaknesses inothers. She expresses her fatalistic view oflife, that most events are somehow predetermined, that humans have little control over their own lives. She then complains that Tyrone never hires any good servants; she isdispleased with Cathleen, and she blames her unhappiness onTyrone «p.s refusal tohire atop-rate maid. Atthis point, Cathleen enters and tells them that Tyrone isstill outside talking. Edmund exits tofetch him, and while heisgone, Jamie stares atMary with aconcerned look. Mary asks why heislooking ather, and hetells her that she knows why. Although hewill not say itdirectly, Jamie knows that Mary isback onmorphine; hecan tell byher glazed eyes. Edmund reenters and curses Jamie when Mary, playing ignorant, tells him that Jamie has been insinuating nasty things about her. Mary prevents anargument bytelling Edmund toblame noone. She again expresses her fatalist view: «[Jamie] can «thelp what the past has made him. Any more than your father can. Oryou. Or I. «Jamie shrugs off all accusations, and Edmund looks suspiciously atMary.

Tyrone enters, and heargues briefly with his two sons about the whiskey. They all have alarge drink. Suddenly, Mary has anoutburst about Tyrone «p.s failure tounderstand what ahomeis. Mary has adistinct vision ofahome, one that Tyrone has never been able toprovide for her. She tells him that heshould have remained abachelor, but then she drops the subject sothat they can begin lunch. However, she first criticizes Tyrone for letting Edmund drink, saying that itwill kill him. Suddenly feeling guilty, she retracts her comments. Jamie and Edmund exit tothe dining room. Tyrone sits staring atMary, then says that hehas «been aGod-damned fool tobelieve inyou. «She becomes defensive and begins todeny Tyrone «p.s unspoken accusations, but henow knows that she isback onmorphine. She complains again ofhis drinking before the scene ends.

Act II, Scene iiThe scene begins half anhour after the previous scene. The family isreturning from lunch inthe dining room. Tyrone appears angry and aloof, while Edmund appears «heartsick. «Mary and Tyrone argue briefly about the nature ofthe «home, «although Mary seems somewhat aloof while she speaks because she isonmorphine. The phone rings, and Tyrone answersit. Hetalks briefly with the caller and agrees onameeting atfour o«clock. Hereturns and tells the family that the caller was Doc Hardy, who wanted tosee Edmund that afternoon. Edmund remarks that itdoesn «tsound like good tidings. Mary immediately discredits everything Doc Hardy has tosay because she thinks heis acheap quack whom Tyrone hired only because heisinexpensive. After abrief argument, she exits upstairs.

After she isgone, Jamie remarks that she has gone toget more morphine. Edmund and Tyrone explode athim, telling him not tothink such bad thoughts about people. Jamie counters that Edmund and Tyrone need toface the truth; they are kidding themselves. Edmund tells Jamie that heistoo pessimistic. Tyrone argues that both boys have forgotten Catholicism, the only belief that isnot fraudulent. Jamie and Edmund both grow mad and begin toargue with Tyrone. Tyrone admits that hedoes not practice Catholicism strictly, but heclaims that heprays each morning and each evening. Edmund isabeliever inNietzsche, who wrote that «God isdead «inThus Spoke Zarathustra. Heends the argument, however, byresolving tospeak with Mary about the drugs, and heexits upstairs.

After Edmund leaves, Tyrone tells Jamie that Doc Hardy say that Edmund has consumption, «nopossible doubt. «However, ifEdmund goes toasanatorium immediately, hewill becured insix to12 months. Jamie demands that Tyrone send Edmund somewhere good, not somewhere cheap. Jamie says that Tyrone thinks consumption isnecessarily fatal, and therefore itisnot worth spending money ontrying tocure Edmund since heisguaranteed todie anyway. Jamie correctly argues that consumption can becured iftreated properly. Hedecides togowith Tyrone and Edmund tothe doctor that afternoon then exits.

Mary reenters asJamie leaves, and she tells Tyrone that Jamie would beagood son ifhehad been raised in a«real «home asMary envisionsit. She tells Tyrone not togive Jamie any money because hewill use itonly tobut liquor. Tyrone bitterly implies that Mary and her drug use isenough tomake any man want todrink. Mary dodges his accusation with denials, but she asks Tyrone not toleave her alone that afternoon because she gets lonely. Tyrone responds that Mary isthe one who «leaves, «referring toher mental aloofness when she takes drugs. Tyrone suggests that Mary take aride inthe new car hebought her, which toTyrone «p.s resentment does not often get used (hesees itasanother waste ofmoney). Mary tells him that heshould not have bought her asecond-hand car. Inany case, Mary argues that she has noone tovisit inthe car, since she has not had any friends since she got married. She alludes briefly toascandal involving Tyrone and amistress atthe beginning oftheir marriage, and this event caused many ofher friends toabandon her. Tyrone tells Mary not todig upthe past. Mary changes the subject and tells Tyrone that she needs togoto the drugstore.

Delving into the past, Mary tells Tyrone the story ofgetting addicted tomorphine when Edmund was born. She implicitly blames Tyrone for her addiction because hewould only pay for acheap doctor who knew ofnobetter way tocure her childbirth pain. Tyrone interrupts and tells her toforget the past, but Mary replies, «Why? How can I? The past isthe present, isn «tit? It «p.s the future too. Weall try tolie out ofthat but life won «tlet us. «Mary blames herself for breaking her vow never tohave another baby after Eugene, her second baby who died attwo years old from measles hecaught from Jamie after Jamie went into the baby «p.s room. Tyrone tells Mary tolet the dead baby rest inpeace, but Mary only blames herself more for not staying with Eugene (her mother was babysitting when Jamie gave Eugene measles), and instead going onthe road tokeep Tyrone company ashetraveled the country with his plays. Tyrone had later insisted that Mary have another baby toreplace Eugene, and soEdmund was born. But Mary claimed that from the first day she could tell that Edmund was weak and fragile, asthough God intended topunish her for what happened toEugene.

Edmund reenters after Mary «p.s speech, and heasks Tyrone for money, which Tyrone grudgingly produces. Edmund isgenuinely thankful, but then hegets the idea that Tyrone may regret giving him money because Tyrone thinks that Edmund will die and the money will bewasted. Tyrone isgreatly hurt bythis accusation, and Edmund suddenly feels very guilty for what hesaid. Heand his father make amends briefly before Mary furiously tells Edmund not tobeso morbid and pessimistic. She begins tocry, and Tyrone exits toget ready togoto the doctor with Edmund. Mary again criticizes Doc Hardy and tells Edmund not tosee him. Edmund replies that Mary needs toquit the morphine, which puts Mary onthe defensive, denying that she still uses and then making excuses for herself. She admits that she lies toherself all the time, and she says that she can «nolonger call mysoul myown. «She hopes for redemption one day through the Virgin. Jamie and Tyrone call Edmund, and heexits. Mary isleft alone, glad that they are gone but feeling «solonely. «.

Act III.

The scene opens asusual onthe living room at6:30 pm, just before dinner time. Mary and Cathleen are alone inthe room; Cathleen, atMary «p.s invitation, has been drinking. Although they discuss the fog, itisclear that Cathleen isthere only togive Mary achance totalk tosomeone. They discuss briefly Tyrone «p.s obsession with money, and then Mary refuses toadmit toEdmund «p.s consumption. Mary delves into her past memories ofher life and family. Asapious Catholic schoolgirl, she says that she never liked the theater; she did not feel «athome «with the theater crowd. Mary then brings upthe subject ofmorphine, which welearn Cathleen gets for her from the local drugstore. Mary isbecoming obsessed with her hands, which used tobelong and beautiful but have since deteriorated. She mentions that she used tohave two dreams: tobecome anun and tobecome afamous professional pianist. These dreams evaporated, however, when she met Tyrone and fell inlove. She met Tyrone after seeing him inaplay. Hewas friends with her father, who introduced the two. And she maintains that Tyrone isagood man; in36 years ofmarriage, hehas had not one extramarital scandal.

Cathleen then exits tosee about dinner, and Mary slowly becomes bitter asshe recalls more memories. She thinks ofher happiness before meeting Tyrone. She thinks that she cannot pray anymore because the Virgin will not listen toadope fiend. She decides togoupstairs toget more drugs, but before she can doso, Edmund and Tyrone return.

They immediately recognize upon seeing her that she has taken alarge dose ofmorphine. Mary tells them that she issurprised they returned, since itis«more cheerful «uptown. The men are clearly drunk, and infact Jamie isstill uptown seeing whores and drinking. Mary says that Jamie is a«hopeless failure «and warns that hewill drag down Edmund with him out ofjealousy. Mary talks more about the bad memories from the past, and Tyrone laments that heeven bothered tocome home tohis dope addict ofawife. Tyrone decides topay noattention toher. Mary meanwhile waxes about Jamie, who she thinks was very smart until hestarted drinking. Mary blames Jamie «p.s drinking onTyrone, calling the Irish stupid drunks, acomment which Tyrone ignores.

Mary «p.s tone suddenly changes asshe reminisces about meeting Tyrone. Tyrone then begins tocry ashethinks back onthe memories, and hetells his wife that heloves her. Mary responds, «Ilove you dear, inspite ofeverything. «But she regrets marrying him because hedrinks somuch. Mary says she will not forget, but she will try toforgive. She mentions that she was spoiled terribly byher father, and that spoiling made her abad wife. Tyrone takes adrink, but seeing the bottle has been watered down byhis sons trying tofool him into believing that they haven «tbeen drinking, hegoes toget anew one. Mary again calls him stingy, but she excuses him toEdmund, telling ofhow hewas abandoned byhis father and forced towork atage 10.

Edmund then tells Mary that hehas tuberculosis, and Mary immediately begins discrediting Doc Hardy. She will not believe it, and she does not want Edmund togoto asanatorium. She thinks that Edmund isjust blowing things out ofthe water inaneffort toget more attention. Edmund reminds Mary that her own father died oftuberculosis, then comments that itisdifficult having a«dope fiend for amother. «Heexits, laving Mary alone. She says aloud that she needs more morphine, and she admits that she secretly hopes tooverdose and die, but she cannot intentionally dosobecause the Virgin could never forgive suicide. Tyrone reenters with more whiskey, noting that Jamie could not pick the lock tohis liquor cabinet. Mary suddenly bursts out that Edmund will die, but Tyrone assures her that hewill becured insix months. Mary thinks that Edmund hated her because she isadope fiend. Tyrone comforts her, and Mary once again blames herself for giving birth. Cathleen announces dinner. Mary says she isnot hungry and goes tobed. Tyrone knows that she isreally going for more drugs.

Act IV, Part One.

The time ismidnight, and asthe act begins afoghorn isheard inthe distance. Tyrone sits alone inthe living room, drinking and playing solitaire. Heisdrunk, and soon Edmund enters, also drunk. They argue about keeping the lights onand the cost ofthe electricity. Tyrone acts stubborn, and Edmund accuses him ofbelieving whatever hewants, including that Shakespeare and Wellington were Irish Catholics. Tyrone grows angry and threatens tobeat Edmund, then retracts. Hegives upand turns onall the lights. They note that Jamie isstill out atthe whorehouse. Edmund has just returned from along walk inthe cold night air even though doing sowas abad idea for his health. Hestates, «Tohell with sense! We «reall crazy. «Edmund tells Tyrone that heloves being inthe fog because itlets him live inanother world. Hepessimistically parodies Shakespeare, saying, «Weare such stuff asmanure ismade of, solet «p.s drink upand forgetit. That «p.s more myidea. «Hequotes then from the French author Baudelaire, saying «bealways drunken. «Hethen quotes from Baudelaire about the debauchery inthe city inreference toJamie. Tyrone criticizes all ofEdmund «p.s literary tastes; hethinks Edmund should leave literature for God. Tyrone thinks that only Shakespeare avoids being anevil, morbid degenerate.

They hear Mary upstairs moving around, and they discuss her father, who died oftuberculosis. Edmund notes that they only seem todiscuss unhappy topics together. They begin toplay cards, and Tyrone tells Jamie that even though Mary dreamed ofbeing anun and apianist, she did not have the willpower for the former orthe skill for the latter; Mary deludes herself. They hear her come downstairs but pretend not tonotice. Edmund then blames Tyrone for Mary «p.s morphine addiction because Tyrone hired acheap quack. Edmund then says hehates Tyrone and blames him for Mary «p.s continued addiction because Tyrone never gave her ahome. Tyrone defends himself, but then Edmund says that hethinks that Tyrone believes hewill die from consumption. Edmund tells Tyrone that he, Tyrone, spends money only onland, not onhis sons. Edmund states that hewill die before hewill goto acheap sanatorium.

Tyrone brushes off his comments, saying that Edmund isdrunk. But Tyrone promises tosend Edmund anywhere hewants tomake him better, «within reason. «Tyrone tells Edmund that heisprudent with money because hehas always had towork for everything hehas. Edmund and Jamie, bycontrast, have been able totake everything inlife for granted. Tyrone thinks that neither ofhis sons knows the value ofmoney. Edmund, delving into his deeper emotions, reminds Tyrone that he, Edmund, once tried tocommit suicide. Tyrone says that Edmund was merely drunk atthe time, but Edmund insists hewas aware ofhis actions. Tyrone then begins tocry lightly, telling ofhis destitute childhood and his terrible father. Tyrone and Edmund, making amends, agree together onasanatorium for Edmund, aplace that ismore expensive but substantially better. Tyrone then tells Edmund ofhis great theatrical mistake that prevented him from becoming widely famous: hesold out toone particular role, and was forever more typecast, making itdifficult for him toexpand his horizons and find new work. Tyrone says that heonly ever really wanted tobean artist, but his hopes were dashed when hesold out tobrief commercial success. Edmund begins laughing «atlife. It «p.s sodamned crazy, «thinking ofhis father asanartist.

Edmund then tells some ofhis memories, all ofwhich are related tothe sea. Hereflects onmoments when hefelt dissolved into orlost inthe ocean. Hethinks that there istruth and meaning inbeing lost atsea, and hethinks heshould have been born a«seagull orafish. «.

Act IV, Part Two.

Hearing Jamie approaching the house, Tyrone steps into the next room. Jamie enters, drunk and slurring his speech. Hedrinks more, but hewill not let Edmund drink atfirst, for health reasons. Jamie complains about Tyrone briefly, then learns ofhis agreement with Edmund. Jamie says that hespent the evening atthe whorehouse, where hepaid for afat whore whom noone else was willing totake. Edmund attacks Jamie with apunch when Jamie begins praising himself and berating others. Jamie thanks him suddenly for straightening him out; hehas been messed upbyproblems related toMary «p.s addiction. Heand Edmund both begin tocry asthey think about their mother. Jamie isalso worried about Edmund, who may die from consumption. Jamie says that heloves Edmund, and that inasense hemade him what heisat present.

But Jamie also admits that hehas been abad influence, and hesays that hedid itonpurpose. Jamie admits that hehas always been jealous ofEdmund, and hewanted Edmund toalso fail. Heset abad example intentionally and tried tobring Edmund down. Hethen warns Edmund, saying, «I «lldomy damnedest tomake you fail, «but then headmits, «You «reall I «vegot left. «Jamie then passes out.

Tyrone then reenters, having heard all that Jamie said. Tyrone says that hehas been issuing the exact same warning toEdmund for many years. Tyrone calls Jamie a«waste. «Jamie wakes upsuddenly and argues with Tyrone. Jamie and Tyrone both pass out briefly until they are awoken bythe sound ofMary playing the piano inthe next room. The sound stops, and Mary appears. She isvery pale and very clearly onasubstantial dose ofmorphine. Jamie begins tocry, and Tyrone angrily cries that hewill throw Jamie out ofhis house. Mary ishallucinating, thinking that she isback inher childhood. She thinks that she isin aconvent. Inher hands, she isholding her wedding gown, which she fished out ofthe attic earlier. She does not hear anyone, and she moves like asleepwalker. Edmund suddenly tells Mary that hehas consumption, but she tells him not totouch her because she wants tobe anun. The three men all pour themselves more alcohol, but before they can drink, Mary begins tospeak. She tells them ofher talk with Mother Elizabeth, who told her that she should experience life out ofthe convent before choosing tobecome anun. Mary says that she followed that advice, went home toher parents, met and fell inlove with James Tyrone, «and was sohappy for atime. «The boys sit motionless and Tyrone stirs inhis chair asthe play ends.

Moby Dick.

Context Herman Melville (1819−1891) was apopular writer ofsea narratives before hewrote Moby-Dick (1851). What was tobecome his best known novel, The Whale; orMoby-Dick, received good reviews when itappeared inEngland, but the first American edition, coming out amonth later inNew York, received mixed reviews. Itwas not afinancial success and bafied American critics until the 20th century, when itbegan tobeconsidered aclassic. Melville was not recognized asagenius inhis time; his most famous works today{Moby-Dick, short stories like «Benito Cereno, «and Billy Budd{were not widely read orheralded inthe 19th century. Melville «p.s America was atumultuous place. Inthe North, rapid industrialization was changing social patterns and giving rise tonew wealth. Inthe South, the cotton interest was trying tohold onto the system ofblack slavery. America was stretching westward, and encountering Native American tribes, astravel bytrain, road, sea, and canal become easier than before. Politicians appealed tothe masses asthe idea of«democracy «(versus republicanism) took hold. Nationalism was high inthe early nineteenth century, but asnational interconnectedness became more feasible, the deep divisions insociety began togrow. Soon, sectionalism, racism, economic self-interest, and bitter political struggle would culminate inthe Civil War. Against this backdrop, Melville sailed off onhis first whaling voyage in1841. This experience became the material for his first book, Typee (1846), anarrative that capitalized onexotic titillation about natives inthe Marquesas Islands. Becoming well known for his earthy, rowdy stories offaraway places, hequickly followed his initial success with Omoo (1847) and Mardi (1849). But after Mardi, Melville «p.s writing career started tolevel off. Though Melville had once thought hecould beaprofessional writer, Moby-Dicks poor reviews meant that Melville would never beable tosupport himself bywriting alone. Melville was always firmly middle-class, though his personas inbooks always seemed working-class. Hehad adistinguished pedigree: some ofhis ancestors were Scottish and Dutch settlers ofNew York who played leading roles inthe American Revolution and commercial development. But Melville often felt like the «savage «inthe family, which may have explained why hewas not afraid totackle such risky topics asslave revolt (in «Benito Cereno ») orthe life-sucking potential ofoffce jobs («Bartleby the Scrivener »). Throughout his life, Melville was anavid reader. Much ofhis information for Moby-Dick comes from printed sources. The number ofrefer ences todifierent texts (intertextuality) inMoby-Dick testifies tothe importance ofbooks inMelville «p.s life. Inparticular, headmired Nathaniel Hawthorne, whom hebefriended in1850 and towhom Melville dedicated the novel. Melville admired Hawthorne «p.s willingness todive todeep psychological depths and gothic grimness, traits for which hewould also bepraised. The works ofShakespeare and stories inthe Bible (especially the Old Testament) also inuenced Moby-Dick. Moreover, Melville «p.s novel was certainly not the first book onwhaling. Whaling narratives were extremely popular inthe 19th century. Inparticular, Melville relied onthe encyclopedic Natural History ofthe Sperm Whale byThomas Beale and the narrative Etchings ofaWhaling Cruise by J. Ross Browne. Healso used information from avolume byWilliam Scoresby, but mostly toridicule Scoresby «p.s pompous inaccuracy. One final note: many editions ofMoby-Dick have been printed. Check your edition before using this guide, because «abridged «or «edited «versions may bedifierent. Characters Ishmael { Ishmael isthe narrator ofthe story, but not really the center ofit. Hehas noexperience with whaling when hesigns onand heisoften comically extravagant inhis storytelling. Ishmael bears the same name asafamous castaway inthe Bible. Ahab { The egomaniacal captain ofthe whalingship Pequod; his leg was taken off byMoby Dick, the white whale. Hesearches frantically for the whale, seeking revenge, and forces his crew tojoin him inthe pursuit. Starbuck { This native ofNantucket isthe first mate ofthe Pequod. Starbuck questions his commander «p.s judgment, first inprivate and later inpublic. Queequeg { Starbuck «p.s stellar harpooner and Ishmael «p.s best friend, Queequeg was once aprince from aSouth Sea island who wanted tohave aworldly adventure. Queequeg isacomposite character, with anidentity that ispart African, Polynesian, Islamic, Christian, and Native American. Stubb { This native ofCape Cod isthe second mate ofthe Pequod and always has abit ofmischievous good humor. Moby Dick { The great white sperm whale; aninfamous and dangerous threat toseamen like Ahab and his crew. Tashtego { Stubb «p.s harpooneer, Tashtego isaGay Head Indian from Martha «p.s Vineyard. Flask { This native ofTisbury onMartha «p.s Vineyard isthe third mate ofthe Pequod. Short and stocky, hehas aconfrontational attitude and noreverence for anything. Daggoo { Flask «p.s harpooneer, Daggoo isavery big, dark-skinned, imperiallooking man from Africa. Pip { Either from Connecticut orAlabama (there isadiscrepancy), Pip used toplay the tambourine and take care ofthe ship. After being left tooat onthe sea alone for ashort period oftime, hebecomes mystically wise{or possibly loses his mind. Fedallah { Most ofthe crew doesn «tknow until the first whale chase that Ahab has brought onboard this strange «oriental «old man who isaParsee (Persian fire-worshipper). Fedallah has avery striking appearance: around his head isaturban made from his own hair, and hewears ablack Chinese jacket and pants. Like Queequeg, Fedallah «p.s character isalso acomposite ofMiddle Eastern and East Asian traits. Peleg { This well-to-do retired whaleman ofNantucket isone ofthe largest owners ofthe Pequod who, with Captain Bildad, takes care ofhiring the crew. When the two are negotiating wages for Ishmael and Queequeg, Peleg plays the generous one. Heis aQuaker. Bildad { Also awell-to-do Quaker ex-whaleman from Nantucket who owns alarge share ofthe Pequod, Bildad is (orpretends tobe) crustier than Peleg innegotiations over wages. Father Mapple { The preacher inthe New Bedford Whaleman «p.s Chapel. Hedelivers asermon onJonah and the whale. Captain Boomer { Boomer isthe jovial captain ofthe English whalingship Samuel Enderby; his arm was taken off byMoby Dick.

Introduction Summary These prefatory sections establish the groundwork for anew book about whaling. Melville quotes from avariety ofsources, revered, famous, and obscure, that may directly address whaling oronly mention awhale inpassing. The quotations include short passages from the Bible, Shakespeare, John Milton «p.s epic poem Paradise Lost (1667), other well-known poems, dictionaries, whaling and travel narratives, histories, and songs. The Etymology section, looking atthe derivations of«whale, «iscompiled by a«late consumptive usher toagrammar school, «and the Extracts section, aselection ofshort quotations describing whales orwhaling, by a«sub-sublibrarian. «Melville «p.s humor comes through inthese sections, both inthe way hepokes fun atthe «poor devil ofaSub-Sub «and mentions even the tiniest reference toawhale inthese literary works.

Chapters 1−9 Summary The story begins with one ofthe most famous opening lines inliterary history: «Call meIshmael. «Whatever Ishmael «p.s «real «name, his adopted name signals his identification with the Biblical outcast from the Book ofGenesis. Heexplains that hewent tosea because hewas feeling a«damp, drizzly November in [his] soul «and wanted some worldly adventure. Inthe mood for old-fashioned whaling, Ishmael heads toNew Bedford, the current center ofwhaling, tocatch aferry toNantucket, the previous center ofwhaling. After wandering through the black streets ofNew Bedford, hefinally stumbles upon The Spouter-Inn, owned byPeter Coffn. First passing byalarge, somewhat inscrutable оіл painting and acollection of«monstrous clubs and spears, «Ishmael walks into aroom filled with «awild set ofmariners. «Because the inn isnearly full, Ishmael learns that hewill have toshare aroom with «adark complexioned «harpooner named Queequeg. Atfirst, Ishmael decides that hewould rather sleep onabench than share abed with some strange, possibly dangerous man. But, discovering the bench tobetoo uncomfortable, hedecides toput upwith the unknown harpooner, who, Coffn assures him, isperfectly fine because «hepays reg «lar. «Still, Ishmael isworried since Coffn tells him that the harpooner has recently arrived from the South Sea and peddles shrunken heads. When the Queequeg finally returns, the frightened Ishmael watches Queequeg from the bed, noting with alittle horror the harpooner «p.s tattoos, tomahawk/pipe, and dark-colored idol. When Queequeg finally discovers Ishmael inhis bed, heourishes the tomahawk asIshmael shouts for the owner. After Coffn explains the situation, they settle infor the night and, when they wake up, Queequeg «p.s arm isaffectionately thrown over Ishmael. Ishmael issorry for his prejudices against the «cannibal, «finding Queequeg quite civilized, and they become fast, close friends. The chapters called The Street, The Chapel, The Pulpit, and The Sermon establish the atmosphere inwhich Ishmael sets out onhis whaling mission. Because ofits maritime industry, New Bedford isacosmopolitan town, full ofdifierent sorts ofpeople (Lascars, Malays, Feegeeans, Tongatabooans, Yankees, and green Vermonters). Inthis town isthe Whaleman «p.s Chapel, where the walls are inscribed with memorials tosailors lost atsea and the pulpit islike aship «p.s bow. The preacher inthis chapel, Father Mapple, isafavorite among whalemen because ofhis sincerity and sanctity. Once asailor and harpooner, Mapple now delivers sermons. His theme for this Sunday: Jonah, the story ofthe prophet swallowed by«agreat fish. «(Today wetalk about «Jonah and the Whale. ») Mapple preaches astory about man «p.s sin, willful disobedience ofthe command ofGod, and ight from Him. But, says Mapple, the story also speaks tohim personally asacommand «Topreach the Truth inthe face ofFalsehood! «with aconfidence born from knowing God «p.s will. Chapters 10−21 Summary Inthese chapters welearn more about the relationship between Ishmael and Queequeg. Upon third consideration, Ishmael develops agreat respect for his new friend. Although still a«savage, «Queequeg becomes, inIshmael «p.s mind, «George Washington cannibalistically developed. «Furthermore, after having intimate chats with him inbed, Ishmael admires Queequeg «p.s sincerity and lack ofChristian «hollow courtesies. «Quick friends, they are «married «after asocial smoke. The chapter called Biographical gives more information onQueequeg «p.s past, detailing the harpooner «p.s life asason ofaHigh Chief orKing ofKokovoko. Intent onseeing the world, hepaddled his way toadeparting ship and persisted sostubbornly that they finally allowed him tostow away asawhaleman. Queequeg can never goback because his interaction with Christianity has made him unfit toascend his homeland «p.s «pure and undefiled throne «and so, says Ishmael, «that barbed iron [a harpoon] was inlieu ofasceptre now. «Together, they set off with awheelbarrow full oftheir things for Nantucket. Onthe packet over toNantucket, abumpkin mimics Queequeg. Queequeg ips him around topunish him, and issubsequently scolded bythe captain. But when the bumpkin isswept overboard asthe ship has technical dificulties, Queequeg takes charge ofthe ropes tosecure the boat and then dives into the water tosave the man overboard. This action wins everyone «p.s respect. Melville then writes abit about Nantucket «p.s history, about the «redmen «who first settled there, its ecology, its dependence onthe sea for livelihood. When the two companions arrive, they have apot ofthe best chowder atthe Try Pots. Charged byYojo (Queequeg «p.s wooden idol) toseek aship for the two ofthem, Ishmael comes upon the Pequod, aship «with anold fashioned claw-footed look about her «and «apparelled like any barbaric Ethiopian emperor, his neck heavy with pendants ofpolished ivory. «But the Pequod isnot just exotic toIshmael; healso calls it a«cannibal ofacraft «because itisbejeweled with whale parts. Onboard, hemakes adeal with Peleg and Bildad, the Quaker owners ofthe ship, characterized asconniving cheapskates and bitter taskmasters. Evaluating Ishmael for his lay (portion ofthe ship «p.s proffts, awhaleman «p.s wage), Peleg finally gives him the 300th lay. (This, Bildad says, is«generous. ») Atthis time, Ishmael also learns that the ship «p.s captain isAhab, named after awicked and punished Biblical king. Although Ahab has seemed alittle moody since helost his leg tothe white whale Moby Dick, Bildad and Peleg believe inhis competence. Ishmael does not meet the captain inperson until much later. Returning tothe inn, Ishmael allows Queequeg aday for his «Ramadan «ceremonies and then becomes worried when his friend does not answer the door inthe evening. When the panicking Ishmael finally gets the door open, hefinds Queequeg deep inmeditation. The next day, they return tothe Pequod tosign Queequegup. Though the owners object atfirst toQueequeg «p.s paganism, the Kokovokan impresses them with his skill byhitting aspot oftar onamast with aharpoon. They give him the 90th lay, «more than ever was given aharpooneer yet out ofNantucket. «Although Bildad still tries toconvert Queequeg, Peleg tells him togive up. «Pious harpooneers never make good voyagers { ittakes the shark out of«em; noharpooneer isworth astraw who aint pretty sharkish. «Just after signing the papers, the two run into aman named Elijah (aprophet, orjust some frightening stranger) who hints tothem about the peril ofsigning aboard Ahab «p.s ship. They disregard him. For several days, there ispreparation for the dangerous voyage. When they are near the ship, Ishmael thinks that hesees some «shadows «boarding the ship, but then dismisses the idea. Elijah warns them again just before they board. Chapters 22−31 Summary AtChristmas, the ship finally heaves off from the port and Ishmael gets his first taste ofthe rigors ofwhaling life. Asthe boat sails away from civilization, Bulkington, anoble sailor that Ishmael saw atthe Coffn inn, appears onthe Pequod «p.s decks, and makes Ishmael wax sentimental about the heroism insailing into the deeps. Inthe chapter called The Advocate, Ishmael defends the whaling profession inaseries ofarguments and responses. Whaling isaheroic business, hesays, that iseconomically crucial (for the оіл) and has resulted ingeographical discovery. Hefinds the utmost dignity inwhaling: asubject ofgood genealogy, worthy enough for Biblical writers and also educational. These, hesays, are facts. Hecan «tpraise sperm whaling enough and even suggests that sperm оіл has been used toanoint kings because itisthe best, purest, and sweetest. Inthe chapter called Knights and Squires, wemeet the mates and their lieutenants. The first mate, Starbuck, isapragmatic, reliable Nantucketer. Speaking about Starbuck leads Ishmael tocarry onabout the working man and democratic equality. The pipe-smoking second mate Stubb, anative ofCape Cod, isalways cool under pressure and has «impious good humor. «Third mate Flask, anative ofTisbury onMartha «p.s Vineyard, isashort, stocky fellow with aconfrontational attitude and noreverence for the dignity ofthe whale. Heisnicknamed «King-Post «because heresembles the short, square timber known bythat name inArctic whalers. Already introduced, Queequeg isStarbuck «p.s harpooner. Stubb «p.s «squire «isTashtego, «anunmixed Indian from Gay Head «(Martha «p.s Vineyard). Flask «p.s harpooner isDaggoo, «agigantic, coal-black negro-savage «from Africa with animperial bearing. The rest ofthe crew isalso mostly international. But, says Ishmael, all these «Isolatoes «are «federated along one keel «and unified byaccompanying Ahab. Ishmael also makes small mention ofPip, apoor Alabama boy who beats atambourine onship. Ahab finally appears ondeck and Ishmael observes closely. Hesees Ahab asavery strong, willful figure, though his encounter with the whale has scarred him. Certainly, Ahab seems abit psychologically troubled. Ahab «p.s relationship toothers onthe boat isone oftotal dictatorship. When Stubb complains about Ahab «p.s pacing, Ahab calls him adog and advances onhim. Stubb retreats. The next morning, Stubb wakes upand explains toFlask that hehad adream that Ahab kicked him with his ivory leg. (The title ofthis chapter, Queen Mab, refers toShakespeare «p.s tragedy Romeo and Ju-liet, inwhich the character Mercutio talks about weird dreams.) Chapters 32−40 «Cetology, «asIshmael explains, is«the science ofwhales. «Inthe Cetology chapter and subsequent cetologylike chapters inthe book, Ishmael tries todissect whales scientifically. After including some quotations from previous writers onthe whale, Ishmael says hehere attempts a«draught «(draft) ofawhale classification system that others can revise. Hedivides the whales into books and chapters (like today «p.s Linnaean system that includes genus and species). His first subject isthe sperm whale. Atthe end ofthe chapter, hepronounces it a«drought ofadraught. «The Specksynder isanother cetology-like chapter inthat ittries todissect the whaling industry. Beginning with trivia about the changing role ofthe specksynder (literally, «fat-cutter »), who used tobechief harpooneer and captain, Ishmael moves onto adiscussion ofleadership styles, particularly that ofroyal orimperial leaders. The chapter called The Cabin-Table returns tothe plot, showing the ship «p.s offcers atdinner. This isarigid afiair over which Ahab presides. After the offcers finish, the table isre-laid for the harpooneers. Then Ishmael discusses his first post onthe mast-head watching for whales. Hewrites ahistory ofmast-heads and their present role onawhaling ship. Ishmael, who can rarely stick only toone subject orone level ofthinking, discusses metaphorical meanings ofwhat hesees. Then, inthe chapter called The Quarter-Deck, hereturns tonarrative plot, dramatizing Ahab «p.s first offcial appearance before the men. Ahab «p.s call and response tests the crew, checking whether they know what todo, and unites them under his leadership. Presenting aSpanish gold doubloon, heproclaims. «Whosoever ofyeraises meawhite-headed whale with awrinkled brow and acrooked jaw; whosoever ofyeraises methat while-headed whale, with three holes punctured inhis starboard uke— look ye, whosoever ofyeraises that same white whale, heshall have this gold ounce, myboys! «The men cheer. Ahab then confesses, inresponse toStarbuck «p.s query, that itwas indeed this white whale Moby Dick who took off his leg, and announces his quest tohunt him down. The men shout together that they will hunt with Ahab, though Starbuck protests. Ahab then begins aritual that binds the crew together. Hefills acup with alcohol and everyone onthe ship drinks from that agon. Telling the harpooners tocross their lances before him, Ahab grasps the weapons and anoints Queequeg, Tashtego, and Daggoo «mythree pagan kinsmen thereyon three most honorable gentlemen and noble men. «Hethen makes them take the iron off ofthe harpoons touse asdrinking goblets. They all drink together while Ahab proclaims, «God hunt usall, ifwedo not hunt Moby Dick tohis death! «Another chapter beginning with astage direction, Sunset isamelancholy monologue byAhab. Hesays that everyone thinks heismad and heagrees somewhat. Heselfconsciously calls himself «demoniac «and «madness maddened. «Even though heseems tobethe one orchestrating events, hedoes not feel incontrol: «The path tomyfixed purpose islaid with iron rails, whereon mysoul isgrooved torun. «Dusk isStarbuck «p.s monologue. Though hefeels that itwill all come out badly, hefeels inextricably bound toAhab. When hehears the revelry coming from the crew «p.s forecastle, helaments the whole, doomed voyage. First Night-Watch isStubb «p.s monologue, giving another perspective onthe voyage. Midnight, Forecastle isdevoted tothe jolly men who take turns showing off and singing together. They get into afight when the Spanish Sailor makes fun ofDaggoo. The onset ofastorm, however, stops their fighting and makes them tend tothe ship. Chapters 41−47 Summary Ishmael ismeditative again, starting with adiscussion ofthe white whale «p.s history. Rumors about Moby Dick are often out ofcontrol, hesays, because whale fishermen «are byall odds the most directly brought into contact with whatever isappallingly astonishing inthe sea; face toface they not only eye its greatest marvels, but, hand tojaw, give battle tothem. «Itiseasy toattach metaphorical meaning ormake uplegend about dangerously intense, life-threatening experiences. Ishmael isskeptical, though, about assertions that Moby Dick isimmortal. Headmits that there isasingular whale called Moby Dick who isdistinguished byhis «peculiar snow-white wrinkled forehead, and ahigh, pyramidical white hump «and that this whale isknown tohave destroyed boats inaway that seems «intelligent. «Nowonder Ahab hates the white whale, says Ishmael, since itdoes seem that Moby Dick did itout ofspite. Intertwined with Moby Dick «p.s history isAhab «p.s personal history. When the white whale took off Ahab «p.s leg, the whale became toAhab «the monomaniac incarnation ofall those malicious agencies which some deep men feel eating inthem, till they are left living onwith half aheart and half alung. «Ahab «p.s reaction was tomagnify the symbolism ofthe whale: the whale didn «tjust take off his leg, but represents everything that hehates and everything that torments him. Ahab went crazy onthe trip home, says Ishmael, though hetried toappear sane. The Whiteness ofthe Whale turns from what Moby Dick means toAhab, towhat itmeans toIshmael. Above all, hesays, itisthe whiteness ofthe whale that appalls him. (Note Ishmael «p.s pun{the root ofthe word «appall «literally means toturn white.) Ishmael begins his cross-cultural discussion of«whiteness «bysaying how much ithas been idealized asvirtue ornobility. Tohim, however, the color white only multiplies terror when itisattached with any object «terrible «initself. After ashort dramatic scene (Hark!) where the sailors say toeach other that they think there may besomething orsomeone inthe after-hold, Ishmael returns toanexamination ofAhab inThe Chart. Because Ahab believes that his skill with charts will help him locate Moby Dick, Ishmael discusses how one might scientifically track awhale. InThe Afidavit, Ishmael explains inorganized form «the natural verity ofthe main points ofthis afiair. «Herealizes that this story seems preposterous inmany ways and wants toconvince the reader that his story isreal bylisting the «true «bases for this story inquasi-outline form (first, personal experiences, then tales ofwhale fishermen orcollective memory, and finally books). Hethen looks atwhy people may not believe these stories. Perhaps readers haven «theard about the perils orvivid adventures inthe whaling industry, hesays. Ormaybe they donot understand the immensity ofthe whale. Heasks that the audience use «human reasoning «when judging his story. The chapter called Surmises returns the focus toAhab, considering how the captain will accomplish his revenge. Because Ahab must use men ashis tools, Ahab has tobevery careful. How can hemotivate them? Ahab can appeal totheir hearts, but also heknows that cash will keep them going. Ahab further knows that hehas towatch that hedoes not leave himself open tocharges of«usurpation. «That is, hehas tofollow standard operating procedure, lest hegive his offcers reason tooverrule him. The Mat-Maker returns tothe plot. Ishmael describes slow, dreamy atmosphere onthe ship when they are not after awhale. Heand Queequeg are making asword-mat, and, inafamous passage, likens their weaving towork on«the Loom ofTime. «(The threads ofthe warp are fixed like necessity. Man has limited free will: hecan interweave his own woof crossthreads into this fixed structure. When Queequeg «p.s sword hits the loom and alters the overall pattern, Ishmael calls this chance.) What jolts him out ofhis reverie isTashtego «p.s call for awhale. Suddenly, everyone isbusied inpreparations for the whale hunt. Just asthey are about topush off inboats, «five dusky phantoms «emerge around Ahab. Chapters 48−54 Summary These chapters return ustothe action ofMoby-Dick. Wemeet Fedallah for the first time, described asadark, sinister figure with aChinese jacket and turban made from coiling his own hair around his head. Wealso meet for the first time the «tiger-yellow … natives ofthe Manillas «(Ahab «p.s boat crew) who were hiding inthe hold ofthe Pequod. The other crews are staring atthe newly discovered shipmates, but Flask tells them tocontinue doing their jobs{that is, toconcentrate onhunting the whale. The Pequod «p.s first lowering after the whale isnot very successful. Queequeg manages toget adart inthe whale but the animal overturns the boat. The men are nearly crushed bythe ship asitpasses looking for them, because asquall has put amist over everything. The chapter called The Hyena functions asamooring ofsorts{a selfconscious look back that puts everything inperspective. Inthis chapter, Ishmael talks about laughing atthings, what ahyena isknown for. Finding out that such dangerous conditions are typical, Ishmael asks Queequeg tohelp him make his will. Ishmael then comments onAhab «p.s personal crew. Ahab «p.s decision tohave his own boat and crew, says Ishmael, isnot atypical practice inthe whaling industry. But however strange, «inawhaler, wonders soon wane «because there are somany unconventional sights inawhaler: the sheer variety ofpeople, the strange ports ofcall, and the distance and disconnectedness ofthe ships themselves from land-based, conventional society. But even though whalemen are not easily awe-struck, Ishmael does say «that hairturbaned Fedallah remained amufied mystery tothe last. «Heis«such acreature ascivilized, domestic people inthe temperate zone only see intheir dreams, and that but dimly. «Ishmael then focuses onFedallah. Onthe masthead one night, the Parsee thinks hesees awhale spouting. The whole ship then tries tofollow it, but the whale isnot seen again until some days later. Ishmael calls it a«spirit-spout «because itseems tobe aphantom leading themon. Some think itmight beMoby Dick leading the ship ontoward its destruction. The ship sails around the Cape ofGood Hope (Africa), aparticularly treacherous passage. Through itall, Ahab commands the deck robustly and even when heisdown inthe cabin, hekeeps his eye onthe cabin-compass that tells him where the ship isgoing. They soon see aship called «The Goney, «orAlbatross, avessel with a«spectral appearance «that isalong way from home. Ofcourse, Ahab asks them asthey pass by, «Have yeseen the White Whale? «While the other captain istrying torespond, agust ofwind blows the trumpet from his mouth. Their wakes cross asboth ships continueon. The Pequod continues its way around the world, Ishmael worries that this isdangerous{they might just begoing oninmazes orwill all be«[over]whelmed. «Ishmael then explains that these two ships did not have a«gam. «Agam, according toIshmael, is«asocial meeting oftwo (ormore) Whale-ships, generally onacruisingground; when, after exchanging hails, they exchange visits byboats «crews: the two captains remaining, for the time, onboard ofone ship, and the two chief mates onthe other. «The Town-Ho «p.s Story isastory within the larger story ofMoby-Dick. During agam with the ship Town-Ho (which they encounter after the Goney), awhite sailor onthe Town-Ho tells this story toTashtego who shares itwith all the men inthe forecastle. Ishmael announces atthe beginning ofthe chapter that heistelling uswhat heonce told ittosome friends inLima. The basic story concerns Radney, amate from Martha «p.s Vineyard, and Steelkilt, asailor from Bufialo who have acon ict onboard the Town-Ho, asperm whaler from Nantucket. Steelkit rebels against Radney «p.s authority, assaults the mate (after the mate attacks him), and starts amutiny. The mutineers are punished and released, but Steelkilt wants revenge. The ship runs into Moby Dick and, inthe process oftrying toharpoon him, Radney falls out ofthe boat. Moby Dick snatches him inhis jaws. Ishmael «p.s listeners don «tnecessarily believe him, but heswears onacopy ofthe Four Gospels that heistelling the truth. Chapters 55−65 Summary Here, Melville describes poor representations ofwhales. Toawhaleman who has actually seen whales, many historical, mythological, and scientific sources seem inaccurate. Asaresult, says Ishmael, «you must needs conclude that the great Leviathan isthe one creature inthe world which must remain unpainted tothe last. «The only solution Ishmael sees istogo whaling yourself. The next chapter tries tofind some acceptable depictions. ToIshmael «p.s taste the only things that are anywhere close are two large French engravings from aGarneray painting that show the Sperm and Right Whales inaction. The following chapter tries toexpand the discussion ofrepresentations ofwhales toinclude whales invarious media. Ishmael then talks about how whalemen have been known tomake scrimshaw. Whalemen who deal with whales somuch start seeing whales everywhere, which iswhy hementions stars. The Brit chapter brings back the encyclopedic cetology chapter type. Brit isaminute yellow substance upon which the Right Whale largely feeds. Ishmael uses the chapter asaplatform onwhich totalk about contradictory views ofthe sea (frightening «universal cannibalism ») and the earth («green, gentle, and most docile «land). Past the field ofBrit inthe water, Daggoo thinks that hesights Moby Dick. Itis afalse alarm, however, and itisonly agiant squid. Inpreparation for alater scene, says Ishmael, hewill explain the whaleline. made ofhemp, this rope isconnected tothe harpoon atone end and free atthe other sothat itcan betied toother boats «lines. Because itwhizzes out when awhale isdarted, itisdangerous for the men inthe boat. Wethen return tomore action, where Stubb kills ablack sperm whale. Ishmael vigorously describes the gore tous. InThe Dart, Ishmael backtracks, describing what aharpooneer does and how heuses adart. Freely giving his opinion onwhaling technique, Ishmael says that mates should throw both the dart and the lance because the harpooneer should befresh, not tired from rowing. Then, toexplain the crotch mentioned inthe previous chapter, Ishmael backtracks again todescribe the notched stick that furnishes arest for the wooden part ofthe harpoon. Ishmael then returns tothe plot: Stubb wants toeat the freshly killed whale, although most whalemen donot. (Usually the only creatures that eat whale meat are sharks.) Hecalls onthe black cook Fleece tomake his supper and make the sharks stop eating the whale esh. Inasermon tothe sharks, the cook tells them that they ought tobemore civilized. Stubb and the cook get into afolksy religious discussion. Hethen likens Stubb toashark. Ishmael then feels that hemust describe what whale islike asadish. Doing ahistorical survey ofwhale-as-dish, Ishmael remarks that noone except for Stubb and the «Esquimaux «accept itnow. Deterrents include the exceedingly rich quality ofthe meat and its prodigious quantities. Furthermore, itseems wrong because hunting the whale makes the meat a«noble dish «and one has toeat the meat bythe whale «p.s own light. But perhaps this blasphemy isn «tsorare, says Ishmael, since the readers probably eat beef with aknife made from the bone ofoxen orpick their teeth after eating goose with agoose feather. Chapters 66−73 Summary These chapters get into the minutiae ofwhaling technique. The Shark Massacre describes how sharks often swarm around dead whale carcasses, forcing whalemen topoke them with spades orkill them. Even when sharks are dead, they are often still dangerous: once, when Queequeg brought one ondeck for its skin, itnearly took his hand off. There «p.s nosacred Sabbath inwhaling, since the gory business ofcutting inoccurs whenever there isakill. Cutting ininvolves inserting ahook inthe whale «p.s blubber and peeling the blubber off asone might peel off anorange rind inone strip. Discussing the whale «p.s blubber, Ishmael realizes that itisdificult todetermine exactly what the whale «p.s skinis. There issomething thin and isinglass-like, but that «p.s only the skin ofthe skin. Ifwedecide that the blubber ofthe whale (the long pieces ofwhich are called «blanketpieces ») isthe skin, weare still missing something since blubber only accounts for ¾ ofthe weight ofthe blanket-pieces. After cutting in, the whale isthen released for its «funeral «inwhich the «mourners «are vultures and sharks. The frightful white carcass oats away and a«vengeful ghost «hovers over it, deterring other ships from going nearit. Ishmael backtracks inThe Sphynx, saying that before whalers let acarcass go, they behead itin a«scientific anatomical feat. «Ahab talks tothis head, asking ittotell him ofthe horrors that ithas seen. But Ahab knows that itdoesn «tspeak and laments its inability tospeak: too many horrors are beyond utterance. The chapter about the Jeroboam (aship carrying some epidemic) also backtracks, referring back toastory Stubb heard during the gam with the Town-Ho. Aman, who had been aprophet among the Shakers inNew York, proclaimed himself the archangel Gabriel onthe ship and mesmerized the crew. Captain Mayhew wanted toget rid ofhim atthe next port, but the crew threatened desertion. And the sailors aboard the Pequod now see this very Gabriel infront ofthem. When Captain Mayhew istelling Ahab astory about the White Whale, Gabriel keeps interrupting. According toMayhew, the Jeroboam first heard about the existence ofMoby Dick when they were speaking toanother ship. Gabriel then warned against killing it, calling itthe Shaker God incarnated. They ran into itabout ayear afterwards and the ship «p.s leaders decided tohuntit. Asthe mate was standing inthe ship tothrow his lance, the whale ipped the mate into the air and tossed him into the sea. Nothing was harmed except for the mate, who drowned. Gabriel, the entire time, had been onthe mast-head and said, basically, «Itold you so. «When Ahab confirms that heintends tohunt the white whale still, Gabriel points tohim, saying, «Think, think ofthe blasphemer— dead, and down there! —beware ofthe blasphemer «p.s end! «Ahab then realizes that the Pequod iscarrying aletter for the dead mate and tries tohand itover tothe captain onthe end ofacutting-spade pole. Somehow, Gabriel gets ahold ofit, impales itonthe boat-knife, and sends itback toAhab «p.s feet asthe Jeroboam pulls away. Ishmael backtracks again inThe Monkey-Rope toexplain how Queequeg inserts the blubber hook. Ishmael, asQueequeg «p.s bowsman, ties the monkey-rope around his waist asQueequeg isonthe whale «p.s oating body trying toattach the hook. (Inafootnote, welearn that only onthe Pequod were the monkey and this holder actually tied together, animprovement introduced byStubb.) While Ishmael holds him, Tashtego and Daggoo are also ourishing their whale-spades tokeep the sharks away. When Dough-Boy, the steward, offers Queequeg some tepid ginger and water, the mates frown atthe inuence ofpesky Temperance activists and make the steward bring him alcohol.

Meanwhile, asthe Pequod oats along, they spot aright whale. After killing him, Stubb asks Flask what Ahab might want with this «lump offoul lard. «Flask responds that Fedallah says that awhaler with aSperm Whale «p.s head onher starboard side and aRight Whale «p.s head onher larboard will never afterwards capsize. They then get into adiscussion inwhich both ofthem confess that they donot like Fedallah and think ofhim as«the devil indisguise. «Inthis instance and always, Fedallah watches and stands inAhab «p.s shadow. Ishmael notes that the Parsee «p.s shadow seemed toblend with and lengthen Ahab «p.s. Chapters 74−81 Summary The paired chapters (74 and 75) doananatomic comparison ofthe sperm whale «p.s head and the right whale «p.s head. Inshort, the sperm whale has agreat well ofsperm, ivory teeth, long lower jaw, and one external spouthole; the right whale has bones shaped like Venetian blinds inhis mouth, huge lower lip, atongue, and one external spouthole. Ishmael calls the right whale stoic and the sperm «platonian. «The Battering-Ram discusses the blunt, large, wall-like part ofthe head that seems tobejust a«wad. «Inactuality, inside the thin, sturdy casing is a«mass oftremendous life. «Hegoes ontoexplain, inThe Great Heidelberg Tun (awine cask inHeidelberg with acapacity of49,000 gallons), that there are two subdivisions ofthe upper part ofawhale «p.s head: the Case and the junk. The Case isthe Great Heidelberg Tun since itcontains the highly-prized spermaceti. Ishmael then dramatizes the tapping ofthe case byTashtego. Itgoes bybucket from the «cistern «(well) once Tashtego finds the spot. Inthis scene, Tashtego accidentally falls intothe case. Inpanic, Daggoo fouls the lines and the head falls into the ocean. Queequeg dives inand manages tosave Tashtego. InThe Prairie, Ishmael discusses the nineteenth-century arts ofphysiognomy (the art ofjudging human character from facial features) and phrenology (the study ofthe shape ofthe skull, based onthe belief that itreveals character and mental capacity). Bysuch analyses, the sperm whale «p.s large, clear brow gives him the dignity ofgod. The whale «p.s «pyramidical silence «demonstrates the sperm whale «p.s genius. But later Ishmael abandons this line ofanalysis, saying that heisn «taprofessional. Besides, the whale wears a«false brow «because itreally doesn «thave much inits skull besides the spermy stufi. (The brain isabout 10 inches big.) Ishmael then says that hewould rather feel aman «p.s spine toknow him than his skull, throwing out phrenology. Judging byspines (which, like brains, are anetwork ofnerves) would discount the smallness ofthe whale «p.s brain and admire the wonderful comparative magnitude ofhis spinal cord. The hump becomes asign ofthe whale «p.s indomitable spirit. The Jungfrau (meaning Virgin inGerman) isout of оіл and meets the Pequod tobeg for some. Ahab, ofcourse, asks about the White Whale, but the Jungfrau has noinformation. Almost immediately after the captain ofthe Jungfrau steps off the Pequod «p.s deck, whales are sighted and hegoes after them desperately. The Pequod also gives chase and succeeds inharpooning the whale before the Germans. But, after bringing the carcass alongside the ship, they discover that the whale issinking and dragging the ship along withit. Ishmael then discusses the frequency ofsinking whales. The Jungfrau starts chasing afin-back, awhale that resembles asperm whale tothe unskilled observer. Chapter 82−92 Summary Ishmael strays from the main action ofthe plot again, diving into the heroic history ofwhaling. First, hedraws from Greek mythology, the JudeoChristian Bible, and Hindu mythology. Hethen discusses the Jonah story inparticular (astory that has been shadowing this entire novel from the start) through the eyes ofanold Sag-Harbor whaleman who iscrusty and questions the Jonah story based onpersonal experience. Ishmael then discusses pitchpoling bydescribing Stubb going through the motions (throwing along lance from ajerking boat tosecure arunning whale). Hethen goes into adiscursive explanation ofhow whales spout with some attempt atscientific precision. But hecannot define exactly what the spout is, sohehas toput forward ahypothesis: the spout isnothing but mist, like the «semivisible steam «that proceeds from the head ofponderous beings such asPlato, Pyrrho, the Devil, Jupiter, Dante, and himself! Inthe next chapter, hecelebrates awhale «p.s most famous part: his tail. Helikes its potential power and lists its difierent uses. When the Pequod sails through the straits ofSunda (near Indonesia) without pulling into any port, Ishmael takes the opportunity todiscuss how isolated and selfcontained awhaleshipis. While inthe straits, they run into agreat herd ofsperm whales swimming inacircle (the «Grand Armada »){ but asthey are chasing the whales, they are being chased byMalay pirates. They try to«drugg «the whales sothat they can kill them ontheir own time. (There are too many totry tokill atonce.) They escape the pirates and goinboats after the whales, somehow ending upinside their circle, aplacid lake. But one whale, who had been pricked and was oundering inpain, panics the whole herd. The boats inthe middle are indanger but manage toget out ofthe center ofthe chaos. They try to«waif «the whales{that is, mark them asthe Pequod «p.s tobetaken later. Ishmael then goes back toexplaining whaling terms, staring with «schools «ofwhales. The schoolmaster isthe head ofthe school, orthe lord. The all-male schools are like a«mob ofyoung collegians. «Backtracking toareference inChapter 87 about waifs, Ishmael explains how the waif works asasymbol inthe whale fishery. Hegoes ontotalk about historical whaling codes and the present one that aFastFish belongs tothe party fast toitand aLoose-Fish isfair came for anybody who can soonest catchit. Afish isfast when itisphysically connected (byrope, etc.) tothe party after itorit bears awaif, says Ishmael. Lawyerlike, Ishmael cites precedents and stories, toshow how dificult itisto maintain rules. InHeads orTails, hementions the strange problem with these rules inEngland because the King and Queen claim the whale. Some whalemen inDover (orsome port near there, says Ishmael) lost their whale tothe Duke because heclaimed the power delegated him from the sovereign. Returning tothe narrative, Ishmael says they come upon aFrench ship Bouton deRose (Rose-Button orRoseBud). This ship has two whales alongside: one «blasted whale «(one that died unmolested onthe sea) that isgoing tohave nothing useful initand one whale that died from indigestion. Stubb asks asailor about the White Whale? Never seen him, isthe answer. Crafty Stubb then asks why the man istrying toget оіл out ofthese whales when clearly there isnone ineither whale. The sailor onthe Rose-Bud says that his captain, onhis first trip, will not believe the sailor «p.s own statements that the whales are worthless. Stubb goes aboard totell the captain that the whales are worthless, although heknows that the second whale might have ambergris, aneven more precious commodity than spermaceti. Stubb and the sailor make upalittle plan inwhich Stubb says ridiculous things inEnglish and the sailor says, inFrench, what hehimself wants tosay. The captain dumps the whales. Assoon asthe Rose-Bud leaves, Stubb mines and finds the sweetsmelling ambergris. Ishmael, inthe next chapter, explains what ambergris is: though itlooks like mottled cheese and comes from the bowel ofwhales, ambergris isactually used for perfumes. Heuses dry legal language todescribe ambergris and discuss its history even though heacknowledges that poets have praisedit. Ishmael then looks atwhere the idea that whales smell bad comes from. Some whaling vessels might have skipped cleaning themselves along time ago, but the current bunch ofSouth Sea Whalers always scrub themselves clean. The оіл ofthe whale works asanatural soap. Chapters 93−101 Summary These are among the most important chapters inMobyDick. InThe Castaway, Pip, who usually watches the ship when the boats goout, becomes areplacement inStubb «p.s boat. Having performed passably the first time out, Pip goes out asecond time and this time hejumps from the boat out ofanxiety. When Pip gets foul inthe lines, and his boatmates have tolet the whale gofree tosave him, hemakes them angry. Stubb tells him never tojump out ofthe boat again because Stubb won «tpick him upnext time. Pip, however, does jump again, and isleft alone inthe middle ofthe sea «p.s «heartless immensity. «Pip goes mad. ASqueeze ofthe Hand, which describes the baling ofthe case (emptying the sperm «p.s head), isone ofthe funniest chapters inthe novel. Because the spermaceti quickly cools into lumps, the sailors have tosqueeze itback into liquid. Here, Ishmael goes overboard with his enthusiasm for the «sweet and unctuous «sperm. Hesqueezes all morning long, getting sentimental about the physical contact with the other sailors, whose hands heencounters inthe sperm. Hegoes ontodescribe the other parts ofthe whale, including the euphemistically-named «cassock «(the whale «p.s penis). This chapter isalso very funny, blasphemously likening the whale «p.s organ tothe dress ofclergymen because ithas some pagan mysticism attached toit. Itserves anactual purpose onthe ship: the mincer wears the black «pelt «ofskin from the penis toprotect himself while heslices the horsepieces ofblubber for the pots. Ishmael then tries toexplain the try-works, heavy structures made ofpots and furnaces that boil the blubber and derive all the оіл fromit. Heassociates the try-works with darkness and asense ofexotic evil: ithas «anunspeakable, wild, Hindoo odor about it, such asmay lurk inthe vicinity offunereal pyres. «Furthermore, the pagan harpooneers tendit. Ishmael also associates itwith the red fires ofHell that, incombination with the black sea and the dark night, sodisorient him that heloses sense ofhimself atthe tiller. Everything becomes «inverted, «hesays, and suddenly there is«nocompass before metosteer by. «Inavery short chapter, Ishmael describes inThe Lamp how whalemen are always inthe light because their job istocollect оіл from the seas. Hethen finishes describing how whale «p.s оіл isprocessed: putting the оіл incasks and cleaning upthe ship. Here hedismisses another myth about whaling: whalers are not dirty. Sperm whale «p.s оіл isafine cleaning agent. But Ishmael admits that whalers are hardly clean for aday when the next whale issighted and the cycle begins again. Ishmael returns totalking about the characters again, showing the reactions ofAhab, Starbuck, Stubb, Flask, the Manxman, Queequeg, Fedallah, and Pip tothe golden coin fixed onthe mainmast. Ahab looks atthe doubloon from Ecuador and sees himself and the pains ofman. Starbuck sees some Biblical significance about how man can find little solace intimes oftrouble. Stubb, first saying hewants tospend it, looks deeper atthe doubloon because hesaw his two superiors gazing meaningfully atit. Hecan find little but some funny dancing zodiac signs. Then Flask approaches, and says hesees «nothing here, round thing made ofgold and whoever raises acertain whale, this round thing belongs tohim. Sowhat «p.s all this staring been about? «Pip isthe last tolook atthe coin and says, prophetically, that here «p.s the ship «p.s «navel «{ something atthe center ofthe ship, holding ittogether. Then the Pequod meets the Samuel Enderby, awhaling ship from London with ajolly captain and crew. The first thing Ahab asks, ofcourse, isifthey have seen Moby Dick. The captain, named Boomer, has, and ismissing anarm because ofit. The story ispretty gory, but Boomer does not dwell too much onthe horrible details, choosing instead totalk about the hot rum toddies hedrank during his recovery. The ship encountered the white whale again but did not want totry tofasten toit. Although the people onboard the Enderby think heiscrazy, Ahab insists onknowing which way the whale went and returns tohis ship topursueit. Inthe next chapter, Ishmael backtracks, toexplain why the name Enderby issignificant: this man fitted the first ever English sperm whaling ship. Ishmael then exuberantly explains the history behind Enderby «p.s before telling the story ofthe particular whaler Samuel Enderby. The good food aboard the Enderby earns the ship the title «Decanter. «Chapter 102−114 Summary Ishmael now tries another tactic for interpreting the whale. Inthe chapter called ABower inthe Arsacides, hediscusses how helearned tomeasure awhale «p.s bones. When hewas visiting his friend Tranquo, king ofTranque, helived inaculture inwhich the whale skeleton was sacred. After telling how helearned tomeasure, hegoes ontotell the results ofthe measurements. Hebegins with the skull, the biggest part, then the ribs, and the spine. But these bones, hecautions, give only apartial picture ofthe whale since somuch esh iswrapped around them. Aperson cannot still find good representation ofawhale inits entirety. And Ishmael continues to«manhandle «the whale, selfconsciously saying that hedoes the best heknows how. Sohedecides tolook atthe Fossil Whale from an«archaeological, fossiliferous, and antediluvian point ofview. «Hecan «tbetoo grandiloquent with his exaggerated words and diction because the whale itself issogrand. Heashes credentials again, this time asageologist and then discusses his finds. But, again, heisunsatisfied: «the skeleton ofthe whale furnishes but little clue tothe shape ofhis fully invested body. «But this chapter does give asense ofthe whale «p.s age and his pedigree. Ishmael finally gives up, inawe, deconstructing the whale- -now hewants toknow ifsuch afabulous monster will remain onthe earth. Ishmael says that though they may not travel inherds anymore, though they may have changed haunting grounds, they remain. Why? Because they have established anew home base atthe poles, where man cannot penetrate; because they «vebeen hunted throughout history and still remain; because the whale population isnot indanger for survival since many generations ofwhales are alive atthe same time. Ahab asks the carpenter tomake him anew leg because the one heuses isnot trustworthy. After hitting itheavily onthe boat «p.s wooden oor when hereturned from the Enderby, hedoes not think itwill keep holding. Indeed, just before the Pequod sailed, Ahab had been found lying onthe ground with the whalebone leg gouging out his thigh. Sothe carpenter, the do-it-all man onthe ship, has tomake Ahab anew prosthetic leg. They discuss the feeling ofaghost leg. When Ahab leaves, the carpenter thinks heis alittle queer. Asailor then informs Ahab, infront ofStarbuck, that the оіл casks are leaking. The sailor suggests that they stop tofix them, but Ahab refuses tostop, saying that hedoesn «tcare about the owners orprofft. Starbuck objects and Ahab points amusket athim. Says Starbuck, «Iask thee not tobeware ofStarbuck; thou wouldst but laugh; but let Ahab beware ofAhab; beware ofthyself, old man. «Incleaning out the stowed оіл casks, Queequeg falls sick. Thinking heisgoing todie, Queequeg orders acoffn made. Helies initand closes the cover, asPip dances around the coffn. Soon, Queequeg feels well again and gets out. Ishmael attributes this tohis «savage «nature. InThe Pacific, Ishmael gets caught upinthe meditative, serene Pacific Ocean. Atthe end ofthe chapter, hecomes back toAhab, saying that nosuch calming thoughts entered the brain ofthe captain. Ishmael then pans over tothe blacksmith whose life onland disintegrated. With characteristic panache, Ishmael explains that the sea beckons tobrokenhearted men who long for death but cannot commit suicide. The Forge dramatizes anexchange between the blacksmith and Ahab inwhich the captain asks the blacksmith tomake aspecial harpoon tokill the white whale. Although Ahab gives the blacksmith directions, hetakes over the crafting ofthe harpoon himself, hammering the steel onthe anvil and tempering itwith the blood ofthe three harpooneers (instead ofwater). The scene ends with Pip «p.s laughter. InThe Gilder, Ishmael considers how the dreaminess ofthe sea masks aferocity. Hespeaks ofthe sea as«gilt «because itlooks golden inthe sunset and isfalsely calm. The sea even makes Starbuck rhapsodize, making anapostrophe (direct address ofanabsent orimaginary person orof apersonified abstraction, especially asadigression inthe course ofaspeech orcomposition) tothe sea; Stubb answers him bysurprise and, asusual, makes light ofthe situation. Chapters 115−125 Summary These chapters show how badly off the Pequod reallyis. The somber Pequod, still onthe lookout for Moby Dick, runs into the Bachelor, afestive Nantucket whaler onits way home with afull cargo. The captain ofthe Bachelor, saying that hehas only heard stories ofthe white whale and doesn «tbelieve them, invites Ahab and the crew tojoin his party. Ahab declines. The next day, the Pequod kills several whales and the way that adying whale turns towards the sun spurs Ahab tospeak out toitin wondrous tones. While keeping anight vigil over awhale that was too far away totake back tothe ship immediately, Ahab hears from Fedallah the prophecy ofhis death. Before Ahab can die, hemust see two hearses, one «not made bymortal hands «and one made ofwood from America; and only hemp can kill the captain. Back onthe ship, Ahab holds upaquadrant, aninstrument that gauges the position ofthe sun, todetermine the ship «p.s latitude. Ahab decides that itdoes not give him the orienteering information hewants and tramples itunderfoot. Heorders the ship tochange direction. The next day, the Pequod iscaught inatyphoon. The weird weather makes white ames appear atthe top ofthe three masts and Ahab refuses tolet the crew put uplightning rods todraw away the danger. While Ahab marvels atthe ship «p.s three masts lit uplike three spermaceti candles, hailing them asgood omens and signs ofhis own power, Starbuck sees them asawarning against continuing the journey. When Starbuck sees Ahab «p.s harpoon also ickering with fire, hesays that this isasign that God isagainst Ahab. Ahab, however, grasps the harpoon, and says, infront ofafrightened crew, there isnothing tofear inthe enterprise that binds them all together. Heblows out the ame to«blow out the last fear. «Inthe next chapter, Starbuck questions Ahab «p.s judgment again{this time saying that they should pull down the main-top-sail yard. Ahab says that they should just lash ittighter, complaining that his first mate must think him incompetent. Onthe bulwarks ofthe forecastle, Stubb and Flask are having their own conversation about the storm and Ahab «p.s behavior. Stubb basically dominates the conversation and says that this journey isnomore dangerous than any other iseven though itseems asifAhab isputting them inextreme danger. Suspended above them all onthe main-top-sail yard, Tashtego says tohimself that sailors don «tcare that much about the storm, just rum. When the storm finally dies down, Starbuck goes below toreport toAhab. Onthe way toAhab «p.s cabin, hesees arow ofmuskets, including the very one that Ahab had leveled athim earlier. Angry about Ahab «p.s reckless and selfish behavior, hetalks tohimself about whether heought tokill his captain. Hedecides hecannot kill Ahab inhis sleep and goesup. When Ahab isondeck the next day, herealizes that the storm has thrown off the compasses. Ahab then pronounces himself «lord over the level loadstone yet «and makes his own needle. Here Ishmael comments, «Inthis fiery eyes ofscorn and triumph, you then saw Ahab inall his fatal pride. «With all the other orienteering devices out oforder, Ahab decides topull out the seldom-used log and line. Because ofheat and moisture, the line breaks and Ahab realizes that henow has none ofhis original orienteering devices. Hecalls for Pip tohelp him and Pip answers with nonsense. Ahab, touched byPip «p.s crazy speeches, says that his cabin will now bePip «p.s because they boy «touchest [his] inmost center. «Chapters 126−132 Sailors are very superstitious. Asthe Pequod approaches the Equatorial fishing ground, the sailors think that they hear ghosts wailing. The Manxman (man from the Isle ofMan) says that these are the voices ofthe newly drowned men inthe sea. Ahab says nonsense. When the Pequod «p.s lifebuoy falls overboard and sinks, the sailors think itis afulfillment ofevil that was foretold. The offcers decide toreplace the life-buoy with Queequeg «p.s coffn. Though the carpenter grumbles about having totransform the object, Ahab, who isaware ofthe irony ofthe substitution, nevertheless calls the carpenter «unprincipled asthe gods «for going through with the substitution. The Pequod encounters the ship Rachel while itislooking for Moby Dick inthese waters. Captain Gardiner ofthe, after afirming that hehas indeed seen Moby Dick, climbs aboard Ahab «p.s ship and begs Ahab tohelp him find his son, whose whaleboat was lost inthe chase after the white whale. Ahab refuses. Now that Ahab knows that the white whale isnear, hespends alot oftime walking the decks. AsAhab goes upone time, Pip wants tofollow him. Ahab tells him tostay inthe captain «p.s cabin, lest Pip «p.s insanity start tocure his own just when he«p.s getting close tothe whale and needs tobe alittle crazy. And soAhab, shadowed everywhere byFedallah, remains ondeck, ever watchful. This continuous watch sharpens Ahab «p.s obsession and hedecides that hemust bethe first tosight the whale. Heasks Starbuck tohelp him get upthe main-mast head and watch his rope. When heisthere, ablack hawk steals his hat; Ishmael this considers abad omen. The Pequod then runs into the miserably misnamed ship Delight. The Delight has indeed encountered Moby Dick, but the result was agutted whaleboat and dead men. Asthe Pequod goes by, the Delight drops acorpse inthe water and sprinkles the Pequod «p.s hull with a«ghostly baptism. «Inthe chapter called The Symphony, disparage parts come together for acrescendo. The pressure finally gets toAhab and heseems human here, dropping atear into the sea. Heand Starbuck have abonding moment asAhab sadly talks about his continual, tiring whaling. Hecalls himself afool and thinks himself pathetic. Starbuck suggests giving upthe chase, but Ahab wonders ifhecan stop because hefeels pushed onbyFate. But asAhab isasking these grand questions, Starbuck steals away. When Ahab goes tothe other side ofthe deck togaze into the water, Fedallah, too, islooking over the rail. Chapters 133-Epilogue Summary Ahab can sense bysmell that Moby Dick isnear. Climbing uptothe main royal-mast head, Ahab spots Moby Dick and earns himself the doubloon. All the boats set off inchase ofthe whale. When Moby Dick finally surfaces, hestoves Ahab «p.s boat. The whale isswimming too fast away from them and they all return tothe ship. Saying that persistent pursuit ofone whale has historically happened before, Ishmael comments that Ahab still desperately wants tochase Moby Dick though hehas lost one boat. They dosight Moby Dick again and the crewmen, growing increasingly inawe ofAhab and caught upinthe thrill ofthe chase, lower three boats. Starbuck stays tomind the Pequod. Ahab tries toattack Moby Dick head onthis time, but again, Moby Dick istriumphant. Hestoves Ahab «p.s ship and breaks his false leg. When they return tothe Pequod, Ahab finds out that Fedallah isgone, dragged down byAhab «p.s own line. Starbuck tells him tostop, but Ahab, convinced that heisonly the «Fate «p.s lieutenant, «says hemust keep pursuing the whale.. Still onthe look out, the crew spots the white whale for athird time but sees nothing until Ahab realizes, «Aye, he«p.s chasing menow; not I, him{ that «p.s bad. «They turn the ship around completely and Ahab mounts the masthead himself. Hesights the spout and lowers again. Ashegets into his boat and leaves Starbuck incharge, the two men exchange apoignant moment inwhich Ahab asks toshake hands with his first made and the first mate tries totell him not togo. Dangerously, sharks bite atthe oars asthe boats pull away. Starbuck, inamonologue, laments Ahab «p.s sure doom. Onthe water, Ahab sees Moby Dick breach. Seeing Fedallah strapped tothe whale byturns ofrope, Ahab realizes that this isthe first hearse that the Parsee had forecasted. The whale goes down again and Ahab rows close tothe ship. Hetells Tashtego tofind another agand nail ittothe main masthead. The boats soon see the white whale again and goafter him. But Moby Dick only turns around, and heads for the Pequod atfull speed. Hesmashes the ship. Itgoes down without its captain. The ship, Ahab realizes, isthe second hearse. Impassioned, Ahab isnow determined tostrike atMoby Dick with all ofhis power: «Towards thee Iroll, thou all-destroying but unconquering whale; tothe last Igrapple with thee; from hell «p.s heart Istab atthee; for hate «p.s sake Ispit mylast breath atthee. Sink all coffns and all hearses toone common pool and since neither can bemine, let methen tow topieces, while still chasing thee, though tied tothee, thou damned whale! Thus, Igive upthe spear! «After darting the whale, Ahab iscaught around the neck bythe ying line. Heisdragged under the sea. Tashtego, meanwhile, isstill trying tonail the agtothe ship «p.s spar asitgoes down. Hecatches asky-hawk inmid-hammer and the screaming bird, folded inthe ag, goes down with everything else. Inthe Epilogue, Ishmael wraps upthe story, saying that heisthe only one who survives the wreck. All the boats and ship were ruined. Ishmael survives only because Queequeg «p.s coffn bobs upand becomes his life buoy. Aday after the wreck, the Rachel, still cruising for her first lost son, saves Ishmael.

The Scarlet Letter.

Introduction-Chapter 1 Introduction: The first forty-four pages written bythe author tell about his life working atthe Custom House inSalem Massachusetts. During his time ofemployment there, hediscovers some records inthe attic and begins topiece together the story ofHester Prynne, anadulterous man inPuritan Salem. The Scarlet Letter ishis account ofthe story with asmany facts ashe, the author, was able togather from the documents hefound. Chapter 1: Hawthorn’s first chapter isshort, detailing the set upofcolonial Salem. Hetalks ofthe town and how essential prisons and cemeteries are inthe organization. Next tothe steps ofthe Salem prison isarosebush that has survived centuries and Hawthorn says this bush gives comfort with it’s beauty tothe people who enter and leave the establishment. Chapter 2: Atown meeting istaking place and the people ofthe town, mainly the women, are gathered for the release ofthe adulteress, Hester Prynne. She steps out ofthe prison with the town beadle leading her with his hand onher shoulder. Hawthorn describes her asbeautiful with avery proud stature that does not cower tothe crowd ofdisdain that surrounds her. Onher chest she bears the scarlet letter ‘A' that issurrounded byshining gold thread upon agown that scandalizes the women ofthe town. Clutched close toher breast isthe child that was produced byher adultery and the apparent reason she was not more harshly punished for her crime. She stood there under public scrutiny, not with alook ofshame but almost bewilderment that her life had panned out asithad. Chapter 3: Mistress Prynne isplaced upon the pillory for three hours soall can see her shame. Asshe isstanding there with her babe, she notices anew man intown along with anIndian. From the moment she sees him, she cannot take her eyes from him. Anangry look quickly flashes across the man’s face atthe sight ofher and heinquires tothe town person next tohim why the woman ismade tostand upon the pillory. Both the man and the readers are informed that Mistress Prynne was married toaman who has not yet returned from the Netherlands where they sailed from toNew England. Because she was solong away from her husband, itisobvious that hewas not the father ofher child. The man asked ofher sentence, and ofthe man who did father the child and the town’s person told him that the father isnot known. The Governor ofthe town who isstanding onahigher platform then appeals tothe Reverend Dimmesdale toextract the name offather from Mistress Prynne. After anemotional plea toMistress Prynne, she still refuses tostate the name ofthe father ofher child, and states that her child has only aheavenly father. Chapter 4: When Mistress Prynne was returned tothe prison, she was insuch mental disarray that the jailer, Master Brackett, decided tocall inthe physician. Roger Chillingworth, Hester’s real husband, introduces himself asthe physician for Mistress Prynne and assoon asheenters the room, she goes perfectly still. Mr. Chillingsworth was the same man who she saw when she was onthe pillory. Hebegan toexamine the baby and Hester expresses her concern that hewill hurt the child asrevenge onher. They talk about their failed marriage, and how there was never love between them, and Roger tells her not toreveal toanyone who hereally was. After giving her adraught tocalm her, heasks her who the father ofthe child was. Again, asshe did when asked bythe Reverend, she refuses togive the name ofthe father. Ather refusal, hetells her that hewill find out who the man isand that she not breathe aword ofhis identity toanyone. Chapter 5: Hester was released from prison and free togowherever she wished. Instead offleeing the town she moved toalittle cottage outside ofit, and supported herself with her needlework. She sewed for many different people ofthe town but kept herself inplain clothing, save the letter upon her bosom. She took all ofthe passion ofher life and used ittoply her needle. Much ofher work she donated tothe poor aspenance for her guilt. Although they all coveted her services, she was still anoutcast looked upon with malice and her sin burned deep inher soul. Chapter 6: Hester named her child Pearl because she was her treasure inlife. Pearl was beautiful and intelligent, and had anair ofanymph about her. Even asababy, the child was fascinated bythe scarlet letter Hester wore upon her breast. This was aconstant reminder for Hester ofher sin. Pearl was ahappy laughing child who had afiery passion and temper that made Hester and others wonder ifshe was ademon with her black eyes. Everywhere Hester went Pearl went also. They had only each other. Hester attempted toraise her daughter with Puritan values but could not discipline her and Pearl held the strings onwhether ornot she did what she was told. Chapter 7: Hester and Pearl went tothe Governor Bellingham’s house todeliver apair ofgloves she had embroidered for him. More than the delivery, Hester was there toplead tobeable tokeep Pearl. The people ofthe town thought that because ofher sin, Hester was unfit toraise her child. When she arrived tothe house, the governor was with other gentleman inthe garden and they waited for achance tospeak with him. Asthey were waiting, Pearl was examining ashining suit ofarmor and saw Hester init. She was delighted bythe sight, and Hester’s image was lost behind the large shiny red letter that was magnified bythe polished armor. Chapter 8: The Governor, the pastor John Wilson, Reverend Dimmesdale, and Roger Chillingworth exited the garden tofind their path blocked bythe nymph Pearl. Struck bythe beauty ofthe scarlet clad child they ask her towhom she belongs. She answers that she isPearl, and her mother’s child. Asthey enter the hall, they see Mistress Prynne and are happy that she has come sothey can discuss what todowith Pearl. Testing tosee whether the child has been properly instructed sofar, the dotting John Winston asks young Pearl who made her. Pearl, though she knew the correct answer was the Heavenly Father answered that she had been plucked byher mother from the rose bush bythe prison door. The gentlemen were appalled bythe child’s answer and decided that Hester should not raise her further. Hester was angry with this and pleaded Reverend Dimmesdale who knew she was capable ofguiding the child spiritually tolet her keep Pearl. She argued that God gave her Pearl, and that they could not take away the only joy that God gave her. After discussing itfurther among themselves, with the Reverend giving animpassioned plea for Hester, they decided tolet her keep Pearl. Hester was thankful, and she and Pearl left for home. Mr. Chillingworth offered tofigure out the identity ofthe father ofthe child, but his offer was refused. Asshe leaves, Hester realizes that she would have sold her soul tothe devil ifitmeant she could keep her child. Chapter 9: Since his first appearance intown, the people looked onRoger Chillingworth asablessing. They were thankful that such alearned physician was given tothem. Astime went on, Mr. Chillingworth and the Reverend Dimmesdale became very close. Though hewas young, the Reverend was growing sicker and sicker bythe day and the people ofthe town implored him tolet the physician examine him. Herefused but continued tobecome closer and closer tothe old man. After awhile they even began living together inthe home ofarespected matron ofthe town. Astime passed, the people began tolook atMr. Chillingworth differently however. Instead ofseeing aman sent from God tohelp them, they saw inhis old disfigured form, aservant ofSatan that was sent tohaunt the Reverend. Chapter 10: Mr. Chillingworth watched the Reverend searching him for the secret sin ofhis soul. Searching for Hester’s lover became the secret purpose ofhis life and itclouded his head and heart. Slowly hewas trying toget the Reverend toconfess tothe deed, and one afternoon began adiscussion with him about unconfessed sin and how iteats away atthe soul. While they are talking, they see Hester and Pearl inthe cemetery. They look upatthe men inthe window and they wonder ifthe mischevious nymph like, Pearl, istrue evil. After the woman and the child leave the cemetery, the men continue with their conversation. Mr. Chillingworth accuses the Reverend that hecannot cure him until heknows the pain upon his soul because that sin ispart ofhis bodily ailment. Inamoment ofpassion, the Reverend blows upathim telling him that hewill reveal nothing tothe earthly man and leaves the room. This display ofpassion makes Mr. Chillingworth exceptionally pleased because itbrings him closer tofinding out that his suspicions ofHester and the Reverend are true. Chapter 11: Asthe days went bythe Reverend Dimmesdale continued tobehaunted more and more bythe sin upon his soul. Hewould look upon his companion the physician with disgust and feel asifthe black part ofhis heart was spilling over into the rest ofhis life. The people ofthe town began toworship him more, saying hewas awonderful and saintly young preacher. Asthey looked uptohim with greater fervor, hebegan tohate himself more. Many atime hestood onhis pulpit aching totell them ofhis sin, release itfrom his heart. However, all hecould manage tosay was that hewas aterrible sinner, which only inspired his congregation more because they saw him asvirtually flawless. Hefasted, prayed, and kept vigils inorder topurge himself, but the sin upon his soul haunted him without end. Chapter 12: Itwas midnight and Reverend Dimmesdale was sotortured byhis sin that hetook himself out and stood upon the scaffold that Hester had stood. Heplanned tostay there all night suffering from his own shame. Atone point hecried out hoping inhis mind towake the whole town sothey could see him standing there, sohis sin could finally berevealed and his mind eased. However, noone inthe town was awakened byhis cry. Atone point from his perch, hesaw the Pastor John Winston walking towards him, but the man was wrapped uptightly inhis cloak and did not notice the Reverend onthe scaffold. His mind wandered towhat hewould look like inthe morning when his body was frozen with cold, and atthe image ofhimself inhis mind, helaughed. His laugh was returned byasprightly laugh inthe darkness that was none other than Pearl’s. Hecried out toher inthe night, and toHester. They appeared having been out measuring arobe for aman who had died that evening. Atthe Reverend’s request, they came tostand upon the scaffold with him and they joined hands intheir sin. Pearl asked the Reverend repeatedly ifhewould come stand with them onthe scaffold the next day atnoon, but the Dimmesdale refused. Out ofthe darkness, Mr. Chillingworth appeared, and the Reverend spoke his fear and hatred ofthe man. Heasked who hereally was, and because ofher oath, Hester kept her silence. Pearl whispered gibberish tohim inrevenge for him not standing with them the next day onthe scaffold. The Reverend looked upinto the sky and saw ameteor trail that looked like alarge red ‘A' leering athim. Mr. Chillingworth told him tocome home and heleft the scaffold with the evilly happy physician. Chapter 13: Seven years had passed since little Pearl’s birth. The letter onHester’s chest tothe village people had become asymbol ofher good deeds. Itset her apart from the general population, but many looked onher asasister ofcharity. When someone was inneed she was always the one byhis orher side. Many people intown said the Astood for able. She had changed. She was anempty form, void ofthe passion and love that people were able tosee inher before. Her luxurious hair was always hidden from the sight ofthe people. After the minister’s vigil, Hester found anew cause for sacrifice, anew purpose. She decided totalk tothe old physician, her former husband, and try tosave his victim from further mental torture. After making her decision, she came upon him ashewas walking the peninsula. Chapter 14: Hester instructed Pearl togorun and play and she went toapool and saw herself there. Hester accosted Mr. Chillingworth and hebegan telling her ofall the good things the people inthe town had said about her. The leaders inthe town atthe last council meeting had even thought about admitting Hester totake the letter off her bosom. Hester told him that ifthe Lord meant her totake itoff her chest that itwould have fallen off long ago. While they began talking, Hester took agood look athim. Inthe past seven years hehad aged well, but there was astrikingly different look about him. Hewore aguarded look ofaneager angry man who was out for revenge.

They began talking about the minister and Mr. Chillingworth reveals that had itnot been for his care, the minister would have died long ago. Hester asks ifhehas not had enough revenge since hewas able totorture the minister every day byburying into his heart. Heanswers no, that itwill never beenough. Hester tells him that she plans onrevealing his secret tothe minister and hetells her that neither ofthem are sinful and evil, they just must lead the lives that they were given because ofher sin. They say farewell, and Hester leaves him togathering herbs. Chapter 15: Hester watches him for awhile from adistance disgusted atthe evil she sees inhim. She turns tofind little Pearl who was playing with all the different things innature. When Pearl goes back toher mother, Hester sees that the child has made aletter Aout ofseaweed and placed itonher chest. Hester asks the child ifshe knows what the letter her mother wears means. Pearl answers that itisthe same reason the minister keeps his hand over his chest. That isall she knows however, and she asks earnestly why she wears the scarlet letter, and why the minister places his hand over his heart. Ever since she was little, Pearl had acertain fascination with the letter that tortured her mother even more. Hester decided itwas better tonot unburden her sin upon her child and told her daughter that itmeant nothing. After that day however, Pearl would ask her mother two orthree times aday what the scarlet letter meant. Chapter 16:: Hester learned that the Minister had gone into the woods tovisit afriend who lived among the Indians. She learned when hewas expected toreturn, and when the day came, she and Pearl went into the forest soshe could catch him onhis return and speak with him inprivate. Asthey enter the forest, Pearl says that she can stand inthe sunlight, but the sunlight runs away from Hester. Inresponse, Hester reaches out totouch the stream oflight that flocks around the little elf-child, and itvanishes when her hand comes near. Pearl then asks her mother for astory about the black man who inhabits the forest, which she over heard awoman the previous evening talking about. Pearl said that people went into the forest and signed the Black man’s book with their blood and that she heard the scarlet letter was the black man’s mark onher mother. They traveled into the deep into the forest and stopped next toalittle brook that Pearl began playing around. After awhile, they saw the Reverend Dimmesdale come walking slowly down the path, and Hester tells Pearl torun and play. Chapter 17: Hester calls out tothe Minister and heinstantly straightens upand looks towards her. Hefinds out itisshe and they inquire onhow their lives have been inthe last seven years. They sit down together onalog, and ask each other ifthey have found peace. The minister expresses his sadness and how hefeels like ahypocrite teaching others tobeholy, when hehimself has aterrible hidden sin. Hester tries tohelp him bytalking with him and caring for him. Hethanks her for her friendship. She then tells him ofRoger Chillingsworth, how heisher husband, and out for revenge. Dimmesdale ishorrified but knew that something was wrong with Roger Chillingworth. Hester could not take the frown that descended upon his face, and asked him ifheforgave her. Hehas, and she asks ifheremembers what they had. She hints that they once had agreat passion and affection for each other. Hester talks ofthem leaving together. Arthur says hehas not the strength totravel that far, but with Hester helping him, they thought they could doit. Chapter 18: Together they decide toleave the New World together and not torture themselves further with their sin sothat only God will judge them. Tothem, they are damned already. Hester unhooks her scarlet letter and tosses itbythe bubbling brook. They make plans together and say that they will leave for England onthe ship that isinthe harbor. Talking oftheir love and their plans, they call back Pearl, for once happy and with lifted spirits. Pearl isoff inthe forest playing and interacting with the animals. When they call her back, Pearl comes slowly when she sees them sitting together. Chapter 19: They sat there looking atPearl asshe approached. She had adorned herself with wild flowers and looked like afairy child. They rejoiced intheir child asshe came towards him, and Arthur was exceptionally afraid and anxious for the interview. Pearl stopped atthe brook and stared atthem. The child pointed ather mother with afrown. Hester called out toher harshly tocome and Pearl began screaming and throwing atantrum. Hester realized that the child was upset that her scarlet letter was not affixed toher mother’s breast. She walked over towhere itlay onthe ground and showed ittothe child. She pinned itback into place, and Pearl was pacified and happy again. They approached the minister and the three ofthem held hands, and they tried toexplain toher that they were all going tobe ahappy family. The minister kissed Pearl’s forehead and she ran quickly tothe brook totry towash itaway. Chapter 20: Arthur Dimmesdale walked home happily. For the first time inseven years, there was abounce inhis step and alight inhis hurting heart. Onhis way, hesaw some ofhis parishioners and hehad thoughts ofcorruption onhis mind. Hethought about the reaction hewould get ifhewhispered corrupting things intheir ears. There are three different people heruns into inwhich hefeels this. Heresists the temptation todothis, and wonders why heishaving these thoughts. Hewonders ifhesigned the black man’s book inthe forest with his blood. Heruns into awoman known asthe town witch, and she tells him the next time hewants togointo the forest she would gowith him. When hearrives home, Mr. Chillingworth comes into his room, and the Reverend refuses totake anymore ofhis medicine. Hesits athis desk and reworks the sermon hehad planned for the following celebration. Chapter 21: Apublic holiday because ofthe election was planned and everyone from that and the neighboring towns attended intheir best clothing. Hester and little Pearl attended but stayed slightly apart from the crowd. Though everyone was packed close tosee the parade, there was anempty circle around Hester because ofher scarlet letter. She had gone previously tomake plans with the captain ofthe ship that they were going totake toEngland, and she saw the captain ofthat vessel talking toRoger Chillingworth. The captain then came over toher and informed her that the physician would beattending the voyage with them. She looked towards him, and hesmiled ather evilly. Chapter 22: The parade began and Pearl saw the minister when hereached the front. She asked ifthat was the same minister who kissed her inthe woods, and Hester told her tonot talk about itinthe marketplace. Mistress Hibbins approached her and began talking toHester about the minister. Hester denied any involvement with him, and they began watching ashepreached tothe people. Pearl left her mother and wandered around. The captain ofthe ship told Pearl togive her mother amessage for him. She told him that her father was the Prince ofAir. She threatened him and ran toher mother. Hester’s mind wandered and thought about how she would soon befree ofhescarlet letter and the pain associated withit. Chapter 23: The minister ended his incredible speech and itwas one ofthe best ofhis life. The people were inspired and asthe parade turned therefor, everyone would exit. The minister looked exceptionally sick and called toHester and Pearl tocome tohim. Roger Chillingworth ran towards and tried toget Hester back from the minister. Heisdying and with his last breaths heshouts his sin tothe audience around and blesses Hester and Pearl. Hetells the people totake another better look atHester and athimself sothey see the truth inthem. Heripped off the ministerial band from his chest, and the people stood shocked. The people are struck with awe and sympathy. The doctor came over the minister, awestruck because hewill lose him and his revenge. Dimmesdale asks Pearl for akiss and she finally places one onhis lips. Hester kneels over him and asks him ifthey will not see each other again, and spend eternity together. The reverend tells her that their sin was too large, and that isall she should beconcerned. Heshouted farewell tothe audience and breathed his last breath. Chapter 24: People swore after that day that when they saw the minister rip off the band onhis breast that ascarlet ‘A' resided there. Many thought that hemade the revelation inthe dying hour soeveryone would know that one who appeared sopure, was asmuch asinner asthe rest ofthem. Roger Chillingworth died within the year and bequeathed large amounts ofproperty both inNew England and inEngland toPearl. This made Pearl the richest heiress inthe New World. Soon after his death, Hester Prynne and her little Pearl disappeared. Years later Hester came back alone tolive with her sin inher cottage. Pearl was thought tobehappily married elsewhere and mindful ofher mother. After her return, many people ofthe town went toHester for advice and help when they were inneed. After many years she died, and was placed next tothe saintly minister. They shared atombstone and they would betogether forever. Character Profiles Hester Prynne: Abeautiful puritan woman full ofstrong passions, Hester Prynne isthe main character inthe story. Employed asthe village seamstress, she isstrong and caring, helping anyone she can when heorshe are inneed. With apenitent heart, Hester travels through the story becoming only ashadow ofher former passionate loving self. Other than the scarlet letter, she was avery moral woman whose only joy inlife was her daughter Pearl. Roger Chillingsworth: The missing husband ofHester Prynne. Heshows upthe day that Hester isput onpublic display and does not show himself asher husband. Ascholar and aman ofmedicine, his soul purpose inhis life becomes revenge against the man who helped his wife sin. Bythe end ofthe story, heisshown tobean evil character. Pearl: Looked onasthe devil’s child, Pearl isthe only one inthe story that ispurely innocent. She ispassionate, intelligent, and energetic. Pearl isintouch with nature and with her mother’s feelings. Ever since she was born, Pearl had afascination with the scarlet letter that isaconstant reminder for Hester ofher sin. Arthur Dimmesdale: The minister ofthe town that the people adore, Arthur was the secret lover ofHester Prynne. Hewas asickly man who took his sin very seriously. Hespent the seven years since his indiscretion with Mistress Prynne trying torepent. Hewore down his body with his penitence and his sin ate away his soul. Inthe end, hefrees himself from his guilt byadmitting toeveryone his sin. Metaphor Analysis The Rose Bush: Arose bush that grew outside the prison was asymbol ofsurvival, that there islife after the prison where Hester spent hebeginning ofthe story. The Scarlet Letter ‘A': The letter that Hester was forced towear upon her bosom, the scarlet letter was not only asymbol ofher adulterous sin, but ofthe women herself. The letter masks her beauty and passion asthe story goes until itiswhat she isknown. The Black Man inthe Woods: the peoples symbol for the devil. The woods inthose times were avery scary place, and they thought that people that went into itcame out evil and corrupted. Theme Analysis The Scarlet Letter isastory that illustrates intricate pieces ofthe Puritan lifestyle. Centered first onasin committed byHester Prynne and her secret lover before the story ever begins, the novel details how sin affects the lives ofthe people involved. For Hester, the sin forces her into isolation from society and even from herself. Her qualities that Hawthorne describes atthe opening ofthe book, i.e. her beauty, womanly qualities, and passion are, after atime, eclipsed bythe ‘A' she isforced towear. Anexample ofthis isher hair. Long hair issomething inthis time period that isasymbol ofawoman. Atthe beginning ofthe story, Hawthorne tells ofHester’s long flowing hair. After she wears the scarlet letter for atime, hepaints apicture ofher with her hair out ofsite under acap, and all the wanton womanliness gone from her. Yet, even with her true eclipsed behind the letter, ofthe three main characters affected, Hester has the easiest time because her sin isout inthe open. More than atale ofsin, the Scarlet Letter isalso anintense love story that shows itself inthe forest scene between Hester and the minister Arthur Dimmesdale. With plans torun away with each, Arthur and Hester show that their love has surpassed distance and time away from each other. This love also explains why Hester would not reveal the identity ofher fellow sinner when asked onthe scaffolding. Roger Chillingworth isthe most affected bythe sin, though hewas not around when the sin took place. Demented byhis thoughts ofrevenge and hate, Hawthorne shows Mr. Chillingworth tobe adevil oras aman with anevil nature. Hehimself commits one ofthe seven deadly sins with his wrath. Bythe end ofthe tale that surpasses seven years, Hester isrespected and revered bythe community asadoer ofgood works, and the minister isworshipped for his service inthe church. Only Mr. Chillingworth islooked upon badly bythe townspeople although noone knows why. Through itall, Hawthorne illustrates that even sin can produce purity, and that purity came inthe form ofthe sprightly Pearl. Though she isisolated with her mother, Pearl finds her company and joy inthe nature that surrounds her. She alone knows that her mother must keep the scarlet letter onher atall times, and that totake itoff iswrong. Through the book the child isalso constantly asking the minister toconfess his sin tothe people ofthe town inherently knowing that itwill ease his pain. Hawthorne’s metaphor ofthe rose growing next tothe prison isagood metaphor for Pearl’s life that began inthat very place. The reader sees this connection when Pearl tells the minister that her mother plucked her from the rose bush outside ofthe prison. Finally, for all the characters, Hawthorne’s novel illustrates how one sin can escalate toencompass one’s self sothat the true humans behind the sin are lost. This iswhat makes Hawthorne’s novel not only astory oflove vs. hate, sin vs. purity, good vs. evil, but all ofthese combined tomake astrikingly historical tragedy aswell. Top Ten Quotes 1) «Itmay serve, let ushope, tosymbolize some sweet moral blossom that may befound along the track, orrelieve the darkening close ofatale ofhuman frailty and sorrow.» 2) «‘People say,' said another, ‘that the Reverend Master Dimmesdale, her godly pastor, takes itvery grievously tohis heart that such ascandal has come upon his congregation.'» 3) «‘If thou feelest tobefor thy soul’s peace, and that they earthly punishment will there bybemade more effectual tosalvation, Icharge thee tospeak out the name ofthy fellow-sinner and fellow-sufferer.'» 4) «But she named the infant ‘Pearl,' asbeing ofgreat pricepurchased with all she hadher mother’s only pleasure.» 5) «After putting her fingers inher mouth, with many ungrateful refusals toanswer Mr. Wilson’s question, the child finally announced that she had not been made atall, but had been plucked byher mother off the bush ofwild roses that grew bythe prison door» 6) «‘He hath done awild thing ere now, this pious Mr. Dimmesdale, inthe hot passion ofhis heart!'» 7) «Such helpfulness was found inherso much power todoand power tosympathizethat many people refused tointerpret the scarlet ‘A' byit’s original signification. They said that itmeant ‘Able'; sostrong was Hester Prynne, with awomen’s strength.» 8) «‘That old man!- the physician!- the one whom they call Roger Chillingworth!-he was myhusband!'» 9) «Pacify her, ifthou lovest me!» 10) «‘Hester Prynne' cried he, with apiercing earnestness ‘in the name ofHim, soterrible and somerciful, who gives megrace, atthis last moment, todowhatfor myown heavy sin and miserable agonyI withheld myself from doing seven years ago, come hither now, and twine thy strength about me!».

Slaughterhouse Five.

Chapter One. Summary: The narrator assures usthat the book weare about toread istrue, more orless. The parts dealing with World WarII are most faithful toactual events. Twenty-three years have passed since the end ofthe war, and for much ofthat time the narrator has been trying towrite about the bombing ofDresden. Hewas never able tobring make the project work. When hethinks about Dresden «p.s place inhis memory, healways recalls two things: anobscene limerick about aman whose penis has let him down, and «MyName isYon Yonson, «asong which has noending. Late some nights, the narrator gets drunk and begins totrack down old friends with the telephone. Some years ago hetracked down Bernard O «Hare, anold war buddy ofhis, using Bell Atlantic phone operators. When hetracked his old friend down, heasked ifBernard would help him remember things about the war. Bernard seemed unenthusiastic. When the narrator suggests the execution ofEdgar Derby, anAmerican who stole ateapot from the ruins, asthe climax ofthe novel, Bernard still seems unenthusiastic. The best outline the narrator ever made for his Dresden book was onaroll oftoilet paper, using crayon. Colors represented different people, and the lines crisscrossed when people met, and ended when they died. The outline ended with the exchange ofprisoners who had been liberated byAmericans and Russians. After the war, the narrator went home, married, and had kids, all ofwhom are grown now. Hestudied anthropology atthe University ofChicago, and inanthropology helearned that «there was absolutely nodifference between anybody, «and that «nobody was ridiculous orbad ordisgusting. «He «p.s worked various jobs, and tried tokeep upwork onhis Dresden novel all this time. Heactually did gotosee Bernard O «Hare just afew weeks after finding him over the telephone. Hebrought his young daughters, who were sent upstairs toplay with O «Hare «p.s kids. The men could not think ofany particularly good memories orstories, and the narrator noticed that Mary, Bernard «p.s wife (towhom Slaughterhouse Five isdedicated), seemed very angry about something. Finally, she confronted him: the narrator and Bernard were just babies when they fought. Mary was angry because ifthe narrator wrote abook, hewould make himself and Bernard tough men, glorifying war and turning scared babies into heroes. The movie adaptation would then star «Frank Sinatra and John Wayne orsome ofthose other glamorous, war-loving, dirty old men «(14). Wars would look good, and wewould besure tohave more ofthem. The narrator promised that itwon «tbethat kind ofbook, and that he«dcall itThe Children «p.s Crusade. Heand Mary were friends starting atthat moment. That night, heand Bernard looked through Bernard «p.s library for information onthe real Children «p.s Crusade, awar slightly more sordid than the other crusades. The scheme was cooked upbytwo monks who planned toraise anarmy ofEuropean children and then sell them into slavery inNorth Africa. Sleepless later that night, the narrator looked atahistory ofDresden published in1908. The book described aPrussian siege ofthe city inthe eighteenth century. In1967, the narrator and O «Hare returned toDresden. Onthe flight over, the narrator got stuck inBoston due todelays. Inahotel inBoston, hefelt that someone had played with all the clocks. With every twitch ofaclock, itseemed that years passed. That night, heread abook byRoethke and another book byErika Ostrovsky. The Ostrovsky book, Cйline and His Vision, isastory ofaFrench soldier whose skull gets cracked during World War I. Hehears noises and suffers from insomnia forever afterward, and atnight hewrites grotesque, macabre novels. Cйline sees death and the passage oftime asthe same process. The narrator also read about the destruction ofSodom and Gomorrah inthe hotel room «p.s Gideon Bible. Hecalls attention tothe moment when Lot «p.s wife looks back and isturned into apillar ofsalt. Heloves her for that act, because itwas such ahuman thing todo. Now, hepresents uswith his war book. Hewill strive tolook back nomore. This book, hesays, isafailure. Itwas bound tobe afailure because itwas written byapillar ofsalt. Hegives usthe first line and the last, and the central story ofthe novel isready tobegin. Chapter Two. Summary: «Billy Pilgrim has come unstuck intime. «Hewanders from moment tomoment inhis life, experiencing chronologically disparate events right after one another. Hesees his birth and death and everything inbetween, all out oforder, with nopattern topredict what will come next. Orsohe believes. Billy was born in1922 inIlium, New York. Tall, thin, and embarrassingly weak, hemade anunlikely soldier. Hewas going tonight school inoptometry when hegot drafted tofight inWorld WarII. His father died inahunting accident before Billy left for Europe. The Germans captured Billy during the Battle ofthe Bulge. In1945 hereturned tothe States, finished optometry school, and married the daughter ofthe school «p.s owner. During the engagement, hewas hospitalized for anervous breakdown. After his release, hefinished school, married the girl, got his own practice with help from his father-in-law, became quite rich, and had two kids. In1968 hewas the sole survivor ofaplane crash. While hewas inthe hospital, his wife died ofcarbon monoxide poisoning. Hereturned home for rest, but without warning one day hewent toNew York and claimed onthe radio that hehad been kidnapped byaliens called Trafalmadorians. Billy «p.s daughter, Barbara, retrieved him from New York. Amonth later, Billy wrote aletter toIlium «p.s newspaper describing the aliens. The Trafalmadorians are shaped like two-foot tall toilet plungers, suction cup down. Wenow see Billy working onasecond letter describing the Trafalmadorian conception oftime. All time happens simultaneously, soaman who dies isactually still alive, since all moments exist atall times. Billy works onhis letter, oblivious tothe increasingly frantic shouts ofhis daughter, who has stopped bytocheck onhim. The burden ofcaring for Billy has made Barbara difficult and unforgiving. Wemove tothe first time Billy gets unstuck intime. Billy receives minimal training asachaplain «p.s assistant before being shipped toEurope. Hearrives inSeptember of1944, right inthe middle ofthe Battle ofthe Bulge. Henever meets his chaplain orgets aproper helmet orboots. Although hesurvives the onslaught, hewanders behind German lines, tagging along with two scouts and ananti-tank gunner named Roland Weary. Weary repeatedly saves Billy «p.s life, mostly bynot allowing him tolie down inthe snow and die. Although the scouts are experienced, Weary isasnew tothe war asBilly is; hejust fancies himself ashaving more ofataste forit. Byfiring the anti-tank gun incorrectly, his gun crew put scorch marks into the ground. Because ofthose marks, the position ofthe gun crew was revealed toaTiger tank that fired back. Everyone but Weary was killed. Heisstupid, fat, cruel, and violent. Back inPittsburgh hewas friendless, and constantly getting ditched. His father collects torture devices. Hecarries acruel trench knife, various pieces ofequipment that have been issued tohim, and apornographic photo ofawoman with ahorse. Heplagues Billy with macho, aggressive conversation. Inhis own mind, Weary narrates the war stories hewill one day tell. Although heisalmost asclumsy and slow asBilly, heimagines himself and the two scouts asfast friends. Inhis head hedubs them and himself the Three Musketeers, and tells himself the story ofhow the Three Musketeers saved the life ofadumb, incompetent college kid. Straggling behind the others, Billy becomes unstuck intime. Hegoes back tothe red light ofpre-birth and then forward again toaday inhis childhood with his father atthe YMCA. His father tries toteach him how toswim bythe sink-or-swim method. Billy sinks, and someone has torescue him. Hejumps forward to1965, when heis amiddle-aged man visiting his mother inanursing home. Then hejumps to1958, and Billy isattending his son «p.s Little League banquet. Leap to1961: Billy isat aparty, totally drunk and cheating onhis wife for the first and only time. Then, heisback in1944, being shaken awake byWeary. Weary and Billy catch uptothe scouts. Dogs are barking inthe distance, and the Germans are searching for them. Billy isinbad shape: helooks like hell, can barely walk, and ishaving vivid (but pleasant) hallucinations. Weary tries tobechummy with his supposed buddies, the scouts, grouping himself with them as«the Three Musketeers. «The scouts coldly tell him that heand Billy are ontheir own.

Billy goes to1957, when hegives aspeech asthe newly elected president ofthe Lion «p.s Club. Although hehas amomentary bout ofstage fright, his speech isbeautiful. Hehas taken apublic speaking course. Heleaps back to1944. Ditched again, Weary starts tobeat Billy up, furious that this weak college kid has cost him his membership in«the Three Musketeers. «Hecruelly beats Billy, who isinsuch astate that hecan only laugh. Suddenly, Weary realizes that they are being watched byfive German soldiers and apolice dog. They have been captured. Chapter Three. Summary: The troops who capture Billy and Weary are irregulars, newly enlisted men using the equipment ofnewly dead soldiers. Their commander isatough German corporal, whose beautiful boots are atrophy from abattle long ago. Once, while waxing the boots, hetold asoldier that ifyou stared into their shine you could see Adam and Eve. Though Billy has never heard the corporal «p.s claim, looking into the boots now hesees Adam and Eve and loves them for their innocence, vulnerability, and beauty. Ablond fifteen-yearold boy helps Billy tohis feet; helooks asbeautiful and innocent asEve. Inthe distance, shots sound out asthe two scouts are killed. Waiting inambush, they were found and Shot inthe backs oftheir heads. The Germans take Weary «p.s things, including the pornographic picture, which the two old men grin about, and Weary «p.s boots. The fifteen-year old gets Weary «p.s boots, and Weary gets the boy «p.s clogs. Weary and Billy are made tomarch along distance toacottage where American POWs are being detained. The soldiers there say nothing. Billy falls asleep, his head onthe shoulder ofaJewish chaplain. Billy leaps intime to1967, although ittakes him awhile tofigure out the date. Heisgiving aneye exam inhis office inIlium. His car, visible outside his window, has conservative stickers onthe bumper; the stickers were gifts from his father-in-law. Heleaps back tothe war. AGerman iskicking his feet, telling him towakeup. The Americans are assembled outside for photographs. The photographer takes pictures ofBilly «p.s and Weary «p.s feet asevidence ofhow poorly equipped the American troops are. They stage photos ofBilly being captured. Billy then returns to1967, driving tothe Lion «p.s club. Hedrives through ablack ghetto, anarea recovering from recent riots and fires. Helargely ignores what hesees there. Atthe Lion «p.s club, amarine major talks about the need tocontinue the fight inVietnam. Headvocates bombing North Vietnam into the Stone Age, ifnecessary, and Billy does not think ofthe horror ofbombing, which hehas witnessed himself. Heissimply having lunch. The narrator mentions that hehas aprayer onthe wall ofhis office: «God grant methe serenity toaccept the things Icannot change, courage tochange the things Ican, and wisdom always totell the difference. «The narrator tells usthat Billy cannot change past, present, orfuture. After lunch, Billy goes home. Heis awealthy man now, with ason inthe Green Berets and adaughter about toget married; healso isseized occasionally bysudden and inexplicable bouts ofweeping. During one ofthese spells, hecloses his eyes and finds himself back inWorld WarII. Heismarching with anever-growing line ofAmericans making their way through Luxembourg. They cross into Germany, being filmed bythe Germans who want arecord oftheir great victory. Weary «p.s feet are sore and bloody from marching onthe German boy «p.s clogs. The Americans are sorted byrank, and acolonel tries totalk with Billy. The colonel isdying; hetries tobechummy with Billy. Hehas always wanted tobecalled «Wild Bob «byhis men. Hedreams ofhaving areunion ofhis men inhis hometown ofCody, Wyoming. Heinvites Billy and the other men tocome. Vonnegut mentions that heand Bernard O «Hare were there when the colonel gave his invitation. All ofthe POWs are put into train cars. The train does not leave for two days; during that time Wild Bob dies. The boxcars are socrowded that tosleep the men have totake turns lying down. When the train finally begins its trek deeper into Germany, Billy jumps through time again. Itis1967, and heisabout tobekidnapped for the first time bythe Trafalmadorians. Chapter Four. Summary: In1967, onhis daughter «p.s wedding night, Billy cannot sleep. Because heisunstuck intime, heknows that hewill soon bekidnapped byaTrafalmadorian flying saucer. Hekills time unproductively inthe meantime. Hewatches awar movie, and because heisunstuck intime the movie goes forward and then backward. Hegoes out tomeet the ship, and heistaken asplanned. Asthe ship shoots out into space, Billy isjarred back to1944. Inthe boxcar, none ofthe men want Billy tosleep next tothem because heyells and thrashes inhis sleep. Heisforced tosleep while standing. Inanother car, Weary dies ofgangrene inhis feet. Asheslowly dies over the course ofdays, hetells people again and again about the Three Musketeers. Healso asks that someone get revenge for him onthe man who caused his death. Heblames Billy Pilgrim, ofcourse. The train finally arrives atacamp, and Billy and the other men are pushed and prodded along. The camp isfull ofdying Russian POWs. Atpoints, Vonnegut likens the Russians «faces toradium dials. The Americans are all given coats; Billy «p.s istoo small. They gointo adelousing station, where all ofthe men strip naked. Billy has one ofthe worst bodies there; heisskinny and weak, and aGerman soldier comments onthat fact. Weare introduced briefly toEdgar Derby and Paul Lazarro. Derby isthe oldest POW there, aman who pulled strings toget into the army. Heis ahigh school teacher from Indianapolis, and heisphysically sturdy despite his fortyfour years ofage. Hewill beShot after the Dresden bombing for trying tosteal ateapot. Paul Lazarro isacar thief from Illinois. His body iseven weaker and less healthy than Billy «p.s. Hewas inRoland Weary «p.s boxcar, and hevowed solemnly toWeary that hewould find and kill Billy Pilgrim. When the scalding water turns on, Billy leaps back tohis infancy. His mother has just finished giving him abath. Hethen leaps forward toaSunday game ofgolf, played with three other optometrists. Then, heleaps intime tothe space ship, onhis first trip toTrafalmadore. Hetalks with one ofhis captors about time, and hesays that the Trafalmadorians sound like they donot believe infree will. The alien replies that inall ofthe inhabited planets ofthe galaxy, Earth isthe only one whose people believe inthe concept offree will. Chapter Five. Summary: Enroute toTrafalmadore, Billy asks for something toread. The only human novel isValley ofthe Dolls, and when Billy asks for aTrafalmadorian novel, helearns that the aliens «novels are slim, sleek volumes. Because they have adifferent concept oftime, Trafalmadorians have novels arranged byjuxtaposition ofmarvelous moments. The books have nocause oreffect orchronology; their beauty isinthe arrangement ofevents meant toberead simultaneously. Billy jumps intime toavisit tothe Grand Canyon taken when hewas twelve years old. Heisterrified ofthe canyon. His mother touches him and hewets his pants. Hejumps forward intime just ten days, tolater inthe same vacation. Heisvisiting Carlsbad Caverns. The ranger turns the lights off, sothat the tourists can experience total darkness. But Billy sees alight nearby: the radium dial ofhis father «p.s watch. Billy jumps back tothe war. The Germans think Billy isone ofthe funniest creatures they «veseen inall ofthe war. His coat ispreposterously small, and onhis already awkward body itlooks ridiculous. The Americans give their names and serial numbers sothat they can bereported tothe Red Cross, and then they are marched tosheds occupied bymiddle-aged British POWs. The British welcome them with singing. These British POWs are officers, some ofthe first Brits taken prisoner inthe war. They have been prisoners for four years. Due toaclerical error early inthe war, the Red Cross shipped them anincredible surplus offood, which they have hoarded cleverly. Consequently, they are some ofthe best-fed people inEurope. Their German captors adore them. Toprepare for their American guests, the Brits have cleaned and set out party favors. Candles and soap, supplied bythe Germans, are plentiful: the British donot know that these items are made from the bodies ofHolocaust victims. They have prepared ahuge dinner and adramatic adaptation ofCinderella. Billy issounhinged that his laughter atthe performance becomes hysterical shrieking, and heistaken tothe hospital and doped uponmorphine. Edgar Derby watches over him, reading The Red Badge ofCourage. Heleaps intime tothe mental ward where herecovered in1948. Inthe mental ward, Billy «p.s bed isnext tothe bed ofElliot Rosewater. Like Billy, hehas little love for life, inpart because ofthings hesaw and did inthe war. Heisthe man who introduces Billy tothe science fiction ofKilgore Trout. Billy isenduring one ofhis mother «p.s dreaded visits. She isasimple, religious woman. She makes Billy feel worse just bybeing there. Billy leaps back intime tothe POW camp. ABritish colonel talks toDerby; after the newly arrived Americans shaved, the British were shocked byhow young they all were. Derby tells ofhow hewas captured: the Americans were pushed back into aforest, and the Germans rained shells onthem until they surrendered. Billy leaps back tothe hospital. Heisbeing visited byhis ugly, overweight fiancйe Valencia. Heknew hewas going crazy when heproposed toher. Hedoes not want tomarry her. She isvisiting now, eating aThree Musketeers bar and wearing adiamond engagement ring that Billy found while inGermany. Elliot tells her about The Gospel from Outer Space, aKilgore Trout book. Valencia tries totalk toBilly about plans for their wedding and marriage, but heisnot too involved. Heleaps forward intime tothe zoo onTrafalmadore, where hewas ondisplay when hewas forty-four years old. The habitat isfurnished with Sears and Roebuck furniture. Heisnaked. Heanswers questions posed bythe Trafalmadorian tourists. Helearns that there are five sexes among the Trafalmadorians, but the sex difference isonly visible inthe fourth dimension. Onearth there are actually seven sexes, all necessary tothe production ofchildren; earthlings just donot notice the sex difference between themselves because many ofthe sex acts occur inthe fourth dimension. These ideas baffle Billy, and they inturn are baffled byhis linear concept oftime. Billy expects the Trafalmadorians tobeconcerned about orhorrified bythe wars onearth. Heworries that earthlings will eventually threaten all the other races inthe galaxy, causing the eventual destruction ofthe universe. The Trafalmadorians put their hands over their eyes, which lets Billy know that heisbeing stupid. The Trafalmadorians already know how the universe will end: during experiments with anew fuel, one oftheir test pilots pushes abutton and the entire universe will disappear. They cannot preventit. Ithas always happened that way. Billy correctly concludes that trying toprevent wars onEarth isfutile. The Trafalmadorians also have wars, but they choose toignore them. They spend their time looking atthe pleasant moments rather than the unpleasant ones; they suggest that humans learn todothe same. Billy leaps back intime tohis wedding night. Itissix months after his release from the mental ward. The narrator reminds usthat Valencia and her father are very rich, and Billy will benefit greatly from his marriage toher. After they have sex, Valencia tries toask Billy questions about the war. She wants aheroic war story, but Billy does not really respond toher. Hehas acrazy thought about the war, which Vonnegut says would make agood epitaph for Billy, and for the author, too: «Everything was beautiful, and nothing hurt. «Hejumps intime tothat night inthe prison camp. Edgar Derby has fallen asleep. Billy, doped upstill from the morphine, wanders out ofthe hospital shed. Hesnags himself onabarbed wire fence, and cannot extract himself until aRussian helps him. Billy never really says aword tothe Russian. Hewanders tothe latrine, where the Americans are sick from the feasting. Along period without food followed byafeast almost always results inviolent sickness. Among the sick Americans isasoldier complaining that hehas shit his brains out. ItisVonnegut. Billy leaves, passing bythree Englishmen who watch the Americans «sickness with disgust. Billy jumps intime again, back tohis wedding night. Heand his wife are cozy inbed. Hejumps intime again, to1944. Itisbefore heleft for Europe; heisriding the train from South Carolina, where hewas receiving his training, all the way back toIlium for his father «p.s funeral. Wereturn toBilly «p.s morphine night inthe POW camp. Paul Lazarro iscarried into the hospital; while attempting tosteal cigarettes from asleeping British officer, hewas beatenup. The officer isthe one carrying him. Seeing now how puny Lazarro is, the officer feels guilty for hitting him sohard. But heisdisgusted bythe American POWs. AGerman soldier who adores the British officers comes inand apologizes for the inconvenience ofhosting the Americans. Heassures the Brits inthe room that the Americans will soon beshipped off for forced labor inDresden. The German officer reads propaganda materials written byHoward Campbell, Jr., acaptured American who isnow aNazi. Campbell condemns the self-loathing ofthe American poor, the inequalities ofAmerica «p.s economic system, and the miserable behavior ofAmerican POWs. Billy falls asleep and wakes upin1968, where his daughter Barbara isscolding him. Barbara notices the house isicy cold and goes tocall the oil-burner man. Billy leaps intime tothe Trafalmadorian zoo, where Montana Wildhack, amotion picture star, has been brought intomate with him. Initially unconscious, she wakes tofind naked Billy and thousands ofTrafalmadorians outside their habitat. They «reclapping. She screams. Eventually, though, she comes tolove and trust Billy. After aweek they «resleeping together. Hetravels intime back tohis bed in1968. The oil-burner man has fixed the problem with the heater. Billy has just had awet dream about Montana Wildhack. The next day, hereturns towork. His assistants are surprised tosee him, because they thought that hewould never practice again. Hehas the first patient sent in, aboy whose father died inVietnam. Billy tries tocomfort the boy bytelling him about the Trafalmadorian concept oftime. The boy «p.s mother informs the receptionist that Billy isgoing crazy. Barbara comes totake him home, sick with worry about what how todeal with him. Chapter Six. Summary: Billy wakes after his morphine night inPOW camp irresistibly drawn totwo tiny treasures. They draw him like magnets; they are hidden inthe lining ofhis coat. Itwill berevealed later onexactly what they are. Hegoes back tosleep, and wakes uptothe sounds ofthe British building anew latrine. They have abandoned their old latrine and their meeting hall tothe Americans. The man who beat upLazarro stops bytomake sure heisall right, and Lazarro promises that heisgoing tohave the man killed after the war. After the amused Brit leaves, Lazarro tells Derby and Billy that revenge islife «p.s sweetest pleasure. Heonce brutally tortured adog that bit him. Heisgoing tohave all ofhis enemies killed after the war. Hetells Billy that Weary was his buddy, and heisgoing toavenge him byhaving Billy Shot after the war. Because ofhis time hopping, Billy knows that this istrue. Hewill beShot in1976. Atthat time, the United States has split into twenty tiny nations. Billy will belecturing inChicago onthe Trafalmadorian concept oftime and the fourth dimension. Hetells the spectators that heisabout todie, and urges them toacceptit. After the lecture, heisShot inthe head byahigh-powered laser gun. Back inthe POW camp, Billy, Derby, and Lazarro gothe theater toelect aleader. Onthe way over, they see aBrit drawing aline inthe dirt toseparate the American and British sections ofthe compound. Inthe theater, Americans are sleeping anywhere that they can. ABrit lectures them onhygiene, and Edgar Derby iselected leader. Only two orthree men actually have the energy tovote. Billy dresses himself inapiece ofazure curtain and Cinderella «p.s boots. The Americans ride the train toDresden. Dresden isabeautiful city, appearing onthe horizon like something out ofafairy tale. They are met byeight German irregulars, boys and old men who will beincharge ofthem for the rest ofthe war. They march through town towards their new home. The people ofDresden watch them, and most ofthem are amused byBilly «p.s outlandish costume. One surgeon isnot. Hescolds Billy about dignity and representing his country and war not being ajoke, but Billy ishonestly perplexed bythe man «p.s anger. Heshows the man his two treasures from the lining ofhis coat: atwo-carat diamond and some false teeth. The Americans are brought totheir new home, aconverted building originally for the slaughter ofpigs. The building has alarge 5 onit. The POWs are taught the German name for their new home, incase they get lost inthe city. InEnglish, itiscalled Slaughterhouse Five. Chapter Seven. Summary: Billy ison aplane next tohis father-in-law. Billy and anumber ofoptometrists have chartered aplane togoto aconvention inMontreal. There «p.s abarbershop quartet onboard. Billy «p.s father-in-law loves itwhen they sing songs mocking the Polish. Vonnegut mentions that inGermany Billy saw aPole getting executed for having sex with aGerman girl. Billy leaps intime tohis wandering behind the German lines with the two scouts and Roland Weary. Heleaps intime again tothe plane crash. Everyone dies but him. The plane has crashed inVermont, and Billy isfound byAustrian ski instructors. When hehears them speaking German, hethinks he«p.s back inthe war. Heisunconscious for days, and during that time hedreams about the days right before the bombing. Heremembers aboy named Werner Gluck, one ofthe guards. Hewas goodnatured, asawkward and puny asBilly. One day, Gluck and Billy and Derby were looking for the kitchen. Derby and Billy were pulling atwo-wheeled cart; itwas their duty tobring dinner back for the boys. Gluck pulled adoor open, thinking the kitchen might bethere, and instead revealed naked teenage girls showering, refugees from another city that was bombed. The women scream and Gluck shuts the door. When they finally find the kitchen, anold cook talks with the trio critically and proclaims that all the real soldiers are dead. Billy also remembers working inthe malt syrup factory inDresden. The syrup isfor pregnant women, and itisfortified with vitamins. The POWs doeverything they can tosneak spoonfuls ofit. Billy sneaks aspoonful toEdgar Derby, who isoutside. Hebursts into tears after hetastesit. Chapter Eight. Summary: Howard Campbell, Jr., the American-turned-Nazi propagandist, visits the captives ofSlaughterhouse Five. Hewears anelaborate costume ofhis own design, across between cowboy outfit and aNazi uniform. The POWs are tired and unhealthy, undernourished and overworked. Campbell offers them good eating ifthey join his Free American Corps. The Corps isCampbell «p.s idea. Composed ofAmericans fighting for the Germans, they will besent tofight onthe Russian front. After the war, they will berepatriated through Switzerland. Campbell reasons that the Americans will have tofight the Soviet Union sooner orlater, and they might aswell get itout ofthe way. Edgar Derby rises for his finest moment. Hedenounces Campbell soundly, praises American forms ofgovernment, and speaks ofthe brotherhood between Russians and Americans. Air raid sirens sound, and everyone takes cover inameat locker. The firebombing will not occur until tomorrow night; these sirens are only afalse alarm. Billy dozes, and then leaps intime toanargument with his daughter Barbara. She isworrying about what should bedone about Billy. She tells him that she feels like she could kill Kilgore Trout. Wemove toBilly «p.s first meeting with Trout, which happened in1964. Heisout driving when herecognizes Trout from the jackets ofhis books. Trout «p.s books have never made money, soheworks asanewspaper circulation man, bullying and terrorizing newspaper delivery boys. One ofTrout «p.s boys quits, and Billy offers tohelp Trout deliver the papers onthe boy «p.s route. Hegives Trout aride. Trout isoverwhelmed bymeeting anavid fan. Hehas only received one letter inthe course ofhis career, and the letter was crazed. Itwas written bynone other than Billy «p.s friend from the mental ward, Elliot Rosewater. Billy invites Kilgore Trout tohis anniversary party. Atthe party, Trout isobnoxious, but the optometrists and their spouses are still enchanted byhaving anactual writer among them. Abarbershop quartet sings «That Old Gang ofMine, «and Billy isvisibly disturbed. After giving Valencia her gift, heflees upstairs. Lying inbed, Billy remembers the bombing ofDresden. Wesee the events asBilly remembers them. Heand the other POWs, along with four oftheir guards, spend the night inthe meat locker. The girls from the shower were being killed inashallower shelter nearby. The POWs emerge atnoon the next day into what looks like the surface ofthe moon. The guards gape atthe destruction. They look like asilent film ofabarbershop quartet. Wemove tothe Trafalmadorian Zoo. Montana Wildhack asked Billy totell her astory. Hetells her about the burnt logs, actually corpses. Hetells her about the great monuments and buildings ofthe city turned into aflat, lunar surface. Wemove toDresden. Without food orwater, the POWs have tomarch tofind some ifthey are tosurvive. They make their way across the treacherous landscape, much ofitstill hot, bits ofcrumbling. They are attacked byAmerican fighter planes. The end upinthe suburbs, ataninn that has prepared toreceive any survivors. The innkeeper lets the Americans sleep inthe stable. Heprovides them with food and drink, and goes out tobid them goodnight asthey gotobed. Chapter Nine. Summary: When Billy isinthe hospital inVermont, Valencia goes crazy with grief. Driving tothe hospital, she gets inaterrible accident. She gears upher car and continues driving tothe hospital, determined toget there even though she leaves her exhaust system behind. She pulls into the hospital driveway and falls unconscious from carbon monoxide poisoning. Anhour later, she isdead. Billy isoblivious, unconscious inhis bed, dreaming and time traveling. Inthe bed next tohim isBertram Copeland Ruumford, anarrogant retired Brigadier General inthe Air Force Reserve. Heis aseventy-year-old Harvard professor and the official historian ofthe Air Force, and heisin superb physical condition. Hehas atwenty-three year-old high school dropout with anIQ of103. Heisan arrogant jingoist. Currently heisworking onahistory ofthe Air Corp inWorld WarII. Hehas towrite asection onthe success ofthe Dresden bombing. Ruumfoord «p.s wife Lily isscared ofBilly, who mumbles deliriously. Ruumfoord isdisgusted byhim, because all hedoes inhis sleep inquit orsurrender. Barbara comes tovisit Billy. She isin ahorrible state, drugged upsoshe can function after the recent tragedies. Billy cannot hear her. Heisremembering aneye exam hegave toaretarded boy adecade ago. Then heleaps intime when hewas sixteen years old. Inthe waiting room ofadoctor «p.s office, hesees anold man troubled byhorrible gas. Billy opens his eyes and heisback inthe hospital inVermont. His son Robert, adecorated Green Beret, isthere. Billy closes his eyes again. Hemisses Valencia «p.s funeral because heistill too sick. People assume that heis avegetable, but actually heisthinking actively about Trafalmadorians and the lectures hewill deliver about time and the permanence ofmoments. Overhearing Ruumford talk about Dresden, Billy finally speaks upand tells Ruumford that hewas atDresden. Ruumford ignores him, trying toconvince himself and the doctors that Billy has Echonalia, acondition where the sufferer simply repeats what hehears. Billy leaps intime toMay of1945, two days after the end ofthe war inEurope. Inacoffin-shaped green wagon, Billy and five other Americans ride with loot from the suburbs ofDresden. They found the wagon, attached totwo horses, and have been using ittocarry things that they have taken. The homes have been abandoned because the Russians are coming, and the Americans have been looting. When they gotothe slaughterhouse and the other five Americans loot among the ruins, Billy naps inthe wagon. Hehas acavalry pistol and aLuftwaffe ceremonial saber. Hewakes; two Germans, ahusband-and-wife pair ofobstetricians, are angry about how the Americans have treated the horses. The horses «hooves are shattered, their mouths are bleeding from the bits, and they are extremely thirsty. Billy goes around tolook atthe horses, and hebursts into tears. Itisthe only time hecries inthe whole war. Vonnegut reminds the reader ofthe epigraph atthe start ofthe book, anexcerpt from aChristmas carol that describes the baby Jesus asnot crying. Billy cries very little. Heleaps intime back tothe hospital inVermont, where Ruumford isfinally questioning Billy about Dresden. Barbara takes Billy home later that day. Billy iswatched byanurse; heissupposed tobeunder observation, but heescapes toNew York City and gets ahotel room. Heplans totell the world about the Trafalmadorians and their concept oftime. The next day, Billy goes into abookstore that sells pornography, peep shows, and Kilgore Trout novels. Billy isonly interested inKilgore Trout novels. Inone ofthe pornographic magazines, there isanarticle about the disappearance ofporn star Montana Wildhack. Later, Billy sneaks onto aradio talk show byposing asaliterary critic. The critics take turns discussing the novel, but when Billy gets his turn hetalks about Trafalmadore. Atthe next commercial break, heismade toleave. When hegoes back tohis hotel room and lies down, hetravels back intime toTrafalmadore. Montana isnursing their child. She wears alocket with apicture ofher mother and the same prayer that Billy had onhis office wall inIlium. Chapter Ten. Summary: Vonnegut tells usthat Robert Kennedy died last night. Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated amonth ago. Body counts are reported every night onthe news assigns that the war inVietnam isbeing won. Vonnegut «p.s father died years ago ofnatural causes. Heleft Billy all ofhis guns, which rust. Billy claims that onTrafalmadore the aliens are more interested inDarwin than Jesus. Darwin, says Vonnegut, taught that death was the means toprogress. Vonnegut recalls the pleasant trip hemade toDresden with his old war buddy, O «Hare. They were looking upfacts about Dresden inalittle book when O «Hare came across apassage onthe exploding world population. By2000, the book predicts, the world will have apopulation of7 billion people. Vonnegut says that hesupposes they will all want dignity. Billy Pilgrim travels back intime to1945, two days after the bombing ofDresden. German authorities find the POWs inthe innkeeper «p.s stable. Along with other POWs, they are brought back toDresden todig for bodies. Bodies are trapped inprotected pockets under the rubble, and the POWs are put towork bringing themup. But after one ofthe workers islowered into apocket and dies ofthe dry heaves, the Germans settle onincinerating the bodies instead ofretrieving them. During this time, Edgar Derby iscaught with ateapot hetook from the ruins. Heistried and executed byafiring squad. Then the POWs were returned tothe stable. The German soldiers went off tofight the Soviets. Spring comes, and one day inMay the war isover. Billy and the other men gooutside into the abandoned suburbs. They find ahorsedrawn wagon, the wagon green and shaped like acoffin. The birds sing, «Potee-weet? «.

The Sound and the Fury.

Summary ofApril Seventh, 1928: This section ofthe book iscommonly referred toas«Benjy «p.s section «because itisnarrated bythe retarded youngest son ofthe Compson family, Benjamin Compson. Atthis point inthe story, Benjy is33 years old— infact, today ishis birthday— but the story skips back and forth intime asvarious events trigger memories. When the reader first plunges into this narrative, the jumps intime are difficult tonavigate orunderstand, although many scenes are marked byrecurring images, sounds, orwords. Inaddition, asort ofchronology can beestablished depending onwho isBenjy «p.s caretaker: first Versh when Benjy isachild, then T. P. when heisan adolescent, then Luster when heisan adult. One other fact that may confuse first-time readers isthe repetition ofnames. There are, for example, two Jasons (father and son), two Quentins (Benjy «p.s brother and Caddy «p.s daughter), and two Mauries (Benjy himself before 1900 and Benjy «p.s uncle). Benjy recalls three important events: the evening ofhis grandmother «Damuddy «p.s «death in1898, his name change in1900, and Caddy «p.s sexual promiscuity and wedding in1910, although these events are punctuated byother memories, including the delivery ofaletter tohis uncle «p.s mistress in1902 or1903, Caddy «p.s wearing perfume in1906, asequence ofevents atthe gate ofthe house in1910 and 1911 that culminates inhis castration, Quentin «p.s death in1910, his father «p.s death and funeral in1912, and Roskus «p.s death some time after this. Iwill summarize each event briefly. The events ofthe present day (4/7/28) center around Luster «p.s search for aquarter hehas lost somewhere onthe property. Hereceived this quarter from his grandmother Dilsey inorder togoto the circus that evening. Luster takes Benjy with him ashesearches bythe golf course that used tobethe Compson «p.s pasture, bythe carriage house, down bythe branch ofthe Yoknapatawpha River, and finally near Benjy «p.s «graveyard «ofjimson flowers inabottle. Asthe story opens, Benjy and Luster are bythe golf course, where the golfers «cries of«caddie «cause Benjy to«beller «because hemistakes their cries for his missing sister Caddy «p.s name. Inthe branch, Luster finds agolfer «p.s ball, which helater tries tosell tothe golfers; they accuse him ofstealing itand take itfrom him. Luster tries tosteer Benjy away from the swing, where Miss Quentin and her «beau «(one ofthe musicians from the circus) are sitting, but isunsuccessful. Quentin isfurious and runs into the house, while her friend jokes with Luster and asks him who visits Quentin. Luster replies that there are too many male visitors todistinguish. Luster takes Benjy past the fence, where Benjy sees schoolgirls passing with their satchels. Benjy moans whenever Luster tries tobreak from the routine path Benjy isusedto. AtBenjy «p.s «graveyard, «Luster disturbs the arrangement offlowers inthe blue bottle, causing Benjy tocry. Atthis Luster becomes frustrated and says «beller. You want something tobeller about. All right, then. Caddy.. .. Caddy. Beller now. Caddy «(55). Benjy «p.s crying summons Dilsey, Luster «p.s grandmother, who scolds him for making Benjy cry and for disturbing Quentin. They gointhe kitchen, where Dilsey opens the oven door soBenjy can watch the fire. Dilsey has bought Benjy abirthday cake, and Luster blows out the candles, making Benjy cry again. Luster teases him byclosing the oven door sothat the fire «goes away. «Dilsey scolds Luster again. Benjy isburned when hetries totouch the fire. His cries disturb his mother, who comes tothe kitchen and reprimands Dilsey. Dilsey gives him anold slipper tohold, anobject that heloves. Luster takes Benjy tothe library, where his cries disturb Jason, who comes tothe door and yells atLuster. Luster asks Jason for aquarter. Atdinner, Jason interrogates Quentin about the man she was with that afternoon and threatens tosend Benjy toanasylum inJackson. Quentin threatens torun away, and she and Jason fight. She runs out ofthe room. Benjy goes tothe library, where Luster finds him and shows him that Quentin has given him aquarter. Luster dresses Benjy for bed; when Benjy «p.s pants are off helooks down and cries when heisreminded ofhis castration. Luster puts onhis nightgown and the two ofthem watch asQuentin climbs out her window and down atree. Luster puts Benjy tobed. Benjy «p.s memories, inchronological order: Damuddy «p.s death, 1898: Benjy isthree years old and his name atthis point isstill Maury. Caddy isseven, Quentin isolder (nine?) and Jason isbetween seven and three. The four children are playing inthe branch ofthe river. Roskus calls them tosupper, but Caddy refuses tocome. She squats down inthe river and gets her dress wet; Versh tells her that her mother will whip her for that. Caddy asks Versh tohelp her take her dress off, and Quentin warns him notto. Caddy takes off her dress and Quentin hits her. The two ofthem fight inthe branch and get muddy. Caddy says that she will run away, which makes Maury/Benjy cry; she immediately takes itback. Roskus asks Versh tobring the children tothe house, and Versh puts Caddy «p.s dress back onher. They head uptothe house, but Quentin stays behind, throwing rocks into the river. The children notice that all the lights are oninthe house and assume that their parents are having aparty. Father tells the children tobequiet and toeat dinner inthe kitchen; hewon «ttell them why they have tobequiet. Caddy asks him totell the other children tomind her for the evening, and hedoes. The children hear their mother crying, which makes Maury/Benjy cry. Quentin isalso agitated byher crying, but Caddy reassures him that she isjust singing. Jason too begins tocry. The children gooutside and down tothe servants «quarters, where Frony and T. P. (who are children atthis point) have ajar oflightning bugs. Frony asks about the funeral, and Versh scolds her for mentioningit. The children discuss the only death they know— when their mare Nancy died and the buzzards «undressed her «inaditch. Caddy asks T. P. togive Maury/Benjy his jar oflightning bugs tohold. The children goback uptothe house and stop outside the parlor window. Caddy climbs upatree tosee inthe window, and the children watch her muddy drawers asshe climbs. Dilsey comes out ofthe house and yells atthem. Caddy tells the others that their parents were not doing anything inside, although she may betrying toprotect them from the truth. The children goinside and upstairs. Father comes tohelp tuck them into bed inastrange room. Dilsey dresses them and tucks them in, and they gotosleep. Benjy «p.s name change, 1900: Benjy isfive years old, Caddy isnine, etc. Benjy issitting bythe library fire and watchingit. Dilsey and Caddy discuss Benjy «p.s new name; Dilsey wants toknow why his parents have changed it, and Caddy replies that mother said Benjamin was abetter name for him than Maury was. Dilsey says that «folks don «thave noluck, changing names «(58). Caddy brings Benjy towhere her mother islying inthe bedroom with acloth onher head, tosay good night. Benjy can hear the clock ticking and the rain falling onthe roof. Mother chides Caddy not tocarry him because heistoo heavy and will ruin her posture. She holds Benjy «p.s face inher hands and repeats «Benjamin «over and over. Benjy cries until Caddy holds his favorite cushion over his mother «p.s head. She leads him tothe fire sothat hecan watchit. Father picks him up, and hewatches the reflection ofCaddy and Jason fighting inthe library mirror. Father puts him down and breaks upCaddy and Jason, who are fighting because Jason cut upall ofBenjy «p.s paper dolls. Father takes Jason tothe room next door and spanks him. They all sit bythe fire, and Benjy holds his cushion. Quentin comes and sits next tothem. Hehas been inafight atschool and has abruise. Father asks him aboutit. Versh sits next tothem and tells them astory about a«bluegum «heknows who changed his name too. Father tells him tobequiet. Caddy and Versh feed Benjy his dinner, and the four children sit infather «p.s lap. Benjy says that Caddy and Quentin smell like trees and rain. Versh, Caddy and Benjy gooutside, December 23, 1902: Benjy isseven years old and Caddy iseleven. Benjy iscrying because hewants togooutside. Mother says itistoo cold for him and hewill freeze his hands. She says that ifhewon «tbequiet hewill have togoto the kitchen. Versh replies that Dilsey wants him out ofthe kitchen because she has alot ofcooking todo, and Uncle Maury tells her tolet him gooutside. Versh puts onhis coat and they gooutside; Versh tells him tokeep his hands inhis pockets. Caddy comes through the gate, home from school. She takes his hands and they run through the fallen leaves into the house. Caddy puts him bythe fire, and Versh starts totake his coat off, but Caddy asks ifshe can take him outside again. Versh puts onhis overshoes again, and mother takes his face inher hands and calls him «mypoor baby, «but Caddy kneels byhim and tells him that heisnot apoor baby atall because hehas her. Benjy notices that she smells like trees. Caddy and Benjy deliver Uncle Maury «p.s letter toMrs. Patterson, December 25, 1902. Caddy and Benjy cross the yard bythe barn, where the servants are killing apig for dinner. Caddy tells Benjy tokeep his hands inhis pockets and lets him hold the letter. She wonders why Uncle Maury did not send Versh with the letter. They cross the frozen branch and come tothe Patterson «p.s fence. Caddy takes the letter and climbs the fence todeliverit. Mrs. Patterson comes out ofthe house. Benjy delivers aletter toMrs. Patterson alone, spring 1903: Benjy iseight years old. Benjy isatthe Patterson «p.s fence. Mr. Patterson isinthe garden cutting flowers. Mrs. Patterson runs from the house tothe fence, and Benjy cries when hesees her angry eyes. She says that she told Maury not tosend Benjy alone again, and asks Benjy togive her the letter. Mr. Patterson comes running, climbs the fence and takes the letter. Benjy runs away. Caddy wears perfume, 1906: Benjy isten years old and Caddy isfourteen. Caddy tries tohug Benjy but hecries and pushes her away. Jason says that hemust not like her «prissy dress, «and says that she thinks she isall grown upjust because she isfourteen. Caddy tries tohush Benjy, but hedisturbs their mother, who calls them toher room. Mother tells Caddy togive Benjy his box full ofcut-out stars. Caddy walks tothe bathroom and washes the perfume off. Benjy goes tothe door. Caddy opens the door and hugs him; she smells like trees again. They gointo Caddy «p.s room and she sits ather mirror. Benjy starts tocry again. She gives him the bottle ofperfume tosmell and heruns away, crying. She realizes what made him cry and tells him she will never wear itagain. They gotothe kitchen, and Caddy tells Dilsey that the perfume isapresent from Benjy toher. Dilsey takes the bottle, and Caddy says that «wedon «tlike perfume ourselves «(43). Caddy inthe swing, 1907?: Benjy iseleven ortwelve and Caddy isfifteen orsixteen. Benjy isout inthe yard atnight. T. P. calls for him through the window. Hewatches the swing, where there are «two now, then one inthe swing «(47). Caddy comes running tohim, asking how hegot out. She calls for T. P. Benjy cries and pulls ather dress. Charlie, the boy she iswith onthe swing, comes over and asks where T. P. is. Benjy cries and she tells Charlie togoaway. Hegoes, and she calls for T. P. again. Charlie comes back and puts his hands onCaddy. She tells him tostop, because Benjy can see, but hedoesn «t. She says she has totake Benjy tothe house. She takes his hand and they run tothe house and upthe porch steps. She hugs him, and they goinside. Charlie iscalling her, but she goes tothe kitchen sink and scrubs her mouth with soap. Benjy sees that she smells like trees again. Benjy sleeps alone for the first time, 1908: Benjy isthirteen years old. Dilsey tells Benjy that heistoo old tosleep with anyone else, and that hewill sleep inUncle Maury «p.s room. Uncle Maury has ablack eye and aswollen mouth, and Father says that heisgoing toshoot Mr. Patterson. Mother scolds him and father apologizes. Heisdrunk. Dilsey puts Benjy tobed alone, but hecries, and Dilsey comes back. Then Caddy comes inand lies inthe bed with him. She smells like trees. Dilsey says she will leave the light oninCaddy «p.s room soshe can goback there after Benjy has fallen asleep. Caddy loses her virginity, 1909: Benjy isfourteen years old and Caddy iseighteen. Caddy walks quickly past the door where mother, father, and Benjy are. Mother calls her in, and she comes tothe door. She glances atBenjy, then glances away. Hebegins tocry. Hegoes toher and pulls ather dress, crying. She isagainst the wall, and she starts tocry. Hechases her upthe stairs, crying. She stops with her back against the wall, crying, and looks athim with her hand onher mouth. Benjy pushes her into the bathroom. Caddy «p.s wedding, 1910: Benjy isfifteen years old and Caddy isnineteen. Benjy, Quentin, and T. P. are outside the barn, and T. P. has given Benjy some sarsaparilla todrink; they are both drunk. Quentin pushes T. P. into the pig trough. They fight, and T. P. pushes Benjy into the trough. Quentin beats T. P., who can «tstop laughing. Hekeeps saying «whooey! ». Versh comes and yells at T. P. Quentin gives Benjy some more sarsaparilla todrink, and hecries. T. P. takes him tothe cellar, and then goes toatree outside the parlor. T. P. drinks some more. Hegets abox for Benjy tostand onsohe can see into the parlor. Through the window, Benjy can see Caddy inher wedding veil, and hecries out, trying tocall toher. T. P. tries toquiet him. Benjy falls down and hits his head onthe box. T. P. drags him tothe cellar toget more sarsaparilla, and they fall down the stairs into the cellar. They climb upthe stairs and fall against the fence and the box. Benjy iscrying loudly, and Caddy comes running. Quentin also comes and begins kicking T. P. Caddy hugs Benjy, but she doesn «tsmell like trees any more, and Benjy begins tocry. Benjy atthe gate crying, 1910. Benjy isinthe house looking atthe gate and crying, and T. P. tells him that nomatter how hard hecries, Caddy isnot coming back. Later, Benjy stands atthe gate crying, and watches some schoolgirls pass bywith their satchels. Benjy howls atthem, trying tospeak, and they runby. Benjy runs along the inside ofthe fence next tothem tothe end ofhis yard. T. P. comes toget him and scolds him for scaring the girls. Quentin «p.s death, 1910. Benjy islying in T. P. «p.s bed atthe servants «quarters, where T. P. isthrowing sticks into afire. Dilsey and Roskus discuss Quentin «p.s death without mentioning his name orCaddy «p.s name. Roskus talks about the curse onthe family, saying «aint the sign ofitlaying right there onthat bed. Aint the sign ofitbeen here for folks tosee fifteen years now «(29). Dilsey tells him tobequiet, but hecontinues, saying that there have been two signs now (Benjy «p.s retardation and Quentin «p.s death), and that there would beone more. Dilsey warns him not tomention Caddy «p.s name. Hereplies that «they aint noluck onthis place «(29). Dilsey tucks Benjy into T. P. «p.s bed and pulls the coversup. Benjy attacks agirl outside the gate and iscastrated, 1911: Benjy issixteen years old. Benjy isstanding atthe gate crying, and the schoolgirls comeby. They tell each other that hejust runs along the inside ofthe fence and can «tcatch them. Heunlatches the gate and chases them, trying totalk tothem. They scream and run away. Hecatches one girl and tries totalk toher, perhaps tries torape her. Later, father talks about how angry Mr. Burgess (her father) is, and wants toknow how Benjy got outside the gate. Jason says that hebets father will have tosend Benjy tothe asylum inJackson now, and father tells him tohush. Mr. Compson «p.s death, 1912: Benjy isseventeen. Benjy wakes upand T. P. brings him into the kitchen where Dilsey issinging. She stops singing when Benjy begins tocry. She tells T. P. totake him outside, and they gotothe branch and down bythe barn. Roskus isinthe barn milking acow, and hetells T. P. tofinish milking for him because hecan «tuse his right hand any more. Hesays again that there isnoluck onthis place. Later that day, Dilsey tells T. P. totake Benjy and the baby girl Quentin down tothe servants «quarters toplay with Luster, who isstill achild. Frony scolds Benjy for taking atoy away from Quentin, and brings them uptothe barn. Roskus iswatching T. P. milk acow. Later, T. P. and Benjy are down bythe ditch where Nancy «p.s bones are. Benjy can smell father «p.s death. T. P. takes Benjy and Quentin tohis house, where Roskus issitting next tothe fire. Hesays «that «p.s three, thank the Lawd. .. Itold you two years ago. They aint noluck onthis place «(31). Hecomments onthe bad luck ofnever mentioning achild «p.s mother «p.s name and bringing upachild never toknow its mother. Dilsey shushes him, asking him ifhewants tomake Benjy cry again. Dilsey puts him tobed inLuster «p.s bed, laying apiece ofwood between him and Luster. Mr. Compson «p.s funeral, 1912. Benjy and T. P. wait atthe corner ofthe house and watch Mr. Compson «p.s casket carriedby. Benjy can see his father lying there through the glass inthe casket. Trip tothe cemetery, 1912. Benjy waits for his mother toget into the carriage. She comes out and asks where Roskusis. Dilsey says that hecan «tmove his arms today, so T. P. will drive them. Mother says she isafraid tolet T. P. drive, but she gets inthe carriage anyway. Mother says that maybe itwould befor the best ifshe and Benjy were killed inanaccident, and Dilsey tells her not totalk that way. Benjy begins tocry and Dilsey gives him aflower tohold. They begin todrive, and mother says she isafraid toleave the baby Quentin athome. She asks T. P. toturn the carriage around. Hedoes, and ittips precariously but doesn «ttopple. They return tothe house, where Jason isstanding outside with apencil behind his ear. Mother tells him that they are going tothe cemetery, and heasks her ifthat was all she came back totell him. She says she would feel safer ifhecame, and hetells her that Father and Quentin won «thurt her. This makes her cry, and Jason tells her tostop. Jason tells T. P. todrive, and they take off again. Roskus «p.s death, later 1920s: Luster isold enough totake care ofBenjy bynow. Dilsey is«moaning «atthe servants «quarters. Benjy begins tocry and the dog begins tohowl, and Dilsey stops moaning. Frony tells Luster totake them down tothe barn, but Luster says hewon «tgodown there for fear hewill see Roskus «p.s ghost like hedid last night, waving his arms. Analysis ofApril 7, 1928: The title ofthis novel comes from Shakespeare «p.s Macbeth, Act five, scene five, inMacbeth «p.s famous speech about the meaninglessness oflife. Hestates that itis«atale / Told byanidiot, full ofsound and fury, / signifying nothing. «One could argue that Benjy isthe «idiot «referred tointhis speech, for indeed his section seems, atfirst reading, to«signify nothing. «Noone vignette inhis narrative seems tobeparticularly important, much ofitdetailing the minutiae ofhis daily routine. His speech itself, the «bellering «with which memakes himself heard, does, infact, «signify nothing, «since heisunable toexpress himself even when hewants toin away other than howling. However, Benjy Compson isnot merely anidiot, and his section ismuch more meaningful than itfirst seems. When discussing Mr. Compson «p.s death, Roskus states that Benjy «know alot more than folks thinks «(31), and infact, for all his idiocy, Benjy does sense when things are wrong with his self-contained world, especially when they concern his sister Caddy. Like ananimal, Benjy can «smell «when Caddy has changed; when she wears perfume, hestates that she nolonger smells «like trees, «and the servants claim that hecan smell death. Hecan also sense somehow when Caddy has lost her virginity; she has changed tohim. From the time she loses her virginity on, she nolonger smells like trees tohim. Although his section atfirst presents itself asanobjective snapshot ofaretarded boy «p.s perceptions ofthe world, itismore ordered and more intelligent than that. Most ofthe memories Benjy relates inhis section have todowith Caddy, and specifically with moments ofloss related toCaddy. The first memory ofDamuddy «p.s death, for example, marks achange inhis family structure and achange inhis brother Jason, who was the closest toDamuddy and slept inher room. His many memories ofCaddy are mostly concerned with her sexuality, afact that changes her relationship with him and eventually removes her from his life. His later memories are also associated with some sort ofloss: the loss ofhis pasture, ofhis father, and the loss associated with his castration. Critics have pointed out that Benjy «p.s narrative is«timeless, «that hecannot distinguish between present and past and therefore relives his memories asthey occur tohim. Ifthis isthe case, heiscaught inaprocess ofconstantly regenerating his sister inmemory and losing her simultaneously, ofcreating and losing atthe same time. His life isaconstant cycle ofloss and degenerative change. IfBenjy istrapped inaconstantly replaying succession oflosses, the objects that hefixates onseem toecho this state. Heloves fire, for instance, and often stares into the «bright shapes «ofthe fire while the world revolves around him. The word «fire «ismentioned numerous times inthe memory ofhis name change. Caddy and the servants know that hestops crying when helooks atthe fire, which isthe reason inthe present day that Luster makes afire inthe library even though one isnot needed. The fire isasymbolic object; itisconventionally associated with the contrast between light and dark, heat and cold. Itis acomfort, not merely toBenjy because ofthe pleasure hereceives inwatching it, but because itisassociated with the hearth, the center ofthe home. Ascritics have pointed out, itisoften Caddy who places Benjy infront ofthe fire: «she led metothe fire and Ilooked atthe bright, smooth shapes «(64). The fire istherefore tied inBenjy «p.s mind with the idea ofCaddy; both are warm and comforting forces within acold family. But unlike Caddy, the fire isunchanging; there will always beafire, even after she leaves him. The fact that Benjy burns himself onthe kitchen stove after Luster closes the oven door reveals the pain— both physical and mental— that Benjy associates with Caddy «p.s absence. Another object that provides comfort toBenjy isthe library mirror. Like the fire, the mirror plays alarge part inthe memory ofhis name change, asBenjy watches the various members ofhis family move inand out ofthe mirror: «Caddy and Jason were fighting inthe mirror. wecould see Caddy fighting inthe mirror and Father put medown and went into the mirror and fought too. Herolled into the corner, out ofthe mirror. Father brought Caddy tothe fire. They were all out ofthe mirror «(64−65). The mirror isaframe ofreference through which Benjy sees the world; people are either inorout ofthe mirror, and hedoes not understand the concept ofreflection. Like the mirror, Benjy «p.s section ofthe book provides readers with asimilar exact reflection ofthe world that Benjy sees, framed byhis memories. Characters slide inand out ofthe mirror ofhis perception, their conversations and actions accurately reported but somewhat distorted inthe process. Asthe «tale told byanidiot, «Benjy «p.s section makes upthe center kernel ofthe story ofthe Compson family tragedy. And the scene ofDamuddy «p.s death inmany ways makes upthe center around which this section and the entire story revolve. Faulkner has said that the story grew out ofthe image ofalittle girl «p.s muddy drawers asshe climbs atree tolook into the parlor windows atthe funeral taking place. From this image astory evolved, astory «without plot, ofsome children being sent away from the house during the grandmother «p.s funeral. There were too young tobetold what was going onand they saw things only incidentally tothe childish games they were playing «(Millgate, 96). This original story was entitled «Twilight, «and the story grew into anovel because Faulkner fell inlove with the character ofthis little girl tosuch anextent that hestrove totell her story from four different viewpoints. Ifthis one scene isthe center ofthe story, itisalso amicrocosm ofthe events tofollow. The interactions ofthe children inthis scene prefigure their relations inthe future and infact the entire future ofthe Compson family. Thus Caddy «p.s soaking her dress inthe water ofthe branch isametaphor for the sexual fall that will torment Quentin and ruin the family:

She was wet. Wewere playing inthe branch and Caddy squatted down and got her dress wet and Versh said, «Your mommer going towhip you for getting your dress wet. «» It «p.s not wet. «Caddy said. She stood upinthe water and looked ather dress. «I «lltake itoff. «she said. «Then it«llbedry. «» Ibet you won «t. «Quentin said. «Ibet Iwill. «Caddy said. «Ibet you better not. «Quentin said. «You just take your dress off, «Quentin said. Caddy took her dress off and threw itonthe bank. Then she didn «thave onanything but her bodice and drawers, and Quentin slapped her and she slipped and fell down inthe water (17−18). Caddy sullies her garments inanact that prefigures her later sexuality. She then takes off her dress, afurther sexual metaphor, causing Quentin tobecome enraged and slap her. Just asthe loss ofher virginity upsets Quentin tothe point ofsuicide, his angry and embarrassed reaction totaking off her dress here reveals the jealous protectiveness hefeels for her sexuality. Benjy, too, istraumatized bythe muddying ofCaddy «p.s dress: «Caddy was all wet and muddy behind, and Istarted tocry and she came and squatted inthe water «(19). Just asher sexuality will cause his world tocrack later on, her muddy dress here causes him tocry. Jason, too, isaminiature version ofwhat hewill become inthis scene. While Caddy and Quentin fight inthe branch, Jason stands «byhimself further down the branch, «prefiguring the isolation from the rest ofhis family that will characterize his later existence (19). Although the other children ask him not totell their father that they have been playing inthe branch, the first thing hedoes when hesees father istattle. Heisas perverse and mean here asheis sadistic inthe third section ofthe book. His reaction toDamuddy «p.s death, too, isaminiature for the way hewill deal with the loss that hesees inCaddy «p.s betrayal ofthe family later on:

" Doyou think the buzzards are going toundress Damuddy. «Caddy said. «You «recrazy. «» You «reaskizzard. «Jason said. Hebegan tocry. «You «reaknobnot. «Caddy said. Jason cried. His hands were inhis pockets. «Jason going toberich man. «Versh said. «Heholding his money all the time «(35−36). Here Jason cries over the loss ofDamuddy with his hands inhis pockets, «holding his money, «just aslater hewill sublimate his anger atCaddy «p.s absence bybecoming amiserly workaholic and embezzling thousands ofdollars from Quentin and his mother. The scene ends with the image ofCaddy «p.s muddy drawers asshe climbs the tree: «Wewatched the muddy bottom ofher drawers. Then wecouldn «tsee her. Wecould hear the tree thrashing. ... the tree quit thrashing. Welooked upinto the still branches «(39). This image ofCaddy «p.s muddy undergarments disappearing into the branches ofthe tree, the scene that prompted Faulkner towrite the entire novel, is, ascritic John T. Matthews points out, animage ofCaddy disappearing, just asshe will disappear from the lives ofher three brothers: What the novel has made, ithas also lost. ... [Caddy] ismemorable precisely because she inhabits the memories ofher brothers and the novel, and memory for Faulkner never transcends the sense ofloss. ... Caught inFaulkner «p.s mind asshe climbs out ofthe book, Caddy isthe figure that the novel iswritten tolose (Matthews, 2−3). Thus the seminal scene inthis section ofthe story isthat ofthe sullied Caddy, «climbing out of«Benjy «p.s life. The scene ofDamuddy «p.s death isnot the only part ofthis section that forecasts the future. Like aGreek tragedy, this section isimbued with asense ofimpending disaster, and infact the events ofthe present day chronicle afamily that has fallen into decay. For Benjy, the dissolution ofthe life heknows iswrapped upinCaddy and her sexuality, which eventually leads her todesert him. For his mother and the servants, the family «p.s demise isafate that cannot beavoided, ofwhich Benjy «p.s idiocy and Quentin «p.s death are signs. This iswhat prompts Roskus torepeatedly vow that «they aint noluck onthis place, «and what causes mother toperform the almost ritualistic ablution ofchanging Benjy «p.s name. Itisas ifchanging his name from Maury, the name ofaBascomb, will somehow avert the disastrous fate that the Compson blood seems tobring. This overwhelming sense ofaninescapable family curse will resurface many times throughout the book. Summary ofJune Second, 1910: This section ofthe book details the events ofthe day ofQuentin «p.s suicide, from the moment hewakes inthe morning until heleaves his room that night, headed tothe river todrown himself. Like Benjy «p.s section, this section isnarrated instream ofconsciousness, sliding constantly between modern-day events and memories; however, Quentin «p.s section isnot asdisjointed atBenjy «p.s, regardless ofhis agitated mental state. Aswith Benjy, most ofthe memories herelates are centered onCaddy and her precocious sexuality. The present day: Quentin wakes inhis Harvard dorm room tothe sound ofhis watch ticking: «when the shadow ofthe sash appeared onthe curtain itwas between seven and eight oclock and then Iwas intime again, hearing the watch «(76). This isthe watch his father gave him when hecame toHarvard. Hetries toignore the sound, but the more hetries, the louder itseems. Heturns the watch over and returns tobed, but the ticking goeson. His roommate Shreve appears inthe doorway and asks him ifheis going tochapel, then runs out the door toavoid being late himself. Quentin watches his friends running tochapel out the window ofhis dorm room, then listens tothe school «p.s bell chiming the hour (8:00 a.m.). Hegoes tothe dresser and picks uphis watch, tapping itagainst the side ofthe dresser tobreak the glass. Hetwists the hands ofthe watch off, but the watch keeps ticking. Henotices that hecut himself inthe process and meticulously cleans his wound with iodine. Hepainstakingly packs upall his clothes except two suits, two pairs ofshoes, and two hats, then locks his trunk and piles his schoolbooks onthe sitting-room table, asthe quarter-hour bell chimes. Hebathes and puts onanew suit and his (now broken) watch, puts his trunk key into anenvelope addressed tohis father, then writes two noes and seals them. Hegoes out the door, bumping into his returning roommate onthe way, who asks him why heisall dressedup. The half-hour chimes and Quentin walks into Harvard Square, tothe post office. Hebuys stamps and mails one letter tohis father and keeps one for Shreve inhis coat pocket. Heislooking for his friend «the Deacon, «aneccentric black man who befriends all the Southern students atHarvard. Hegoes out tobreakfast; while heiseating hehears the clock strike the hour (10:00 a.m.). Quentin continues towalk around the square, trying toavoid looking atclocks, but finds itimpossible toescape time like that. Heeventually walks into ajeweler «p.s and asks him about fixing his watch. Heasks ifany ofthe watches inthe window isright, and stops the jeweler before hecan tell him what time itis. The jeweler says that hewill fix his watch this afternoon, but Quentin takes itback and says hewill get itfixed later. Walking back out into the street, hebuys two six-pound flat-irons; hechooses them because they are «heavy enough «but will look like apair ofshoes when they are wrapped upand heiscarrying them around the Square (85). Hetakes afruitless cable car ride, then gets off the car onabridge, where hewatches one ofhis friends rowing onthe river. Hewalks back tothe Square asthe bell chimes the quarter hour (11:15), and hemeets upwith the Deacon and gives him the letter hehas written toShreve, asking him todeliver ittomorrow. Hetells the Deacon that when hedelivers the letter tomorrow Shreve will have apresent for him. Asthe bell chimes the half-hour, heruns into Shreve, who tells him aletter arrived for him this morning. Then hegets onanother car asthe bells chime 11:45. When hegets off the car heisnear arun-down town onthe Charles River, and hewalks along the river until hecomes across three boys fishing onabridge over the river; hehides the flat irons under the edge ofthe bridge before striking upaconversation with the boys. They notice that hehas astrange accent and ask ifheis from Canada; heasks them ifthere are any factories intown (factories would have hourly whistles). Hewalks ontoward the town, although heisanxious tokeep far enough away from the church steeple «p.s clock torender its face unreadable. Finally hearrives intown and walks into abakery; there isnobody behind the counter, but there isalittle Italian immigrant girl standing beforeit. Awoman enters behind the counter and Quentin buys two buns. Hetells the proprietress that the little girl would like something too; the proprietress eyes the girl suspiciously and accuses her ofstealing something. Quentin defends her and she extends her hand toreveal anickel. The woman wraps upafive-cent loaf ofbread for the girl, and Quentin puts some money onthe counter and buys another bun aswell. The woman asks him ifheis going togive the bun tothe girl, and hesays heis. Still acting exasperated, she goes into aback room and comes out with amisshapen cake; she gives ittothe girl, telling her itwon «ttaste any different than agood cake. The girl follows Quentin out ofthe store, and hetakes her toadrugstore and buys her some ice cream. They leave the drugstore and hegives her one ofthe buns and says goodbye, but she continues tofollow him. Not knowing exactly what todo, hewalks with her toward the immigrant neighborhood across the train tracks where heassumes she lives. She will not talk tohim orindicate where she lives. Heasks some men infront ofastore ifthey know her, and they do, but they don «tknow where she lives either. They tell him totake her tothe town marshal «p.s office, but when hedoes the marshal isn «tthere. Quentin decides totake her down toher neighborhood and hopefully someone will claim her. Atone point she seems totell him that acertain house ishers, but the woman inside doesn «tknow her. They continue towalk through the neighborhood until they come out onthe other side, bythe river. Quentin gives acoin tothe girl, then runs away from her along the river. Hewalks along the river for awhile, then suddenly meets upwith the little girl again. They walk along together for awhile, still looking for her house; eventually they turn back and walk toward town again. They come across some boys swimming, and the boys throw water atthem. The hurry toward town, but the girl still won «ttell him where she lives. Suddenly aman flies atthem and attacks Quentin; heisthe little girl «p.s brother. Hehas the town marshal with him, and they take him into town totalk tothe police because they think hewas trying tokidnap the girl. Intown they meet upwith Shreve, Spoade and Gerald, Quentin «p.s friends, who have come into town inGerald «p.s mother «p.s car. Eventually after discussing everything atlength, the marshal lets Quentin go, and hegets into the car with his friends and drives away. Asthey drive Quentin slides into akind oftrance wherein heremembers various events from his past, mostly todowith her precocious sexuality (tobediscussed later). While his islost inthis reverie the boys and Gerald «p.s mother have gotten out ofthe car and set upapicnic. Suddenly hecomes to, bleeding, and the boys tell him that hejust suddenly began punching Gerald and Gerald beat himup. They tell him that hebegan shouting «did you ever have asister? Did you? «then attacked Gerald out ofthe blue. Quentin ismore concerned about the state ofhis clothes than anything else. His friends want totake the cable car back toBoston without Gerald, but Quentin tells them hedoesn «twant togoback. They ask him what heplans todo (perhaps they suspect something about his suicidal plans). They goback tothe party, and Quentin walks slowly toward the city asthe twilight descends. Eventually Quentin gets onacable car. Although itisdark bynow, hecan smell the water ofthe river asthey pass byit. Asthey pass the Harvard Square post office again, hehears the clock chiming but has noidea what time itis. Heplans toreturn tothe bridge where heleft his flatirons, but hehas towash his clothes first inorder tocarry out his plans correctly. Hereturns tohis dorm room and takes off his clothes, meticulously washing the blood off his vest with gasoline. The bell chimes the half-hour ashedoesso. Back inhis darkened room, helooks out the window for awhile, then asthe last chime ofthe three-quarters hour sounds, heputs his clothes and vest backon. Hewalks into Shreve «p.s room and puts aletter and his watch inthe desk drawer. Heremembers that hehasn «tbrushed his teeth, sohegoes back into his room and takes the toothbrush out ofhis bag. Hebrushes his teeth and returns the brush tothe bag, then goes tothe door. Hereturns for his hat, then leaves the room. Quentin «p.s memories: Quentin «p.s memories are not asclearly defined oraschronologically discernible asBenjy «p.s. There are three important memories that obsess him.

Benjy «p.s name change, 1900: Dilsey claims that Benjy can «smell what you tell him; «Roskus asks ifhecan smell bad luck, sure that the only reason they changed his name istotry tohelp his luck. Quentin kisses Natalie, undated: Natalie, aneighbor girl, and Quentin are inthe barn and itisraining outside. Natalie ishurt; Caddy pushed her down the ladder and ran off. Quentin asks her where ithurts and says that hebets hecan lift her up. [a skip intime] Natalie tells him that something [probably kissing] is«like dancing sitting down «(135); Quentin asks her how heshould hold her todance, placing his arms around her, and she moans. Quentin looks uptosee Caddy inthe door watching them. Quentin tells her that heand Natalie were just dancing sitting down; she ignores him. She and Natalie fight about the events that led toNatalie being pushed off the ladder and whose fault itwas; Caddy claims that she was «just brushing the trash off the back ofyour dress «(136). Natalie leaves and Quentin jumps into the mud ofthe pigpen, muddying himself uptohis waist. Caddy ignores him and stands with her back tohim. Hecomes around infront ofher and tells her that hewas just hugging Natalie. She turns her back and continues toignore him, saying she doesn «tgive adamn what hewas doing. Shouting «I «llmake you give adamn, «hesmears mud onher dress asshe slaps him. They tumble, fighting, onthe grass, then sit upand realize how dirty they are. They head tothe branch towash the mud off themselves. Caddy kisses aboy (1906): Quentin slaps Caddy and demands toknow why she let the boy kiss her. With the red print ofhis hand rising onher cheek, she replies that she didn «tlet him, she made him. Quentin tells her that itisnot for kissing that heslapped her, but for kissing a«darn town squirt «(134). Herubs her face inthe grass until she says «calf rope. «She shouts that atleast she didn «tkiss a«dirty girl like Natalie anyway «(134). Caddy has sex with Dalton Ames, 1909: Caddy stands inthe doorway, and someone [Quentin?] asks her why she won «tbring Dalton Ames into the house. Mother replies that she «must dothings for women «p.s reasons «(92). Caddy will not look atQuentin. Benjy bellows and pulls ather dress and she shrinks against the wall, and hepushes her out ofthe room. Sitting onthe porch, Quentin hears her door slamming and Benjy still howling. She runs out ofthe house and Quentin follows her; hefinds her lying inthe branch. Hethreatens totell Father that hecommitted incest with her; she replies with pity. Hetells her that heisstronger than she is, hewill make her tell him. Headds that hefooled her; all the time she thought itwas her boyfriends and itwas Quentin instead. The smell ofhoneysuckle isall around them. She asks him ifBenjy isstill crying. Heasks her ifshe loves Dalton Ames; she places his hand onher chest and hefeels her heart beating there. Heasks her ifhemade her doit, saying «Ill kill him Iswear Iwill father neednt know until afterward and then you and Inobody need ever know wecan take myschool money wecan cancel mymatriculation Caddy you hate him dont you «(151). She moves his hand toher throat, where the blood is«hammering, «and says «poor Quentin «(151). Amoment later she says «yes Ihate him Iwould die for him Ive already died for him Idie for him over and over again «(151). She looks athim and then says «you «venever done that have you, «towhich Quentin responds «yes yes lots oftimes with lots ofgirls, «but heislying, and Caddy knows it; hecries onher shirt and they lie together inthe branch (151). Heholds aknife toher throat, telling her that hecan kill her quickly and painlessly and then kill himself. She agrees and heasks her toclose her eyes, but she doesn «t, looking past his head atthe sky. Hebegins tocry; hecannot doit. She holds his head toher breast and hedrops the knife. She stands upand tells him that she has togo, and Quentin searches inthe water for his knife. The two walk together past the ditch where Nancy «p.s bones were, then she turns and tells him tostop [she isheaded tomeet Dalton Ames]. Hereplies that heisstronger than she is; she tells him togoback tothe house. But hecontinues tofollow her. Just past the fence, Dalton Ames iswaiting for her, and she introduces them and kisses Dalton. Quentin tells them that heisgoing totake awalk inthe woods, and she asks him towait for her atthe branch, that she will bethere soon. Hewalks aimlessly, trying toescape the smell ofhoneysuckle that chokes him, and lies onthe bank ofthe branch. Presently Caddy appears and tells him togohome. Heshakes her; she islimp inhis hands and does not look athim. They walk together tothe house, and atthe steps heasks her again ifshe loves Dalton Ames. She tells him that she doesn «tknow. She tells him that she is«bad anyway you cant help it«(158). Quentin fights with Dalton Ames, 1909: Quentin sees Dalton Ames gointo abarbershop intown and waits for him tocome out. Hetells him «Ive been looking for you two orthree days «and Dalton replies that hecan «ttalk tohim there onthe street; the two arrange tomeet atthe bridge over the creek atone o«clock (158). Dalton isvery polite toQuentin. Later, Caddy overhears Quentin telling T. P. tosaddle his horse and asks him where heisgoing. Hewill not tell her and calls her awhore. Hetells T. P. that hewon «tneed his horse after all and walks tothe bridge. Dalton iswaiting for him there. Quentin tells him toleave town. Dalton stares athim and asks ifCaddy sent him. Quentin tells him that he, and only he, isasking Dalton toleave town. Dalton dismisses this, just wishing toknow ifCaddy isall right. Quentin continues toorder him toleave, and Dalton counters with «what will you doif Idont leave «(160). Inresponse Dalton slowly and deliberately smokes acigarette, leaning onthe bridge railing. Hetells Quentin tostop taking itsohard, that ifhehadn «tgotten Caddy pregnant some other guy would have. Shaking, Quentin asks him ifheever had asister, and hereplies «nobut theyre all bitches «(160). Quentin hits him, but Dalton catches him byboth wrists and reaches under his coat for agun, then turns him loose. Dropping apiece ofbark into the creek, Dalton shoots atitand hands the gun toQuentin. Quentin punches athim and heholds his wrists again, and Quentin passes out. Heasks Quentin how hefeels and ifhecan make ithome all right. Hetells him that he«dbetter not walk and offers him his horse. Quentin brushes him off and eventually herides off. Quentin slumps against atree. Hehears hoofbeats and Caddy comes running. She thought that Dalton Shot him. She holds his face with her hands and Quentin grabs her wrists. She begs him tolet her gososhe can run after Dalton, then suddenly stops struggling. Quentin asks her ifshe loves him. Again she places his hand onher throat, and tells him tosay his name. Quentin says «Dalton Ames, «and each time hedoes hecan feel the blood surging inher throat. Quentin meets Herbert Head before Caddy «p.s wedding, 1910: Herbert finds Quentin alone inthe parlor and attempts toget toknow him better. Heissmoking acigar and offers one toQuentin. Herbert tells him that Caddy talked somuch about him when they met that hethought she was talking about ahusband orboyfriend, not abrother. Heasks Quentin about Harvard, reminiscing about his own college days, and Quentin accuses him ofcheating [he has heard rumors about Herbert «p.s cheating atcards]. Herbert jokingly banters back that Quentin is«better than aplay you must have made the Dramat «(108). Hetells Quentin that helikes him and that heisglad they are going tobefriends. Heoffers togive him ahand and get him started inbusiness, but Quentin rejects his offer and challenges him. They begin tofight but stop when Herbert sees that his cigar butt has almost burned aspot into the mantel. Hebacks off and again offers Quentin his friendship and offers him some money, which Quentin rejects. They are just beginning tofight again when Caddy enters and asks Herbert toleave soshe can talk toQuentin alone. Alone, she asks Quentin what heisdoing and warns him not toget involved inher life again. Henotices that she isfeverish, and she tells him that she issick. Heasks her what she means and she tells him she isjust sick and begs him not totell anyone. Again heasks her what she means and tells her that ifshe issick she shouldn «tgothrough with the ceremony. She replies that she can and must and that «after that it«llbeall right itwont matter «and begs him tolook after Benjy and make sure that they don «tsend him toanasylum (112). Quentin promises. Caddy «p.s wedding, 1910: Benjy ishowling outside, and Caddy runs out the door tohim, «right out ofthe mirror «(77). Mother speaks, undated: Mother tells Father that she wants togoaway and take only Jason, because heisthe only child who loves her, the only child who istruly aBascomb, not aCompson. She says that the other three children are her «punishment for putting aside [her] pride and marrying aman who held himself above [her] «(104). These three are «not [her] flesh and blood «and she isactually afraid ofthem, that they are the symbols ofacurse upon her and the family. She views Caddy not merely asdamaging the family name with her promiscuity but actually «corrupting «the other children (104). Quentin «p.s conversations with Father, undated (astring ofseparate conversations onthe same theme): Quentin tells his father that hecommitted incest with Caddy; his father does not believe him. Father takes apractical, logical, ifunemotional view ofCaddy «p.s sexuality, telling Quentin that women have «apractical fertility ofsuspicion. .. [and] anaffinity for evil, «that heshould not take her promiscuity toheart because itwas inevitable (96). When Quentin tells him that hewould like tohave been born aeunuch sothat henever had tothink about sex, heresponds «it «p.s because you are avirgin: dont you see? Women are never virgins. Purity isanegative state and therefore contrary tonature. It «p.s nature ishurting you not Caddy. «Quentin replies «that «p.s just words «and father counters «soisvirginity «(116). Quentin insists that hehas committed incest with Caddy and that hewants todie, but still Father won «tbelieve him. Father tells him that heismerely «blind towhat isinyourself tothat part ofgeneral truth the sequence ofnatural events and their causes which shadows every mans brow even benjys. .. you cannot bear tothink that someday itwill nolonger hurt you like this «(177). Heclaims that not even Caddy was really «quite worth despair, «that Quentin will grow out ofthe pain hefeels ather betrayal ofhis ideal (178). Analysis ofJune Second, 1910: From the very first sentence ofthe section, Quentin isobsessed with time; words associated with time like «watch, «» clock, «» chime, «and «hour «occur onalmost every page. When Quentin wakes heis«intime again, hearing the watch, «and the rest ofthe day represents anattempt toescape time, toget «out oftime «(76). His first action when hewakes istobreak the hands off his watch inanattempt tostop time, toescape the «reducto absurdum ofall human experience «which isthe gradual progression toward death (76). Perversely taking literally his father «p.s statement that «time isdead aslong asitis being clicked off bylittle wheels; only when the clock stops does time come tolife, «hetears the hands off his watch, only tofind that itcontinues totick even without the hands (85). Throughout this section, Quentin tries toescape time insimilar ways; hetries toavoid looking atclocks, hetries totravel away from the sound ofschool chimes orfactory whistles. Bythe end ofthe section hehas succeeded inescaping knowledge ofthe time (when hereturns toschool hehears the bell ringing and has noidea what hour itischiming off), but hestill has not taken himself out oftime. Inthe end, asheknows throughout this section, the only way toescape time istodie. Jean-Paul Sartre, inhis analysis ofthis novel, sees Quentin «p.s suicide asnot merely away ofescaping time but ofexploding time. His suicide ispresent inall the actions ofthe day, not somuch afate hecould dream ofescaping as«animmobile wall, athing which heapproaches backward, and which heneither wants tonor can conceive «(Sartre, 91). Itisnot afuture but apart ofthe present, the point from which the story istold. Quentin narrates the day «p.s events inthe past tense, asifthey have already happened; the «present «from which helooks back atthe day «p.s events must bethe moment ofhis death. AsSartre puts it: Since the hero «p.s last thoughts coincide approximately with the bursting ofhis memory and its annihilation, who isremembering?. ... [Faulkner] has chosen the infinitesimal instant ofdeath. Thus when Quentin «p.s memory begins tounravel its recollections («Through the wall Iheard Shreve «p.s bedsprings and then his slippers onthe floor hishing. Igot up. .. ») heisalready dead (92). Inother words, time explodes atthe instant ofQuentin «p.s suicide, and the events ofthis «infinitesimal instant «are recorded inthis section. Bykilling himself, Quentin has found the only way toaccess time that is«alive «inthe sense that his father details, time that has escaped the clicking oflittle wheels. But why does Quentin want toescape time? The answer lies inone ofthe conversations with his father that are recorded inthis section. When Quentin claims that hecommitted incest with Caddy, his father refuses tobelieve him and says: You cannot bear tothink that someday itwill nolonger hurt you like this. .. itishard believing tothink that alove orasorrow isabond purchased without design and which matures willynilly and isrecalled without warning. .. noyou will not dothat until you come tobelieve that even she was not quite worth despair perhaps (177−178). Quentin «p.s response tothis statement is«і will never dothat nobody knows what і know. «His attempt tostop the progression oftime isanattempt topreserve the rawness ofthe pain Caddy «p.s promiscuity and marriage have caused him; henever wants tothink ofher as«not quite worth despair. «Like Benjy, Quentin isobsessed with anabsent Caddy, and both brothers «sections are ordered around memories ofher, specifically ofher promiscuity. For both brothers, her absence islinked toher promiscuity, but for Quentin her promiscuity signals not merely her loss from his life but also the loss ofthe romantically idealized idea oflife hehas built for himself. This ideal life has atits center avaluation ofpurity and cleanness and arejection ofsexuality; Quentin sees his own developing sexuality aswell ashis sister «p.s assinful. The loss ofher virginity isthe painful center ofaspiral ofloss ashis illusions are shattered. Critics have read Quentin «p.s obsession with Caddy «p.s virginity asanantebellum-style preoccupation with family honor, but infact family honor ishardly ever mentioned inthis section. The pain that Caddy «p.s promiscuity causes Quentin seems too raw, too intense, too visceral tobemerely adisappointment atthe staining family honor. And perhaps most importantly, Quentin «p.s response toher promiscuity, namely telling his father that heand she committed incest, isnot the act ofaperson concerned with family honor. Rather itisthe act ofaboy soinlove with his sister and soobsessed with maintaining the closeness oftheir relationship that hewould rather becondemned bythe town and suffer inhell than let hergo. Heis, infact, obsessed with her purity and virginity, but not tomaintain appearances inthe town; hewants her forever toremain the unstained, saintly mother/sister heimagines her tobe. Quentin did not, ofcourse, commit incest with Caddy. And yet the encounters heremembers are fraught with sexual overtones. When Caddy walks inonQuentin and Natalie kissing inthe barn, for instance, Quentin throws himself into the «stinking «mud ofthe pigpen. When this fails toget aresponse from Caddy, hewipes mud onher: You dont you dont I «llmake you I «llmake you give adamn. She hit myhands away Ismeared mud onher with the other hand Icouldnt feel the wet smacking ofher hand Iwiped mud from mylegs smeared itonher wet hard turning body hearing her fingers going into myface but Icouldnt feel iteven when the rain began totaste sweet onmylips (137). Echoing the mud-stained drawers that symbolize her later sexuality, Quentin smears mud onCaddy «p.s body inaheated exchange, feeling ashedoes soher «wet hard turning body. «The mud isboth Quentin «p.s penance for his sexual experimentation with Natalie and the sign ofsexuality between Quentin and Caddy. The scene inthe branch ofthe river issimilarly sexual innature. Quentin finds Caddy atthe branch trying towash away the guilt she finds; amid the «suck[ing] and gurgl[ing] «waves ofthe water. When heasks her ifshe loves Dalton Ames, she places his hand onher chest and hefeels her heart «thudding «(150). Hesmells honeysuckle «onher face and throat like paint her blood pounded against myhand Iwas leaning onmyother arm itbegan tojerk and jump and Ihad topant toget any air atall out ofthat thick gray honeysuckle; «and helies «crying against her damp blouse «(150). Taking out aknife, heholds itagainst her throat and tells her «itwont take but asecond Ill try not tohurt. «She replies «nolike this you have topush itharder, «and hesays «touch your hand toit«(151). Inthis scene wehave the repetitive surging both ofthe water and ofCaddy «p.s blood beneath Quentin «p.s hand. Wehave the two siblings lying ontop ofone another atthe edge ofthis surging water, the pungent smell ofhoneysuckle (which Quentin associates with sex throughout the section) sothick around them that Quentin has trouble breathing. Wehave aknife (acommon phallic symbol) which Quentin proposes topush into Caddy «p.s blood-flushed neck, promising hewill «try not tohurt. «Overall, the scene overflows with sexual metaphors; ifthe two donot actually commit incest, they certainly doshare anumber ofemotionally powerful, sexually loaded moments. Quentin «p.s wish tohave committed incest isnot adesire tohave sex with Caddy; that would shatter his ideals ofpurity even more than her encounters with Dalton Ames. Nor isit, aswehave determined, away topreserve the family honor. Instead, itseems tobe away tokeep Caddy tohimself forever: «ifitcould just beahell beyond that: the clean flame the two ofusmore than dead. Then you will have only methen only methen the two ofusamid the pointing and the horror beyond the clean flame «(116). Separated from the rest ofthe world bythe «clean «purifying flames ofhell, Quentin and Caddy could bealone together, forever burning away the sin ofher sexuality. Hewould rather implicate himself insomething ashorrible asincest than leave Caddy toher promiscuity orlose her through her marriage toHerbert Head. Iftime-words are the most frequently occurring words inthis section, the second most frequent isthe word «shadow. «Throughout his journeys, Quentin isjust asobsessed with his shadow asheis with time. For example, hewalks onhis shadow ashewanders through Cambridge: «trampling myshadow «p.s bones. ... Iwalked upon the belly ofmyshadow «(96). When asked what the significance ofshadows was inthis section, Faulkner replied «that shadow that stayed onhis mind somuch was foreknowledge ofhis own death, that hewas— Death ishere, shall Istep into itorshall Istep away from italittle longer? Iwon «tescape it, but shall Iaccept itnow orshall Iput itoff until next Friday «(Minter, qtd. inMartin, 6). This explanation certainly seems tofit some ofQuentin «p.s thoughts; for example, atone point, heimagines drowning his shadow inthe water ofthe river, just ashewill later drown himself: «myshadow leaning flat upon the water, soeasily had Itricked it. ... ifIonly had something toblot itinto the water, holding ituntil itwas drowned, the shadow ofthe package like two shoes wrapped uplying onthe water. Niggers say adrowned man «p.s shadow was watching for him inthe water all the time «(90). Here Quentin imagines his drowned shadow beckoning him from the river, drowned before him and waiting for him tofollow suit. Like his shadow mirroring his motions and emotions, certain aspects ofhis day «p.s travels mirror his life and the troubled state ofhis mind. Most obvious among these ishis encounter with the Italian girl hecalls «sister «and the reaction ofher brother Julio. Calling this little girl «little sister «or «sister «ironically recalls Caddy, whom Quentin atone point calls «Little Sister Death. «But whereas his suicidal mission iscaused bythe fact that hecannot hold ontoCaddy, here hecannot get rid ofthis «little sister, «who follows him around the town and will not leave him. Then when Julio finds them, heaccuses Quentin stealing her, just asQuentin feels Dalton Ames and Herbert Head have stolen Caddy from him. Julio isnot the only character tomirror Quentin, though. AsEdmond Volpe points out, Dalton Ames himself isafoil for Quentin, the embodiment ofthe romantic ideal hehas cast for himself: Quentin «p.s meeting with Dalton isadisaster. His conception ofhimself inthe traditional role ofprotector ofwomen collapses, not only because hefails toaccomplish his purpose [of beating Dalton up] but because heisforced torecognize his own weakness. Dalton isactually areflection ofQuentin «p.s vision ofhimself: calm, courageous, strong, kind. The real Quentin does not measure uptothe ideal Quentin, just asreality does not measure uptoQuentin «p.s romantic vision ofwhat life should be (113). Quentin isinactuality the «obverse reflection «ofhimself, aman who does not live uptohis own ideals, who fails toprotect his sister from avillain who turns out tobeas chivalrous and Quentin isweak. Thus atthe «infinitesimal instant «ofhis death, Quentin isaman whose disillusionment with his shattered ideals consumes him. His death, one ofthe «signs «Roskus sees ofthe bad luck ofthe Compson family, isone step inthe gradual dissolution ofthe family, adegeneration that will pick upspeed inthe sections tocome. Summary ofApril Sixth, 1928: Beginning with the statement «once abitch always abitch, «this section reads asifJason istelling the reader the story ofhis day; itismore chronological and less choppy than Quentin «p.s orBenjy «p.s sections, but still unconventional intone. Jason and his mother inher room waiting for Quentin tofinish putting onher makeup and godown tobreakfast. Mother isconcerned that Quentin often skips school and asks Jason totake care ofit. Both Jason and his mother are manipulative and passive-aggressive, mother complaining about the ailments she suffers and the way her children betrayed her, Jason countering with statements like «Inever had time togoto Harvard ordrink myself into the ground. Ihad towork. But ofcourse ifyou want metofollow her around and see what she does, Ican quit the store and get ajob where Ican work atnight «(181). Jason goes down tothe kitchen, where Quentin isbegging Dilsey for another cup ofcoffee. Dilsey tells her she will belate for school, and Jason says hewill fix that, grabbing her bythe arm. Her bathrobe comes unfastened and she pulls itclosed around her. Hebegins totake off his belt, but Dilsey stops him from hitting her. Mother comes in, and Jason puts down the belt. Quentin runs out ofthe house. Inthe car onthe way totown, Quentin and Jason fight about who paid for her schoolbooks— Caddy orJason. Jason claims that Mother has been burning all ofthe checks Caddy sends. Quentin tells Jason that she would tear off any dress that hepaid for and grabs the neck ofher dress asifshe will tearit. Jason has tostop the car and grab her wrists tostop her. Hetells her that she isaslut and abad girl, and she replies that she would rather beinhell than inhis house. Hedrops her off atschool and drives ontohis job atthe farm goods store. Atthe store, old Job, ablack worker, isunloading cultivators, and Jason accuses ofhim ofdoing itasslowly ashepossibly can. Hehas mail; heopens aletter with acheck from Caddy. The letter asks ifQuentin issick and states that she knows that Jason reads all her letters. Hegoes out tothe front ofthe store and engages inaconversation with afarmer about the cotton crop. Hetells him that cotton is a«speculator «p.s crop «that «abunch ofdamn eastern jews «get farmers togrow sothat they can control the stock market (191). Hegoes tothe telegraph office, where astock report has just come in (Jason has invested inthe cotton crop)— the cotton stock isupfour points. Hetells the telegraph operator tosend acollect message toCaddy saying «Qwriting today «(193). Hegoes back tothe store and sits athis desk, reading aletter from his girlfriend Lorraine, who isbasically aprostitute hekeeps inMemphis. She calls Jason her «daddy. «Heburns her letter, commenting «Imake itarule never tokeep ascrap ofpaper bearing awoman «p.s hand, and Inever write them atall «(193). Then hetakes out Caddy «p.s letter toQuentin, but before hecan open itsome business interrupts him. Herecalls the day ofhis father «p.s funeral; heremembers saying that Quentin wasted his chance atHarvard, learning only «how togofor aswim atnight without knowing how toswim, «Benjy isnothing but a«gelding «that should berented out asacircus sideshow, Father was adrunk who should have had a«one-armed strait jacket, «and Caddy isawhore (196−197). Uncle Maury patted Mother «p.s arm with expensive black gloves atthe funeral, and Jason noted that the flowers onthe grave must have cost fifty dollars. Healso remembers the day that Father brought baby Quentin home; Mother would not let her sleep inCaddy «p.s old room, afraid she will becontaminated bythe atmosphere inthere. She also declares that nobody inthe house must ever say Caddy «p.s name again. Onthe day ofthe funeral, Caddy appeared inthe cemetery and begged Jason tolet her see the baby for just one minute, and she would pay him fifty dollars; later she changes this toone hundred dollars. Jason smugly remembers how hetook the baby inacarriage and held her uptothe window ashedrove past Caddy; this fulfilled his agreement tothe letter. Later she showed upinthe kitchen, accusing him ofbacking out oftheir agreement. Hethreatened her and told her toleave town immediately. She made him promise totreat Quentin well and togive her the money that she sends for her. Jason «p.s boss, Earl, comes uptothe front ofthe store and tells Jason heisgoing out for asnack because they won «thave time togohome for lunch; ashow isintown and there will betoo much business. Jason finally opens Caddy «p.s letter toQuentin, and inside isamoney order for fifty dollars, not acheck. Helooks around inthe office for ablank check; every month hetakes afake check home tomother toburn and cashes the real check. But the blank checks are all gone. Quentin comes inand asks ifaletter has come for her. Hetaunts her, then finally gives her the letter, without the money init. She reaches out for the money order, but hewill not give ittoher. Hetells her she has tosign itwithout looking atit. She asks how much itisfor, and hetells her itisfor ten dollars. She says heislying, but hewill not give ittoher until she agrees totake ten dollars forit. She takes the money and leaves, upset. Earl returns and again tells Jason not togohome tolunch; Jason agrees and leaves. First hegoes toaprint shop toget ablank check. The print shop doesn «thave any, and finally Jason finds acheckbook that was aprop atanold theater. Hegoes back tothe store and puts the check inthe letter, gluing the envelope back tolook unopened. Asheleaves again, Earl tells him not totake too much time. Hegoes tothe telegraph office and checks uponthe stock market, then goes home for lunch. Hegoes uptoMother «p.s room and gives her the doctored letter. Instead ofburning itright away she looks atitfor awhile. She notices that itisdrawn onadifferent bank than the others have been, but then burnsit. Dilsey isnot ready with lunch yet because she iswaiting for Quentin tocome home; finally she puts itonthe table and they eat. Jason hands Mother aletter from Uncle Maury; itis aletter asking her tolend him some money for aninvestment hewould like tomake. Jason takes Mother «p.s bankbook with him and returns totown. Hegoes tothe bank and deposits the money from Caddy and his paycheck, then returns tothe telegraph office for anupdate; the stock isdown thirteen points. Hegoes back tothe store, where Earl asks him ifhewent home todinner. Jason tells him that hehad togoto the dentist «p.s. Awhile later hehears the band from the show start playing. Heargues with Job about spending money togoto ashow like that. Suddenly hesees Quentin inanalley with astranger with ared bow tie. Itisstill 45 minutes before school should let out. Hefollows them upthe street, but they disappear. Aboy comes upand gives Jason atelegram: the market day closed with cotton stocks down. Hegoes back tothe store and tells Earl that hehas togoout for awhile.

Hegets inhis car and goes home. Gasoline gives him headaches, and hethinks about having tobring some camphor with him when hegoes back tothe store. Hegoes into his room and hides the money from Caddy inastrongbox inhis room. Mother tells him totake some aspirin, but hedoesn «t. Hegets back inhis car and isalmost totown when hepasses aFord driven byaman with ared bow tie. Helooks closer and sees Quentin inside. Hechases the Ford through the countryside, his headache growing bythe second. Finally hesees the Ford parked near afield and gets out tolook for them; heissure they are hiding inthe bushes somewhere having sex. The sun slants directly into his eyes, and his headache ispounding sohard hecan «tthink straight. Hereaches the place where hethinks they are, then hears acar start upbehind him and drive off, the horn honking. Hereturns tohis own car and sees that they have let the air out ofone ofhis tires. Hehas towalk tothe nearest farm toborrow apump toblow itbackup. Hereturns totown, stopping inadrugstore toget aShot for his headache and the telegraph office; hehas lost $200 onthe stock market. Then hegoes back tothe store. Atelegram has arrived from his stockbroker, advising him tosell. Instead hewrites back tothe broker, telling him hewill buy. The store closes, and hedrives home tothe sounds ofthe band playing. Athome, Quentin and Mother are fighting upstairs, and Luster asks him for aquarter togoto the show. Jason replies that hehas two tickets already that hewon «tbeusing. Luster begs him for one, but hetells him hewill only sell ittohim for anickel. Luster replies that hehas nomoney, and Jason burns the tickets inthe fireplace. Dilsey puts supper onthe table for him and tells him that Quentin and Mother won «tbecoming todinner. Jason insists that they come unless they are actually sick. They come down. Atdinner, heoffers Quentin anextra piece ofmeat and tells her and Mother that helent his car toastranger who needed tochase around one ofhis relatives who was running around with atown woman. Quentin looks guilty. Finally she stands upand says that ifshe isbad, itisonly because Jason made her bad. She runs off and slams the door. Mother comments that she got all ofCaddy «p.s bad traits and all ofQuentin «p.s too; Jason takes this tomean that Mother thinks Quentin isthe child ofCaddy and her brother «p.s incestuous relationship. They finish dinner, and Mother locks Quentin into her room for the night. Jason retires tohis room for the night, still ruminating onthe «dam New York jew «that istaking all ofhis money (263). Analysis ofApril Sixth, 1928: Jason «p.s section appears more readable and more conventional; its style, while still stream-of-consciousness, ismore chronological inprogression, with very few jumps intime. Itreads more like amonologue than astring ofloosely connected events, like Benjy «p.s and Quentin «p.s sections were. Critics have claimed that the book progresses from chaos toorder, from timelessness tochronology, from pure sensation tological order, and from interiority toexteriority asittravels from Benjy «p.s world ofbright shapes and confused time through Jason «p.s rigorously ordered universe tothe third-person narrative ofthe fourth section. This third section represents ashift into the public world from the anguished interiority ofBenjy and Quentin, and ashift into «normal «novelistic narrative asJason recounts the story ofthe events ofthe day. The first sentence ofeach section reveals alot about the tone and themes ofthat particular part; this isespecially true with Quentin «p.s and Jason «p.s section. InQuentin «p.s section, the first sentence draws the reader into his obsession with being caught «intime «and includes two ofthe most common symbols inthe section: time and shadows. Jason «p.s section begins «once abitch always abitch, what Isay, «introducing both Jason «p.s irrational anger not only toward his sister and her daughter, but toward the world ingeneral, and also the rigorous logic that runs through this section (180). Jason «p.s world isdominated bylogic. Once abitch, always abitch; like mother, like daughter. Caddy was awhore, soisher daughter. Heisfurious atCaddy for ruining his chances atgetting ajob, and the way she ruined his chances was tobear anillegitimate daughter; therefore the way hewill get revenge onher and simultaneously recoup the money helost isthrough this same daughter. Caddy should have gotten him ajob, but instead she had Quentin; therefore itishis right toembezzle the money she sends toQuentin inorder tomake upfor the money helost when helost the job. Jason «p.s logic takes the form ofliteralism. Caddy isresponsible for getting him money, nomatter where itcomes from. She sends money each month for Quentin «p.s upkeep; hekeeps Quentin clothed, housed and fed, sothe money should gotohim. Hehimself claims that he«make[s] itarule never tokeep ascrap ofpaper bearing awoman «p.s hand, «and yet hekeeps the money from the checks Caddy sends him; this act fits into his system oflogic because hecashes the checks, literally getting rid ofher handwriting while keeping the money. Heallows his mother toliterally burn the checks she sends, but only after hehas cashed them insecret. When Caddy gives him 100 dollars to«see [Quentin] aminute «hegrants her request tothe letter, holding the baby uptothe carriage window ashedrives by, literally allowing Caddy only aminute «p.s glimpse (203−205). When Luster can «tpay him anickel for tickets tothe show, heburns the tickets rather than give then tohim (255). All ofthese acts fit into arigid and literally defined logical order with which Jason structures his life. Some readers see Jason «p.s logic asasign that heismore «sane «than the rest ofhis family. Heisnot retarded like Benjy orirrationally distraught like Quentin. Heisable tolive his life inarelatively normal way, with alogical order toboth his narrative and his daily activities. However, Jason isjust asblind, just asdivorced from reality ashis brothers. Like them, hetries tocontrol his life through astrictly defined order, and when this isdisrupted hecollapses into irrationality. Benjy «p.s system oforder isthe routine ofeveryday life, disrupted onagrand scale when Caddy leaves and onasmall scale when Luster turns the horses the wrong way orchanges the arrangement ofhis «graveyard. «Quentin «p.s system oforder isthe honor and purity hesaw inhimself and Caddy when they were young, disrupted when Caddy loses her virginity and leaves him. Jason «p.s system oforder isthe rigidity ofhis logic, most ofwhich has todowith money, and with this hetries tocontrol the world around him. This system isdisrupted when heloses his job opportunity (Quentin gets acareer boost ingoing toHarvard, soshould Jason get acareer boost from Herbert Head), and again when Quentin refuses tocome todinner, skips school, orruns away with his money. For each brother, the systems hehas established help tocontrol everyday life, and the way they dosois bycontrolling Caddy. Aslong asshe ismotherly toBenjy, virginal toQuentin, and profftable toJason, their worlds are inorder. But these controlling mechanisms are inflexible, breaking down entirely assoon asCaddy orher daughter defies them. Each brother remains irrationally connected with the past, particularly with memories ofCaddy. Benjy relives his memories ofCaddy all the time, making nodistinction between the present and the past. Quentin goes through the routines oflife washed inasea ofmemories ofCaddy. And Jason, for all heseems tohave cut himself off from her entirely byrefusing tomention her name, isperhaps the closest ofall toher. Not only ishesurrounded byreminders ofher inthe shape ofher daughter and her money, but heisalso constantly reminded ofher inhis anger. Ithas been eighteen years since she lost him his job opportunity, and yet heremains asangry with her asheever was. Certainly this isnoway toforget her, nor isitany more «sane «than his brothers. Nor isJason even aparticularly good businessman, for all heobsesses about money. Inthe course ofthis one day heloses $200 inthe stock market, for example; hehas been warned that the market isin astate offlux and yet heleaves town onawild goose chase when heshould bewatching the market and deliberately defies his broker «p.s advice bybuying when heshould sell. Heisrude and spiteful tohis boss, which iscertainly not the best way tosucceed inbusiness. Hebuys acar even though heknows that gasoline gives him headaches. And perhaps the clearest indication ofhis bad business sense isthe fact that when Quentin steals his savings inthe fourth section, she steals $7000. This isthe money that hehas been embezzling from Caddy and Quentin, and Caddy has been sending him $200 amonth for fifteen years. Bythis point heshould have amassed upwards of $30,000; where did itall go? Even though hethinks oflittle else besides money, heisnot capable ofhandling itproperly. Mrs. Compson spends much ofthe novel telling Jason that heisdifferent from Quentin and Benjy, that heis aBascomb atheart. And yet, underneath the sadism, money-grubbing and isolation, Jason issurprisingly similar tohis brothers. Heisjust asobsessed with Caddy asthey are, and her sexuality shatters his world just asmuch astheirs. Summary ofApril Eighth, 1928: The section opens with Dilsey standing onthe stoop ofher house inher church clothes, then going back inside tochange into her work clothes. Itisraining and gray outside. Dilsey goes into the kitchen and brings some firewood with her; she can barely walk. She begins tomake breakfast and Mrs. Compson calls her from upstairs; she wants her tofill her hot water bottle. Dilsey struggles upthe stairs toget the hot water bottle, saying that Luster has overslept after the night «p.s reveries. She goes outside and calls Luster; heappears from the cellar looking guilty and she tells him toget some firewood and take care ofBenjy. Hebrings inahuge armful offirewood and leaves. Awhile later, Mrs. Compson calls her again, and she goes out tothe stairs. Mrs. Compson wants toknow when Luster will beupto take care ofBenjy. Dilsey begins toslowly climb the stairs again, while Mrs. Compson inquires whether she had better godown and make breakfast herself. When Dilsey ishalfway upthe stairs, Mrs. Compson reveals that Benjy isnot even awake yet, and Dilsey clambers back down. Luster emerges from the cellar again. She makes him get another armful ofwood and goupto tend Benjy. The clock strikes five times, and Dilsey says «eight o«clock «(274). Luster appears with Benjy, who isdescribed asbig and pale, with whiteblonde hair cut inachild «p.s haircut and pale blue eyes. She sends Luster uptosee ifJason isawake yet; Luster reports that heisup and angry already because one ofthe windows inhis room isbroken. Heaccuses Luster ofbreaking it, but Luster swears hedidn «t. Jason and Mrs. Compson come tothe table for breakfast. Although Mrs. Compson usually allows Quentin tosleep inonSundays, Jason insists that she come and eat with them now. Dilsey goes upstairs towake her. Mrs. Compson tells him that the black servants are all taking the afternoon off togoto church; the family will have tohave acold lunch. Upstairs Dilsey calls toQuentin, but receives noanswer. Suddenly, Jason springs upand mounts the stairs, shouting for Quentin. There isstill noresponse and hecomes back down tosnatch the key toher room from his mother. Hefumbles atthe lock and then finally opens the door. The room isempty. Jason runs tohis own room and begins throwing things out ofthe closet. Mrs. Compson looks around Quentin «p.s note for asuicide note, convinced that history isrepeating itself. Inhis room, Jason finds that his strongbox has been broken into. Heruns tothe phone and calls the sheriff, telling him that hehas been robbed, and that heexpects the sheriff toget together aposse ofmen tohelp him search for Quentin. Hestorms out. Luster comments that hebets Jason beat Quentin and now heisgoing for the doctor. Dilsey tells him totake Benjy outside. Luster tells her that heand Benjy saw Quentin climb out her window and down the pear tree last night. Dilsey goes back toher cabin and changes into her church clothes again. She calls for Luster and finds him trying toplay asaw like one ofthe players did atthe show last night. She tells him toget his cap and tocome with her; they meet upwith Frony and head tochurch, Benjy intow. Dilsey carries herself with pride among the other blacks, and some ofthe children dare each other totouch Benjy. They take their seats asthe mass starts. The sermon will bedelivered byavisiting preacher, Reverend Shegog. The preachers process in, and Reverend Shegog issoslight and nondescript astoattract noattention. But when hespeaks, heholds their attention. First hespeaks without accent «like awhite man, «describing the «recollection and the blood ofthe Lamb, «then when this doesn «thave much ofaneffect, hemodulates into black dialect and delivers the same sermon again, describing the major events ofJesus «life and his resurrection. When hefinishes, Benjy israpt with attention and Dilsey isquietly weeping. Asthe leave the church, she states «I «veseed defirst endelast. ... Iseed debeginning, ennow Isees deendin «(297). They return tothe house. Dilsey goes uptoMrs. Compson «p.s room and checks onher; Mrs. Compson, still convinced that Quentin has killed herself, asks Dilsey topick upthe Bible that has fallen off the bed. Dilsey goes back downstairs and prepares lunch for the family, commenting that Jason will not bejoining them. Meanwhile, Jason isinhis car driving tothe sheriff «p.s. When hegets there, nobody isprepared toleave asJason requested. Heenters the station, and the sheriff tells him that hewill not help him find Quentin, because itwas her own money she stole and because Jason drove her away. Jason drives away toward Mottson, the town where the traveling show will benext. Hebegins toget aheadache and remembers that hehas forgotten tobring any camphor with him. Bythe time hegets toMottson hecannot see very well; hefinds two Pullman cars that belong tothe show and heenters one. Inside isanold man, and heasks him where Quentin and her boyfriend are. The man becomes angry and threatens him with aknife. Jason hits him onthe head and heslumps tothe floor. Heruns from the car, and the old man comes out ofthe car with ahatchet inhis hand. They struggle, and Jason falls tothe ground. Some show people haul him tohis feet and push him away. One ofthe men tells him that Quentin and her boyfriend aren «tthere, that they have left town. Jason goes back tohis car and sits down, but hecan «tsee todrive. Hecalls tosome passing boys, asking ifthey will drive him back toJackson for two dollars; they refuse. Hesits awhile longer inthe car. Ablack man inoveralls comes uptohim and says that hewill drive him for four dollars, but Jason refuses, then eventually acquiesces. Back atthe house, Luster takes Benjy out tohis «graveyard, «which consists oftwo blue glass bottles with jimson weeds sticking out ofthem. Luster hides one ofthe bottles behind his back, and Benjy starts tohowl; Luster puts itback. Hetakes Benjy bythe golf course and they watch the men playing. When one ofthem yells «caddie, «Benjy begins tocry again. Frustrated, Luster repeats Caddy «p.s name over and over, making him cry even louder. Dilsey calls them and they gotoher cabin. Dilsey rocks Benjy and strokes his hair, telling Luster togoget his favorite slipper. When hebegins tocry again, Dilsey asks Luster where T. P. is (T. P. issupposed totake Benjy tothe graveyard ashedoes every Sunday). Luster tells her that hecan drive the surrey instead of T. P., and she makes him promise tobegood. They put Benjy into the surrey and hand him aflower tohold, and Luster climbs into the driver «p.s seat. Dilsey takes the switch away from him and tells him that the horse knows the way. Assoon asthey are out ofsight ofthe house, Luster stops the horse and picks aswitch from the bushes along the road, then climbs back into the driver «p.s seat, carrying himself like royalty. They approach the square and pass Jason inhis car bythe side ofthe road. Luster, carried away inhis pride, turns the horse tothe left ofthe statue inthe square instead oftothe right, breaking the pattern that Benjy isusedto. Benjy begins tohowl. Ashis voice gets louder and louder, Jason comes running and turns the horse around. When the objects they pass begin togoin the right direction again, Benjy hushes. Analysis ofApril Eighth, 1928: Readers commonly refer tothis section ofthe novel as«Dilsey «p.s section, «although itisnarrated inthe third person. Dilsey plays aprominent role inthis section, and even ifshe does not narrate this section, she serves asort ofmoral lens through which toview the other characters inthe section and, infact, inthe novel asawhole. The section contrasts Dilsey «p.s slow, patient progress through the day with Jason «p.s irrational pursuit ofQuentin and Mrs. Compson «p.s self-centered flightiness. Aswewatch Dilsey slowly climb upthe stairs asMrs. Compson watches totend toBenjy, only todiscover halfway upthat heisn «teven awake yet, webegin tosympathize with this wizened old woman. Aswesee her tenderly wiping Benjy «p.s mouth asheeats, wecome tosee her asthe only truly good person inthe book. Even Caddy, the object ofBenjy and Quentin «p.s obsessions, was not asselflessly kind orasreliable asDilsey. Throughout the course ofthe section, she iswitness toany number ofthe Compson family «p.s flaws, yet she never judges them. The only statement she makes that resembles ajudgement isher concern that Luster has inherited the «Compson devilment. «Instead she stands calmly inthe midst ofthe chaos ofthe disintegrating household, patiently bearing what she isdealt «like cows dointhe rain «(272). Unlike any ofthe Compson family, Dilsey iscapable ofextending outside herself and her own needs. Each ofthe brothers isselfish inhis own way; Benjy because hecannot take care ofhimself and relies onher to, Quentin because heistoo wrapped upinhis ideals, Jason because ofhis greed and anger. Mrs. Compson iseven worse, passive-aggressively manipulating the members ofthe family asshe lies inher sickbed. And Miss Quentin istoo troubled and lonely tosympathize with anyone else. Dilsey, however, inher kindness, ungrudgingly takes care ofeach family member with tenderness and respect. Inher selflessness, Dilsey conforms tothe Christian ideal ofgoodness inself-sacrifice; therefore itisnot surprising that the section takes place onEaster Sunday. This section ofthe novel resounds with biblical allusions and symbols and revolves around the sermon delivered byReverend Shegog atDilsey «p.s church. The sermon profoundly affects Dilsey, who leaves the church intears. Perhaps this isbecause the sermon seems todescribe perfectly the disintegrating Compson family. Benjamin isthe youngest son described asbeing «sold into Egypt «inthe Appendix tothe novel; here Shegog lectures onthe Israelites who «passed away inEgypt «(295). Matthews notes that Jason is a«wealthy pauper «(11), fitting Shegog «p.s description: «wus arich man: whar henow, Obreddren? Wus apoman: whar henow, Osistuhn? «(295). Hehas embezzled thousands ofdollars from his sister, yet helives like apoor man. Even Mrs. Compson, Matthews claims, isdescribed inShegog «p.s sermon: «Ihears deweepin endelamentation ofdepo mammy widout desalvation endeword ofGod «(296). Matthews even suggests that Quentin isimplied inthe voice ofone congregation member that rises «like bubbles rising inwater «(11). Much has been made ofthe religious symbolism inthis chapter. Aside from Shegog «p.s sermon there isBenjy «p.s age: heis33 years old, the age Christ was when hedied. Like Christ, orlike apriest, heiscelibate. And heseems tobeone ofthe only «pure «members ofthe family, incapable ofdoing anything evil merely because ofhis handicaps. But heisnot the only Christlike member ofthe family. Quentin, the daughter ofthe woman whose brother wanted toremember her asboth virginal and motherly, has anunknown father, just asChrist, the son ofthe Virgin Mary, had noearthly father. Like Christ, Quentin suffers amisunderstood and mistreated existence. But most compelling isthe fact ofher disappearance onEaster Sunday. Just asthe disciples found Christ «p.s tomb empty, the wrappings from his body discarded onthe floor, Jason opens Quentin «p.s room tofind itempty: «the bed had not been disturbed. Onthe floor lay asoiled undergarment ofcheap silk alittle too pink, from ahalf open bureau drawer dangled asilk stocking «(282). IfQuentin isaChrist figure, however, she seems tohave avery un-Christlike effect onher family. Whereas the pure and virginal Christ «p.s disappearance signaled the end ofdeath and the beginning ofnew life inheaven, the promiscuous Quentin «p.s disappearance signals the destruction ofher family. Other elements ofthe section seem more apocalyptic: there isShegog «p.s name, for instance, which sounds much like the Gog and Magog mentioned inthe Book ofRevelation. There isthe story «p.s preoccupation with the end ofthe Compson family: Jason isthe last ofthe Compsons, and heischildless, his house literally rotting away. And finally there isDilsey «p.s comment that she has seen the first and the last, the beginning and the end: although the meaning ofthis statement isunclear, she seems tobediscussing the end ofthe Compson family aswell asher life, and perhaps the end ofthe world. Dilsey has borne witness tothe alpha and the omega ofthe Compson family. Nevertheless, none ofthis religious symbolism isparticularly welldeveloped. Itisimpossible totell who, ifanyone, isthe Christ figure inthis Easter story. Itisimpossible toknow what will happen toQuentin, orifthe family will really dissolve asDilsey seems tothink itwill. Nor isitparticularly clear why Reverend Shegog «p.s sermon has such aneffect onDilsey orwhat his actual message is; hehas seen the recollection and the blood ofthe Lamb, but why isthis important? What should the congregation doabout it? What can they doinorder tosee this themselves? The problem with this last section isthat itdoesn «tsatisfactorily bring the story ofthe Compson family toaclose. The reader isleft with aglimpse ofthe family «p.s psychology and slow demise, but noreal answers, noredemption. Wedon «tknow what will happen tothe family orits servants: will Jason send Benjy toJackson? Will Dilsey die? Will Quentin get away? John Matthews has pointed out that the story doesn «treally end but keeps repeating itself.

This ispartially due toits nature asastream-of-consciousness narrative; none ofthe three brothers «sections ispurely chronological, therefore when the story ends their memories continueon. Matthews claims that the fourth section does not «[complete] the shape ofthe fiction «p.s form «or «retrospectively order «the rest ofthe book; infact itdoes not have much todowith the first two sections atall (9). The Compson clock ticks away toward the family «p.s imminent demise, but itchimes the wrong hours, mangling the metaphor. Reverend Shegog «p.s sermon does not have the intended effect, sohemodifies itand tells itagain: it«succeeds because itiswilling tosay, and then say again «(12). The story doesn «tend; its loose ends are not tied together. Instead itconstantly repeats. Faulkner himself said that the novel grew because hewrote the story ofCaddy once (Benjy «p.s section), and that didn «twork, sohewrote itagain (Quentin «p.s section), but that wasn «tenough either, sohewrote itagain (Jason «p.s section), and finally wrote itagain (Dilsey «p.s section), and even this wasn «tgood enough. The story ofCaddy and the Compsons does not end, but repeats itself eternally inits characters «memories.

The Streetcar Named «Desire».

Context Tennessee Williams was born Thomas Lanier Williams inColumbus, Mississippi, in1911. Much ofhis childhood was spent inSt. Louis. The nickname Tennessee «seems tohave been pinned onhim incollege, inreference toisfather «p.s birthplace orhis own deep Southern accent, ormaybe both. Descended from anold and prominent Tennessee family, Williams «p.s fatherworked atashoe company and was often away from home. Williams lived with mother, his sister Rose (who would suffer from mental illness and later undergo alobotomy), and his maternal grandparents. Atsixteen, Williams won $5 inanational competition for his essay, «Can aWife beaGood Sport?, «published inSmart Set. The next year hepublished his first story inWeird Tales. Soon after, heentered the University ofMissouri, where hewrote his first play. Hewithdrew from the university before receiving his degree, and went towork athis father «p.s shoe company.

After entering and dropping out ofWashington University, Williams graduated from the University ofIowa in1938. Hecontinued towork ondrama, receiving aRockefeller grant and studying play writing atThe New School inManhattan. During the early years ofWorld War Two, Williams worked inHollywood asascriptwriter. In1944, The Glass Menagerie opened inNew York, won the prestigious New York Critics «Circle Award, and catapulted Williams into the upper echelon ofAmerican playwrights. Two years later, AStreetcar Named Desire cemented his reputation, garnering another Critics «Circle and adding aPulitzer Prize. Hewould win another Critics «Circle and Pulitzer for Cat onaHot Tin Roof in1955. Tennessee Williams mined his own life for much ofthe pathos inhis drama. His most memorable characters (many ofthem complex females, such asBlanche DuBois) contain recognizable elements oftheir author orpeople close tohim. Alcoholism, depression, thwarted desire, loneliness insearch ofpurpose, and insanity were all part ofWilliams «p.s world. Certainly his experience asaknown homosexual inanera and culture unfriendly tohomosexuality informed his work. His setting was the South, yet his themes were universal and compellingly enough rendered towin him aninternational audience and worldwide acclaim. Inlater life, asmost critics agree, the quality ofhis work diminished. Hesufiered along period ofdepression after the death ofhis longtime partner in1963. Yet his writing career was long and prolific: twenty-five full-length plays, five screenplays, over seventy one act plays, hundreds ofshort stories, two novels, poetry, and amemoir. Five ofhis plays were made into movies. Williams died ofchoking inanalcohol-related incident in1983. Characters Blanche { Stella «p.s older sister, until recently ahigh school English teacher inLaurel, Mississippi. She arrives inNew Orleans aloquacious, witty, arrogant, fragile, and ultimately crumbling figure. Blanche once was married toand passionately inlove with atortured young man. Hekilled himself after she discovered his homosexuality, and she has sufiered from guilt and regret ever since. Blanche watched parents and relatives{all the old guard{die off, and then had toendure foreclosure onthe family estate. Cracking under the strain, orperhaps yielding tourges solong suppressed that they now cannot becontained, Blanche engages inaseries ofsexual escapades that trigger anexpulsion from her community. InNew Orleans she puts onthe airs ofawoman who has never known indignity, but Stanley sees through her. Her past catches upwith her and destroys her relationship with Mitch. Stanley, asshe fears hemight, destroys what «p.s left ofher. Atthe end ofthe play she isled away toaninsane asylum. Stella Kowalski { Blanche «p.s younger sister, with the same timeworn aristocratic heritage, but who has jumped the sinking ship and linked her life with lower-class vitality. Her union with Stanley isanimal and spiritual, violent but renewing. She cannot really explain ittoBlanche. While she loves her older sister, and pities her, she cannot bring herself tobelieve Blanche «p.s accusation against Stanley. Though itisagony, she has her sister committed. Stanley Kowalski { Stanley isthe epitome ofvital force. Heis aman inthe ush oflife, alover ofwomen, aworker, afighter, new blood{a chief male ofthe ock, with his tail feathers fanned and brilliant. Heisloyal tohis friends, passionate tohis wife, and heartlessly cruel toBlanche. Mitch { Anarmy buddy, coworker, and poker buddy ofStanley. Heisthe sensitive member ofthat crowd, perhaps because helives with his slowlydying mother. Mitch and Blanche are both people inneed ofcompanionship and support. Though Mitch isofStanley «p.s world, and Blanche isoff inher own world, the two believe they have found anacceptable companion inthe other. Mitch woos Blanche over the course ofthe summer until Stanley reveals secrets about Blanche «p.s past. Eunice { Stella «p.s friend and landlady. Lives above the Kowalskis with Steve. Steve { Poker buddy ofStanley. Lives upstairs with Eunice. Pablo { Poker buddy ofStanley. ANegro Woman { Two brief appearances. She issitting onthe steps talking toEunice when Blanche arrives. Later, inthe «real-world-struggle-forexistence «sequence, she riesthrough aprostitute «p.s abandoned handbag. ADoctor { Comes tothe door atthe play «p.s finale towhisk Blanche off toanasylum. After losing astruggle with the nurse, Blanche willingly goes with the kindly-seeming doctor. ANurse { Comes with the doctor tocollect Blanche and bring her toaninstitution. Amatronly, unfeminine figure with atalent for subduing hysterical patients. AYoung Collector { Ayoung man (seventeen, perhaps), who comes tothe door tocollect for the newspaper. Blanche lusts after him but constrains herself toirtation and apassionate farewell kiss. The boy leaves bewildered. AMexican woman { Avendor ofMexican funeral decorations who frightens Blanche byissuing the plaintive call: Flores para los muertos. The Mexican woman later reprises this role inthe underrated comedy Quick Change (1990), starring Bill Murray and Geena Davis.

(Video) Overview American Literature II

Summary Stanley and Stella Kowalski live onastreet called Elysian Fields inarundown but charming section ofNew Orleans. They are newly married and desperately inlove. One day Stella «p.s older sister, Blanche DuBois, arrives tostay with them, setting upthe drama «p.s central con ict: anemotional tugof-war between the raw, brute sensuality ofStanley and the fragile, crumbling gentility ofBlanche. Truth betold, itisnot aneven match, for Blanche isalready sliding down aslippery slope. Blanche and Stella are the last inaline oflanded Southern gentry. Stella has renounced the worn dictates ofclass propriety tofollow her heart and marry anuncultured blue-collar worker ofPolish extraction. Meanwhile, Blanche has played nursemaid tothe old guard onits deathbed and watched the family estate slip through her fingers into foreclosure. Her professed values are those ofanolder South, ofcharm and wit and chivalry, gaiety and light, appearance and code. Blanche claims she has been given aleave ofabsence from her high school teaching job torecover from anervous breakdown. She settles inwith the Kowalskis but things donot gosmoothly. Her disapproval ofStanley and the station inlife her sister Stella has chosen isobvious, though she strives tobepolite. Her feelings against Stanley are galvanized when she witnesses him strike Stella inafit ofdrunken rage. Stanley «p.s feelings for her are similarly hardened when heoverhears her describe him asanimallike, neolithic, and brutish. Blanche «p.s imposition, her airs, and her distortions ofreality infuriate Stanley. Hebegins tochip away ather thin veneer ofarmor. OfStella «p.s and Stanley «p.s friends, one seems tostand above the rest insensitivity and grace. This isMitch, who works atthe same factory asStanley, and lives with his sick mother. Hehas norefinement, but his native gentleness and sincerity inspire Blanche toreturn his afiection. The two seem toneed each other They see agreat deal ofone another asthe summer wears on, but Blanche places strict limits ontheir intimacy. She has old-fashioned ideals and morals, she tells him. Meanwhile, Stella «p.s first pregnancy progresses and Stanley continues his subtle campaign ofintimidation against Blanche. Blanche «p.s past catches upwith her. When she was younger, she fell inlove with and married aman whom she later caught inbed with another man. When she confronted him, hekilled himself for shame. This knocked the foundations out from under her, and the subsequent poverty and emotional hardships were too much for her. She sought solace oroblivion inthe intimacy ofstrangers; apparently many intimacies with many strangers, and adisastrous afiair with aseventeenyear-old student ather high school. Blanche departed Mississippi indisgrace and arrived inNew Orleans with nowhere else togo. Stanley discovers this sordid account. Hetells Mitch and efiectively ends the budding relationship. For Blanche «p.s birthday, Stanley presents her with aone-way bus ticket back toMississippi. And then, while Stella isinlabor atthe hospital, Stanley rapes Blanche. Stella cannot believe the story Blanche tells her about the man she loves. And Blanche «p.s grasp onreality isotherwise shattered. So, with supreme remorse, Stella has Blanche committed. Inthe final scene ofthe play, Stella sobs inagony and the rest look onindifierently asadoctor and anurse lead Blanche away. Scene 1 Summary The scene isthe exterior ofacorner building onastreet called Elysian Fields, inapoor section ofNew Orleans with «rafish charm. «The building has two ats: upstairs live Steve and Eunice, downstairs Stanley and Stella. Voices and the bluesy notes ofanold piano emanate from anunseen bar around the corner. Itisearly May, evening. Eunice and aNegro woman are relaxing onthe steps ofthe building when Stanley and Mitch showup. Stanley hollers for Stella, who comes out onto the first oor landing. Stanley hurls apackage ofmeat uptoher. Heand Mitch are going tomeet Steve atthe bowling alley; Stella soon follows towatch them. Eunice and the Negro woman inparticular find something humorously suggestive inthe meat-hurling episode. Soon after Stella leaves, her sister Blanche arrives with asuitcase, looking with disbelief ataslip ofpaper inher hand and then atthe building. She is«daintily «dressed and moves tentatively, looking and apparently feeling out ofplace inthis neighborhood. Eunice assures her that this iswhere Stella lives. The Negro woman goes tothe bowling alley totell Stella ofher sister «p.s arrival while Eunice lets Blanche into the two-roomat. Eunice makes small talk. Welearn that Blanche isfrom Mississippi, that she isateacher, that her family estate iscalled Belle Reve. Blanche finally asks tobeleft alone. Eunice, somewhat offended, leaves tohelp fetch Stella. Blanche, trying tocontrol her discomfort, nerves, and whatever else, spies abottle ofwhiskey and downs aShot. Stella returns. The women embrace, and Blanche talks feverishly, nearly hysterical. Blanche isclearly critical ofthe physical and social setting inwhich Stella lives. She tries tocheck her criticism, but the reunion begins onatense and probably familiar note. Blanche tells Stella that she has been given aleave ofabsence from school due toher nerves, and that iswhy she ishere inthe middle ofthe term. She wants Stella totell her how she looks, and inreturn comments onStella «p.s plumpness. She fusses over Stella, issurprised tolearn Stella has nomaid, takes another drink, worries about the privacy and decency ofher staying inthe apartment when Stella and Stanley are inthe next room with nodoor, and worries whether Stanley will like her. Stella warns Blanche that Stanley isvery difierent from the men with whom Blanche isfamiliar back home. She isquite clearly deeply inlove with him. Inanoutburst that builds toacrescendo ofhysteria, Blanche reveals that she has lost Belle Reve and recounts how she sufiered through the agonizingly slow deaths oftheir parents and relatives{all while, according toBlanche, Stella was inbed with her «Polack. «Stella finally cuts her off, then leaves the room, crying. Blanche begins toapologize, but the men are returning. They discuss plans for tomorrow «p.s poker night, then breakup. Stanley enters the apartment and sizes Blancheup. The two make small talk, with Stanley inthe lead and Blanche reacting. Stanley asks what happened toBlanche «p.s marriage. Blanche replies haltingly that the «boy «died. She sits down and declares that she feels ill. Scene 2 Summary Six o«clock the following day. Blanche istaking abath. Stella tells Stanley tobekind toBlanche because she has undergone the ordeal oflosing Belle Reve (the family estate). Stanley ismore interested inwhat happened tothe proceeds ofthe supposed sale. Hethinks Stella has been swindled out ofher rightful share, which means that hehas been swindled. Angrily hepulls all ofBlanche «p.s belongings out ofher trunk, looking for abill ofsale. Tohim, Blanche «p.s somewhat tawdry clothing and rhinestone jewelry look like finery{all that remains ofthe estate «p.s value. Enraged atStanley «p.s actions, Stella storms out onto the porch. Blanche finishes her bath. She sends Stella out tothe drug store tobuy asoda while she and Stanley have their discussion. With her blend ofirtation, nonsense, sincerity, and desperation, Blanche manages todisarm Stanley and convince him that nofraud has been perpetrated against anyone. Blanche ishorrified when Stanley opens and begins toread the old letters and love poems from her husband. Stanley lets slip that Stella isgoing tohave ababy. Stella returns from the drugstore and some ofthe men arrive for their poker game. Exhilarated bythe news ofStella «p.s pregnancy and byher own handling ofthe situation with Stanley, Blanche follows Stella for their girls «night out. Scene 3 Summary It «p.s two-thirty a.m. the same night. Steve, Pablo, Mitch, and Stanley are playing poker inthe Kowalski «p.s kitchen. Their patter goes back and forth, heavy with testosterone. Stella and Blanche return and Stella makes introductions. Blanche immediately determines something «superior tothe others «inMitch; Mitch «p.s awkwardness seems toindicate anattraction onhis part, aswell. Stella and Blanche share asisterly chat inthe back room while the poker game continues. Stanley, drunk, hollers atthem tobequiet. Blanche turns onthe radio, which again rouses Stanley «p.s ire. The other men enjoy the rhumba, but Stanley springs upand shuts off the radio. Heand Blanche stare each other down. Mitch skips the next hand and goes tothe bathroom. Waiting for Stella tofinish, heand Blanche talk. Blanche isalittle drunk, too. They discuss Mitch «p.s sick mother, the sincerity ofsick and sorrowful people, and the inscription onMitch «p.s cigarette case. Blanche claims that she isactually younger than Stella. She asks Mitch toput aChinese lantern she has bought over the naked bulb. Asthey talk Stanley isgrowing more annoyed atMitch «p.s absence. Stella leaves the bathroom and Blanche impulsively turns the radio backon. Stanley leaps up, rushes tothe radio, and hurls itout the window. Stella yells atStanley and hebegins tobeat her. The men pull him off. Blanche takes Stella and some clothes toEunice «p.s apartment upstairs. Stanley goes limp and seems confused, but when the men try toforce him into the shower tosober him uphefights them off. They grab their winnings and leave. Stanley stumbles out ofthe bathroom, calling for Stella. Hephones upstairs, then phones again, before hurling the phone tothe oor. Halfdressed hestumbles out tothe street and calls for her again and again: «STELLLAHHHHH! «Eunice gives him apiece ofher mind, but tonoavail. Finally, Stella slips out ofthe apartment and down towhere Stanleyis. They stare ateach other and then rush together with «animal moans. «Hefalls tohis knees, caresses her face and belly, then lifts her upand carries her into theirat. Blanche emerges from Eunice «p.s at, looking for Stella. She stops short atthe entrance tothe downstairsat. Mitch returns and tells her not toworry, that the two are crazy about each other. Heoffers her acigarette. She thanks him for his kindness. Scene 4 Summary Early the next morning, Stella lies serenely inthe bedroom, her face aglow. Blanche, who has not slept, enters the apartment. She demands toknow how Stella could goback and spend the night with Stanley after what hedid toher. Stella feels Blanche ismaking abig issue out ofnothing. Yet Blanche goes onabout how she must figure out away toget them both out ofthis situation, how she recently ran into anold friend who struck itrich in оіл, and perhaps hewould beable tohelp them. Stella pays little attention towhat Blanche says; she has nodesire toleave. She says that Blanche merely saw Stanley athis worst. Blanche feels she saw athis most characteristic{and this iswhat terrifies her. Blanche simply cannot understand how awoman raised inBelle Reve could choose tolive her life with aman who has «not one particle «ofagentleman inhim, about whom there is«something downright{bestial… «Stella «p.s reply isthat «there are things that happen between aman and awoman inthe dark{that sort ofmake everything else seem{unimportant. «This isjust desire, says Blanche, and not abasis for marriage. Atrain approaches, and while itroars past Stanley enters the atunheard. Not knowing that Stanley islistening, Blanche holds nothing back. She describes him ascommon, ananimal, ape-like, aprimitive brute. Stella listens coldly. Under cover ofanother passing train, Stanley slips out ofthe apartment, then enters itnoisily. Stella runs toStanley and embraces him fiercely. Stanley grins atBlanche. Scene 5 Summary Itismid-August. Stella and Blanche are inthe bedroom. Blanche finishes writing anutterly fabricated letter tothe old friend she recently ran into, then bursts into laughter. She reads from the letter toStella, breaking off when the noise ofSteve and Eunice «p.s fighting upstairs grows too loud. Eunice storms off toabar around the corner. Nursing abruise onhis forehead, Steve follows her. Stanley enters the apartment infull bowling regalia. Heisrude toBlanche and insinuates some knowledge ofher past. Finally, heasks her ifshe knows acertain man. This man often travels toBlanche «p.s town, and claims she was often aclient ofadisreputable hotel. Blanche denies it, insisting the man must have confused her with someone else. Stanley says he«llhave the man check onit. Heheads off tothe bar, telling Stella tomeet him there. Blanche isshaken tothe core byStanley «p.s remarks. Stella doesn «tseem totake much notice. Blanche demands toknow what Stella has heard about her, what people have been saying. Stella doesn «tknow what she «p.s talking about. Blanche admits she was not «sogood «the last two years, asshe was losing Belle Reve. She quite lucidly describes herself assoft, dependent, reliant onChinese lanterns and light colors. She admits that she nolonger has the youth orbeauty toglow inthe soft light. Stella doesn «twant tohear her talk like this. Stella brings Blanche adrink. She likes towait onBlanche; itreminds her oftheir childhood. Blanche becomes hysterical, promising toleave soon, before Stanley throws her out. Stella calms her for amoment, but when she accidentally spills her drink slightly onher skirt, Blanche begins toshriek. She isshaking and tries tolaugh itoff. Atlast she admits that she isnervous about her relationship with Mitch. She has been very prim and proper with him; she wants his respect, but doesn «twant him tolose interest. She wants him very badly, needs him asastabilizing force. Stella assures her that itwill happen. She kisses her older sister and runs off tomeet Stanley. Blanche sits alone inthe apartment and waits. Ayoung man comes tothe door collecting for the newspaper. Blanche irts with him, offers him adrink, and generally works her wiles. The young man isvery nervous and would like toleave. Blanche declares that helooks like anArabian prince.

She kisses him onthe lips then sends him onhis way. «I «vegot tobegood, «she says, «and keep myhands off children. «Afew moments later, Mitch appears with abunch ofroses. She accepts them irtatiously while heglows. Scene 6 Summary Two a.m. the same night. Blanche and Mitch appear. She isexhausted, heseems abit depressed. Mitch apologizes for not giving her much entertainment this evening, but Blanche says itwas her fault. She reveals that she will beleaving soon. They discuss agoodnight kiss and the other night bythe lake when Mitch tried for abit more «familiarity. «Blanche explains that asingle girl must keep her urges under control orelse she is«lost. «Perhaps heisused towoman who like tobelost onthe first date. Mitch says helikes her simply because she isdifierent from anyone hehas ever met. Blanche laughs and invites him infor anightcap. Blanche lights acandle and prepares drinks. Mitch remains standing awkwardly. Hewon «ttake his coat off because he«p.s embarrassed about his perspiration. They discuss Mitch «p.s imposing physique, her slighter one, and this leads toabrief and somewhat clumsy embrace. Blanche stops him, claiming she has «old-fashioned ideals «(she rolls her eyes asshe offers this gem, but hecannot see her face). After anawkward silence, Mitch asks where Stanley and Stella are, and why the four ofthem never goout together. Blanche expresses her conviction that Stanley hates her. Mitch thinks that Stanley simply doesn «tunderstand her. Blanche knows it«p.s more than that, that hewants todestroy her. Mitch asks Blanche how old sheis. Hehas told his ailing mother about Blanche, but could not tell her how old Blanche was. His mother isnot long for the world and wants tosee him settled. Blanche says she understands how hewill miss his mother when she «p.s gone. She understands what itisto belonely. She gives arevealing account ofwhat happened with the tender young man she married. She loved him terribly but somehow itdidn «tseem tobeenough tosave him from whatever itwas that tormented him. Then one day she came home tofind her young husband inbed with anolder man who had been his longtime friend. Atfirst they all pretended nothing happened. They went out toacasino together, the three ofthem. Onthe Dance floor she drunkenly confronted him, telling him hedisgusted her. Then the boy rushed out ofthe casino and everyone heard aShot. Hekilled himself. Mitch comes toher and holds her, comforting her. «You need somebody. And Ineed somebody, too, «hesays. «Could itbe{you and me, Blanche? «They kiss, even asshe sobs. «Sometimes{there «p.s God{so quickly, «she says. Scene 7 Summary Late afternoon, mid-September. Stella isdecorating for Blanche «p.s birthday. Stanley comesin. Blanche isinthe bathroom, bathing, and Stanley mocks her toStella. Hetells Stella tosit down and listen because he«p.s got the dirt onBlanche now. AsBlanche, unconcerned, sings «It «p.s Only aPaper Moon, «Stanley gleefully recounts toStella how Blanche earned anotorious reputation atthe Flamingo hotel and was asked toleave (presumably for immoral behavior unacceptable even bythe standards ofthat establishment). She came toberegarded as«nuts «bythe town and was declared «off-limits «tosoldiers atanearby base. She was not given aleave ofabsence byher school; she was kicked out for having arelationship with aseventeen-yearold boy. Stella defends her sister. She «p.s not convinced this story istrue{certainly not all ofit. Stanley tells Stella not toexpect Mitch for the birthday dinner. Hehas told Mitch all heheard, and there «p.s noway Mitch will marry her now. Stanley has bought Blanche abirthday present: aone-way bus ticket back toLaurel, Mississippi. Heyells atBlanche toget out ofthe bathroom. She emerges atlast, inhigh spirits. But Stanley «p.s face ashepasses bygives her afright. And the dazed way that Stella responds toher chatter alerts her that something iswrong. She asks Stella what has happened, but Stella can only feebly lie that nothing has. Scene 8 Summary Three quarters ofanhour later, the birthday dinner iswinding down. The place set for Mitch isempty. Ithas obviously been astrained meal. Blanche tries tobreak the gloomy silence byasking Stanley totell astory. Hedeclines. SoBlanche tells one herself- -a lame joke involving apriest and aswearing parrot. Stanley pointedly does not laugh. Instead, hereaches across the table for achop and eats itwith his fingers. Stella scolds him. Hesmashes his plate, declares that heissick and tired ofbeing called «pig Polack disgusting vulgar greasy! «Heisthe king ofthis house. Hesmashes his cup and saucer and storms out onto the porch. Blanche again asks Stella what happened while she was taking abath. What did Stanley tell Stella about her? Nothing, Stella says, but she isclearly upset. Although Stella implores her not to, Blanche calls Mitch «p.s house tofind out why hestood herup. Mitch isnot home. Stella goes toStanley out onthe porch. They embrace, and Stanley promises her things will beall right again after the baby comes and Blanche leaves. Stella goes back inside and lights the candles. Blanche and Stanley join her. Stanley «p.s patent ill will produces another tense exchange with Blanche. One ofStanley «p.s bowling buddies callsup. While he«p.s onthe phone, Stanley unnecessarily yells atBlanche tobequiet. She tries her best tocontrol her nerves. Stanley returns tothe table, and with athin veneer ofkindness offers Blanche abirthday envelope. She issurprised and delighted|until she opens itand Stanley declares its contents: aone-way ticket back toLaurel, Mississippi onaGreyhound bus, leaving Tuesday. Blanche tries tosmile, tries tolaugh, runs tothe bedroom, and then tothe bathroom, clutching her throat and making gagging noises, asifStanley «p.s cruelty has literally taken her breath away. Stanley, pleased with himself and his just actions (considering, hesays, «all Itook off her »), prepares togobowling. But Stella demands toknow why Stanley has treated Blanche socallously. Hereminds her that Stella thought hewas common when they first met, but that hetook her off her pedestal and things were wonderful until Blanche arrived. While hespeaks, asudden change comes over Stella. She slowly shufies from the bedroom tothe kitchen, then quietly asks tobetaken tothe hospital. Stanley iswith her inaninstant, speaking softly asheleads her out the door. Scene 9 Summary Later the same evening, ascarlet-robed Blanche sits tensely onabedroom chair. Onanearby table are abottle ofliquor and aglass. Wehear polka music, but not from the radio: it«p.s playing inher own head. She isdrinking, weare told inthe stage directions, not tothink about impending disaster. Mitch appears inwork clothes, unshaven, making noattempt toplay the gentleman caller. Herings the doorbell and startles Blanche. She asks who itis, and when hereplies, the polka music stops. She frantically scurries about, applying powder toher face, stashing the liquor inacloset, before letting him inwith acheerful reprimand. Mitch walks right past her proffered lips into the apartment. Blanche isfrightened but takes itinstride. She continues inher light and airy mode, scolding him for his appearance and forgiving him inthe same breath. Mitch stares ather, clearly abit drunk. Heasks her toturn off the fan; she doesso. She offers him adrink, but Mitch doesn «twant Stanley «p.s liquor. She backs off, but the polka music begins again. It «p.s the same tune that was played, she says out loud, when Allen (her husband)…She breaks off, waiting for the gunshot. Itcomes, and the music subsides. Mitch has noidea what she «p.s talking about. Blanche goes tothe closet and pretends todiscover the bottle. She takes her charade sofar astoask out loud what Southern Comfortis. Mitch does not bite, but bides his time, getting upthe nerve tosay what hehas come tosay. Blanche tells Mitch totake his foot off the bed, and goes onabout the liquor. Mitch again declines. Stanley has complained tohim that Blanche drinks all ofhis liquor. Atlast Blanche asks point blank what isonhis mind. Mitch says it«p.s dark inthe room. Hehas never seen her inthe light, never inthe afternoon. She has always made excuses onSunday afternoons, only gone out with him after six, and then never towell-lit places. He «p.s never had agood look ather. Mitch tears the paper lantern off the lightbulb. Hewants adose ofrealism. «Idon «twant realism, Iwant magic, «replies Blanche. «Itry togive that topeople… Idon «ttell truth, Itell what ought tobetruth. And ifthat issinful, then let mebedamned for it. «She begs him not toturn the lighton. Heturns iton. She lets out acry. Heturns itoff. Mitch isnot soconcerned about her age; what hecan «tstomach isthe garbage and excuses about her morals and old-fashioned ideals that he«p.s been forced toswallow all summer. Blanche tries todefend herself, but Mitch has heard stories about her from three difierent sources and isconvinced. She breaks, and admits the truth through convulsive sobs and shots ofliquor. She had many intimacies with strangers. She panicked after Allan «p.s death, did not know she what she was doing and eventually ended upintrouble with the seventeen-year-old. She found hope when she met Mitch, but the past caught upwith her. «You lied tome, Blanche, «isall Mitch can say. Inher heart she never lied tohim, Blanche replies. Mitch isunmoved. Ablind Mexican woman comes around the corner with bunches oftin owers used atMexican funerals. «Flores. Flores para los muertos, «the woman intones. (Flowers. Flowers for the dead.) Blanche goes tothe door, opens it, sees and hears the woman (who calls toher and offers her owers), and slams the door, terrified. The woman moves slowly down the street, calling. Wehear the polka tune again. Blanche begins tospeak asifshe were thinking out loud. Her lines are punctuated bythe Mexican woman «p.s calls. Her tortured soliloquy mentions regrets, legacies, death, her dying parents, death and agony everywhere, desire asthe opposite ofdeath, the soldiers from the nearby camp who staggered drunkenly onto her lawn and called for her while her deaf mother slept. The polka music fades. Wanting what he«p.s been waiting for all summer, Mitch walks uptoher, places his hands onher waist and tries toembrace her. Blanche says hemust marry her first. Mitch doesn «twant tomarry her; hedoes not think she «p.s fit tolive inthe same house ashis mother. Blanche orders him toleave. When hedoes not move, she threatens toscream «Fire. «Hestill does not leave, soshe screams out the window. Mitch hurries out. Scene 10 Summary Afew hours have elapsed since Mitch «p.s departure. Blanche «p.s trunk isout inthe middle ofthe bedroom. She has been packing, drinking, trying onclothes and speaking toimaginary admirers. Stanley enters the apartment, slams the door and gives alow whistle when hesees Blanche. Blanche asks about her sister. The baby won «tbeborn until tomorrow, says Stanley. It «p.s just the two ofthem athome tonight. Stanley asks why Blanche isall dressedup. She tells him that she has just received atelegram from anold admirer inviting her tojoin him onhis yacht inthe Caribbean. Itwas the оіл millionaire she met again inMiami. Stanley plays along. Inhigh spirits, heopens abottle ofbeer onthe corner ofthe table and pours the foam onhis head. Heoffers her asip but she declines. Hegoes tothe bedroom tofind his special pajamas top inanticipation ofthe good news from the hospital. Blanche keeps talking, feverishly working herself upasshe describes what agentleman this man isand how hemerely wants the companionship ofanintelligent, spirited, tender, cultured woman. She may bepoor financially, but she isrich inthese qualities. And she has been foolishly lavishing these offerings onthose who donot deserve them{ asshe puts it, casting her pearls before swine. Stanley «p.s amicable mood evaporates. Blanche claims that she sent Mitch away after herepeated slanderous lies that Stanley had told him. Hecame groveling back, with roses and apologies, but invain. She cannot forgive «deliberate cruelty, «and realistically the two ofthem are too difierent inattitude and upbringing for itever towork. Stanley cuts inwith aquestion that trips upher improvisation. Then helaunches anattack, tearing down her make-believe world point bypoint. She can make noreply but, «Oh! «Hefinishes with adisdainful laugh and walks through the bedroom oninto the bathroom. Frightening shadows and reections appear inthe room. Blanche goes tothe phone and tries tomake acall toher «admirer. «She does not know his number orhis address. The operator hangs up; Blanche leaves the phone off the hook and walks into the kitchen. The special efiects continue: inhuman voices, terrifying shadows. Astrange scene takes place onasidewalk beyond the back wall ofthe rooms (which has suddenly become transparent). Adrunkard and aprostitute scufie until apolice whistle sounds and they disappear. Soon thereafter the Negro woman comes around the corner riing through the prostitute «p.s purse. Blanche returns tothe phone and whispers tothe operator toconnect her toWestern Union. She tries tosend atelegraph: «Indesperate, desperate circumstances. Help me! Caught inatrap. Caught in{ «…She breaks off when Stanley emerges from the bathroom inhis special pajamas. Hestares ather, grinning. Then crosses over tothe phone and replaces itonthe hook. Still grinning, hesteps between Blanche and the door. She asks him tomove and hetakes one step tothe side. She asks him tomove further away but hewill not. The jungle voices well upagain asheslowly advances towards her. Blanche tells him tostay back but hecontinues towards her. She backs away, grabs abottle, and smashes the end ofiton the table. Hejumps ather, grabs her arm when she swings athim, and forces her todrop the bottle. «We «vehad this date from the beginning, «hesays. She sinks toher knees. Hepicks her upand carries her tothe bed. Scene 11 Summary Afew weeks later. Stella ispacking Blanche «p.s belongings while Blanche takes abath. Stella has been crying. The men are assembled inthe kitchen playing poker. Ofthem, only Mitch does not seem tobein the usual cardplaying bull and bravado mood. Eunice comes downstairs and enters the apartment. Eunice calls them callous and goes over toStella. Stella tells Eunice she isnot sure she did the right thing. She told Blanche that they had arranged for her tostay inthe country, and Blanche seemed tothink ithad todowith her millionaire admirer. Stella couldn «tbelieve the story Blanche told her about the rape and still continue her life with Stanley. Eunice comforts her. Itwas the only thing Stella could do, and she should never believe the story. «Life has got togoon, «Eunice says. The men continue playing poker. Blanche emerges from the bathroom tothe strains ofthe by-now familiar waltz. Stella and Eunice are gentle and complimenting; Blanche has aslightly unhinged vivacity. The sound ofBlanche «p.s voice sends Mitch into adaydream until Stanley snaps him out ofit. Stanley «p.s voice from the kitchen stuns Blanche. She remains still for afew moments, then with arising hysteria demands toknow what isgoingon. The women quiet and soothe her and the men restrain Stanley from interfering. She isappeased for the moment, but anxious toleave. The other women convince her towait amoment yet. Blanche goes into areverie, imagining her death atsea from food poisoning with ahandsome young ship «p.s doctor ather side. The doctor and nurse arrive. Eunice goes tosee who «p.s atthe door. Blanche waits tensely, hoping that itisShep Huntleigh, her millionaire savior. Eunice returns and announces that someone iscalling for Blanche. The waltz begins again. Blanche and Stella pass through the kitchen and cross tothe door. The poker players stand asshe passes, except for Mitch, who stares atthe table. When Blanche steps out onto the porch and sees the doctor, and not Shep Huntleigh, she retreats towhere Stella isstanding, then slips back into the apartment. Inside, Stanley steps uptoblock her way. Blanche rushes around him, claiming she forgot something, asthe weird reections and shadows return. The doctor sends the nurse inafter her. What follows isawrenching capture scene, which Stella cannot bear towatch. She rushes tothe porch, where Eunice goes tocomfort her. The nurse succeeds inpinning Blanche. The doctor enters, and atBlanche «p.s soft request tells the nurse torelease her. The doctor leads her out ofthe bedroom, she holding onto his arm. «Whoever you are, «she says, «Ihave always depended onthe kindness ofstrangers. «The doctor leads her through the kitchen asthe poker players lookon. They head out the door and onto the porch. Stella, now crouched onthe porch inagony, calls out her sister «p.s name. Blanche, allowing herself tobeled onward, does not turn tolook atStella. Doctor, nurse, and Blanche turn the corner and disappear. Eunice brings the baby toStella and thrusts itinto her arms, then goes tothe kitchen tojoin the men. Stanley goes out onto the porch and over toStella, who sobs over her child. Hecomforts her and begins tocaress her. Inthe kitchen, Steve deals anew hand.

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American literature, the body of written works produced in the English language in the United States. Like other national literatures, American literature was shaped by the history of the country that produced it.

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The Great Gatsby by F.

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American literature plays a significant role in education because it exposes students to the society and history of the United States. Furthermore, studying American literature in other countries allows foreign people to understand the American culture, heritage, and the accomplishments of the great writers.

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Style. The common tendency of American literature is to be focused on politics, economics, and social status. Satire, sarcasm, and cynicism can be also often find their way into the works of American authors.

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An average person can read up to 100 pages a day. The number depends on various factors. While, on average, most people can finish up to 40 to 50 pages in an hour, other slower readers struggle with 30. In a day, while handling other chores as well, it is very much possible to finish a 100-page book.

Is it good to read 3 books at once? ›

Reading multiple books at once has certain benefits for your focus and short-term memory as well. While some believe that this practice reduces the amount of information you gain through reading and your ability to focus on all the titles you're reading at the same time, this is only partially true.

What are the 4 common themes of American literature? ›

Independence, individualism, freedom, nationalism, and slavery were the prominent themes of this era. American writers like Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry also used similes and metaphors in their writings to show the American audience that independence from Great Britain was necessary.

What are the four great roots of American literature? ›

The main types of American literature are: The Colonial period, The Romantic period, Realism and Naturalism, The Modernist period, and The Contemporary period.

What are the 3 main kinds of writing that make up American literature today? ›

Modern American literature includes twentieth and twenty-first century fiction, poetry, and drama.

Is American literature a hard class? ›

AP English Literature and Composition is considered very hard, with class alumnae rating it 7.5/10 for overall difficulty (the 2nd-most-difficult out of the 28 large AP classes surveyed). The pass rate is higher than other AP classes, with 78% graduating with a 3 or higher.

What grade do you normally take American literature? ›

In this class, usually taken by eleventh graders, students will have control of much of what parts of American literature they study. The most emphasis is on the Reading and Language proficiencies, with a concentration on vocabulary development.

What grade do you learn American literature? ›

Course Overview

In this 11th Grade English course, students read and analyze works of American literature from colonial to contemporary times, including poetry, short stories, novels, drama, and nonfiction.

Why you should never stop reading? ›

Reading challenges our minds and sparks our creativity. It makes us see things in our "mind's eye" rather than simply interpreting someone else's vision.

Are summaries better than books? ›

A summary gives the main thesis and necessary evidence without going into as much detail. Presumably on an ideas-per-hour-invested basis, summaries will win out over full books. Nobody will read even a fraction of all books, possibly not even a sizeable percentage of truly great books.

What is the 50 page rule? ›

Nancy Pearl rule of 50

If a reader is under 50 years old, then consume 50 pages before dropping a book. If a reader is over 50 years old, take the number 100, subtract your age, and this is the number of pages to read before switching to the next book.

What is the 20 page rule? ›

Who's saying this? Mark Billingham, the writer of the Tom Thorne crime novels. Speaking at Cheltenham literary festival, he said that if a book hadn't gripped you after 20 pages, then it was OK not just to give up on it but to “throw it across the room angrily”.

How much of a book does the average person remember? ›

Studies show that people remember: 10% of they hear — — 20% of what they read — — 80% of what they see. And this is because the human brain process visual cues better rather than the written language.

What makes American literature different? ›

What Makes American Literature Unique? American literature has been developed through the various influence of Native American's traditions before writing was introduced coupled by the influences brought about by European conquerors.

What is American literature in simple words? ›

American literature is literature written or produced in the United States of America and in the colonies that preceded it.

Which is the most important period in American literature? ›

The American Renaissance (1828–1865)

Also known as the Romantic Period in America and the Age of Transcendentalism, this period is commonly accepted to be the greatest of American literature.

How to read American literature? ›

Strategies for Reading American Literature 1600-1865
  1. Read slowly and carefully. Don't try to rush through the readings. ...
  2. Read out loud. ...
  3. Supplement your reading. ...
  4. Consider the context. ...
  5. Look up words as needed. ...
  6. Don't be fearful of unfamiliar works. ...
  7. Don't worry if you don't understand everything you read. ...
  8. Enjoy your reading!

What books do you read in an American literature class? ›

Here is a list detailing some of the most frequently taught American Literature novels in classrooms today.
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. ...
  • The Scarlet Letter. ...
  • To Kill a Mockingbird. ...
  • The Red Badge of Courage. ...
  • The Great Gatsby. ...
  • The Grapes of Wrath. ...
  • The Call of the Wild. ...
  • Invisible Man: A Novel.
Oct 14, 2019

Is American literature an honors class? ›

Is American Literature considered an honors-level course? If the student completes all assignments and course readings, American Literature is definitely an honors-level course.

Which is a major theme of American literature? ›

The Journey from Innocence to Awareness

Undoubtedly, this theme can be found in the literature of any country, not just America. Most stories are, at their core, about such a journey.

What are the main genres of American literature? ›

American literature can be divided into fiction and nonfiction. Nonfiction encompasses historical documents, articles, books, and essays. Fiction in American literature can be divided into poetry, short stories, novels, and dramas.

Is American literature easier than world literature? ›

World Literature is much more challenging than American Literature. Even if I found some of the books hard to understand, I felt it was important to have my children exposed to these great classics. Reading the old, OLD stories from a totally foreign culture can be extremely challenging.

Is reading 3 hours a day is too much? ›

Our team at Basmo found that up to 3 or 4 hours of uninterrupted reading in a single day should not prove to be problematic, but going over the 4 hours threshold may turn out to be a bit too much.

What happens when you read a book over and over again? ›

Reading the same book repeatedly improves comprehension

In the same way that we read a text over and over when we are studying for an exam, re-reading a book helps children to learn more about what they are reading every time.

Is it OK to read a book more than once? ›

Absolutely yes. Reading more than one book lets you read depending on your mood. You also enjoy different reading mediums – print, e-books, and audiobooks. People will often wonder if you won't get things mixed up, like characters or plot details, or if you would not take longer reading multiple books.

Why is reading before bed good? ›

Reading before bed can reduce stress

Similar to how physical exercise strengthens the body, cognitive exercises — like reading — are important to strengthen the mind. Strong cognitive function can help reduce mental chatter, which in turn, helps us drop into a quiet state of relaxation.

How many pages is 80,000 words? ›

An 80,000-word book is about 320 pages. A 90,000-word book is about 360 pages.

How long does it take an average person to read a book? ›

Reading Time by Page Counts
Word CountSlow (125 wpm)Average (300 wpm)
100 pages6.7 hours2.8 hours
250 pages16.7 hours6.9 hours
500 pages33.3 hours13.9 hours
750 pages50.0 hours20.8 hours
13 more rows

How long should I read a day? ›

However, numerous studies have defined that 15-30 minutes is a minimum interval we should dedicate to reading each day. Neuroscientists agree that even simple lifestyle changes, like daily 15 minutes with a nose in a book, will support your brain health for a lifetime.

Does reading help your brain? ›

We all know that reading is good for us. It can improve brain and memory function and keep your brain operating more effectively as you age. Reading also enhances connectivity in the brain, reduces stress, promotes relaxation, improves sleep, and has the potential to decrease the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's.

Should I read the evening and the morning first? ›

With this newest installment, fans of the series will be thrilled to visit their favorite medieval town again. But people who've yet to read any of the earlier books need not worry: The Evening and the Morning is a prequel. The secret to writing a successful series is giving the reader more of the same, with variation.

What are the five periods of American literature? ›

The Colonial and Early National period (17th century to 1830) The Romantic period (1830 to 1870) Realism and Naturalism (1870 to 1910) The Modernist period (1910 to 1945)

What are the 5 major themes of American literature? ›

It may prove valuable to you by providing some ideas which you might wish to incorporate in any survey lecture which you give to your American literature class. Five major themes are discussed: (1) Innocence; (2) Violence; (3) The Frontier; (4) Absence of Happy Love or Fulfilling Marriage; and (5) Anti-machine.

What are the 7 literary periods? ›

What are the different literary periods?
  • The medieval era.
  • The Renaissance.
  • The Enlightenment.
  • Romanticism.
  • The Victorian era.
  • Modernism.
  • Postmodernism.
Feb 21, 2022

Who is the father American literature? ›

Mark Twain Bio: “The Father Of American Literature.”

Who are the big three in literature? ›

Arguably, the three most important early writers in the English language – indeed, one might say the founders of the language – are Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400), William Shakespeare (1564-1616), and John Milton (1608-1674).

What is the focus of American literature? ›

The common tendency of American literature is to be focused on politics, economics, and social status. Satire, sarcasm, and cynicism can be also often find their way into the works of American authors. For example, language functions as a vehicle of protest in “The Catcher in the Rye” and “The Great Gatsby.”

What is the foundation of American literature? ›

Some early forms of American literature like pamphlets and other texts were meant to glorify the colonies for European readers but the writers who really laid the foundation of American literature where the Puritans William Bradford, Anne Bradstreet, Edward Taylor, Cotton Mather, and the Puritan adventurer John Smith.

What is the end of American literature? ›

The End of American Literature explores the dynamics and stakes of the late age of print. A time when one day it seems like printed books and bookstores are on the decline, whereas on another it is ebooks and the digital utopia showing signs of slippage.

What is the easiest literature class? ›

AP English Literature

English classes typically come across as one of the easiest AP classes. Even though AP English Literature covers college-level reading, you should still do well in this course as a junior or senior!

Why do people study American literature? ›

American literature plays a significant role in education because it exposes students to the society and history of the United States. Furthermore, studying American literature in other countries allows foreign people to understand the American culture, heritage, and the accomplishments of the great writers.

What is the hardest college level class? ›

Here 12 Of The Toughest College Classes:
  • Calculus.
  • Quantum Mechanics / Physics.
  • Philosophy / Metaphysics.
  • Thermodynamics.
  • Statistics.
  • Theory.
  • English Literature.
  • Psychology.
Apr 19, 2023

What do they call Ela in high school? ›

Some people refer to ELA as a class involving reading, writing, grammar, spelling, and so on… It's a comprehensive English class involving many different aspects of communication. That's why some people use English and ELA interchangeably.

What is 11th grade ELA called? ›

Syllabi / 11th Grade English Language Arts.

What is 9th grade English called? ›

The basic level for a 9th grader is often listed as English I (may also be called English 9). This course will often teach the fundamentals of higher-level literature and how to analyze and respond to such literature.

What is literature taught in Grade 9? ›

Ninth grade literature includes grammar, vocabulary, and composition. Students will also cover topics such as public speaking, literary analysis, citing sources, and writing reports.

Can you learn from book summaries? ›

Summaries can be used to signal to you what to look for while reading, or as a companion guide to help you as you go along. The summary reinforces what I learned from the book, and serves as a reference guide for key ideas.

How much is enough summary? ›

The book asks why Westerners work so many hours per week and lead lives that revolve around money, business and financial decisions in defiance of John Maynard Keynes' 1930 assertion that there would come a time (around 2015) when capitalism would be able to provide for all our needs and the work week would drop to 10 ...

What is the purpose of book summaries? ›

It provides a summary of the content, assesses the value of the book, and recommends it (or not) to other potential readers. A book report is an objective summary of the main ideas and arguments that the book's author has presented.

How long should a full book summary be? ›

Keep it brief.

A summary is not a rewrite—it's a short summation of the original piece. A summary paragraph is usually around five to eight sentences. Keep it short and to the point. Eliminate redundancies or repetitive text to keep your paragraph clear and concise.

Is summarizing a good way to study? ›

Summarizing teaches students how to discern the most important ideas in a text, how to ignore irrelevant information, and how to integrate the central ideas in a meaningful way. Teaching students to summarize improves their memory for what is read. Summarization strategies can be used in almost every content area.

Are writing summaries effective? ›

Effective summarizing is necessary to both research and writing, because it can save a lot of time and paper, and it will allow you to review your research quickly.

Is making summaries a good way to study? ›

Summarizing helps you find the main points and key details

Summarizing is like panning for gold—it helps you look for and find the main points and key details in every paragraph. Effective learning is all about identifying and understanding main points and key details.

How good is Good Enough summary? ›

The book's ideas help us who believe to more fully appreciate the struggles that a non-believer experiences in the search for God's forgiveness. Its primary point is that no human being is "good enough" to win God's forgiveness by personal efforts.

What is the message of I am enough? ›

The consistent message through this book is one of self-worth and embracing differences. Byers emphasizes that regardless of one's looks, abilities, or beliefs, every child is unique, able, and worthy of respect. Her message encourages children to recognize diversity and show respect and kindness to others.

How many pages is a Colleen Hoover book? ›

How many books has Colleen Hoover published?
#TitlePage Count
2Point of Retreat320
3This Girl306
20 more rows
Oct 20, 2022

What are the 7 steps in writing a summary? ›

To do this effectively, consider following these steps:
  • Reread the original text. ...
  • Make a list of key points. ...
  • Note supporting evidence. ...
  • Start with a context sentence. ...
  • Describe the key concept of the text. ...
  • Follow up with supporting evidence. ...
  • Write a thesis statement.
Feb 3, 2023

What is the disadvantage of summarizing? ›

Since summary only gives you an idea about the original book, you may end up interpreting facts in a different path from that of the author. You might also misjudge realities, the particulars, and other specifics the wrong way, similar to on the come up summary, which is irrepressible.

How do you summarize a book without reading it? ›

  1. Skim through the book and pull out quotes from the beginning, middle and end. ...
  2. See if there's a synopsis or study guide online from sites such as SparkNotes.
  3. DO NOT directly copy other essays or sources. ...
  4. If you need an outside source, use table of contents and headings to find a useful section or two to quote.
Apr 1, 2014

What are the do's and don'ts of summary writing? ›

A summary should be like an umbrella, designed to cover the subject and nothing beyond the subject. Don't comment on, analyze, or offer opinion. Don't compare to another subject beyond the information provided in the expository text. Don't write in first or second person.

What are the 4 characteristics of a good summary? ›

A good summary should be comprehensive, concise, coherent, and independent.

How long does it take the average person to read a full book? ›

The average novel ranges between 60,000 and 100,000 words total. If your reading speed is right in the middle of the pack at 300 words per minute, and you're reading a middle-of-the-pack novel at around 80,000 words, you'll be able to knock it out in around five hours or less.”


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